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4000 IELTS Academic Word List (15)

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sack: Read
n.
bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer's purchases; enclosed space

sacred: Read
a. Syn. divine; consecrated; holy
concerned with religion; worthy of respect or dedication

sacrifice: Read
n.
offering of something to god; victim offered to god; surrender or loss of profit for higher object

saddle: Read
v.
load or burden; put harness onto animal's back to ride

sag: Read
v.
sink, in the middle, by its weight or under applied pressure, below a horizontal line or plane

sake: Read
n. Syn. purpose
purpose; reason for wanting something done

salmon: Read
n.
several species of fish of the Salmonidae family; reddish yellow or orange color, like the flesh of the salmon

salute: Read
n. Syn. honor
give a sign of good will; compliment by an act or ceremony, as a kiss, a bow; honor

sample: Read
n. Syn. specimen; example
small part of something intended as representative of the whole

sandy: Read
a.
loose and large-grained in consistency

sanitary: Read
a.
relating to health or the protection of health

sarcasm: Read
n. Syn. wit; satire
cutting, often ironic remark intended to wound; stinging rebuke; form of humor by mocking with irony

sarcastic: Read
a. Syn. ironic; cynical
ironic; expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds

satellite: Read
n. Syn. subordinate
small body revolving around a larger one; subordinate

satire: Read
n. Syn. lampoonery; mockery
form of literature in which irony and ridicule are used to attack human vice and folly

satisfaction: Read
n.
fulfillment or gratification of a desire, need, or appetite; source or means of gratification

satisfactory: Read
a. Syn. acceptable; passable
acceptable; passable

sauce: Read
n.
stewed fruit served with other foods; appetizing ingredients for meat, fish or puddings

saucer: Read
n. Syn. dish
dish; small shallow dish having a slight circular depression in the center for holding a cup

savage: Read
a. Syn. rude; wild; brutal
in a state of nature; wild; untamed; uncultivated; inhuman; brutal; not civilized; lacking polish; rude

save: Read
v.
rescue; preserve; make unnecessary; set aside for future use

savings: Read
n. Syn. resources
resources; money saved

scale: Read
v. Syn. ascend; weigh
climb up or over; alter according to a standard; estimate or measure; remove in layers

scan: Read
v. Syn. survey; scrutinize
make a wide, sweeping search of; examine

scandal: Read
n.
publicized incident that brings about disgrace; damage to reputation by disclosure of improper behavior

scar: Read
n.
mark of damage; mark left on the skin after injury

scarce: Read
a. Syn. rare; limited
hard to find; absent or rare; limited

scarcely: Read
ad. Syn. hardly; barely
hardly; barely; only just

scare: Read
v. Syn. frighten; alarm
frighten; alarm; strike with sudden fear

scarf: Read
n.
long piece of cloth worn about the head, neck, or shoulders

scarlet: Read
a.
bright red

scatter: Read
v. Syn. sprinkle; disseminate; spread
sprinkle; disseminate; cause to separate and go in different directions

scene: Read
n. Syn. location; spot; stage; spectacle
structure on which something is shown; part of theater where the acting is done; place, time, or circumstance in which anything occurs

scenery: Read
n. Syn. landscape; view
landscape; view; view or views of natural features, especially in open country

scenic: Read
a. Syn. picturesque; beautiful
constituting or affording pleasing views of natural features; beautiful

scent: Read
n. Syn. odor; fragrance; perfume
distinctive odor that is pleasant; fragrance; perfume

schedule: Read
n. Syn. timetable; agenda
plan for an activity or event; arrange

scheme: Read
n. Syn. design; plan
elaborate and systematic plan of action; chart or outline of a system or object

scholar: Read
n. Syn. professor
professor; a learned person

scholarship: Read
n. Syn. knowledge
knowledge resulting from study and research; grant of financial aid awarded to student

scissors: Read
n.
edge tool having two crossed pivoting blades

scoff: Read
v. Syn. mock; ridicule
mock; ridicule; show or express scorn; eat quickly and greedily

scold: Read
v.
find fault or rail with rude clamor; utter harsh, rude, boisterous rebuke

scope: Read
n. Syn. range; extent; bound
range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound

scorch: Read
v.
burn superficially; parch, or shrivel, the surface of, by heat; affect painfully with heat; burn

score: Read
n.
act of getting point in a game or sport; facts about an actual situation

scorn: Read
n.
extreme and lofty contempt; haughty disregard; expression of mockery, derision, contempt, or disdain

scotch: Read
v.
put an abrupt end to; block to prevent rolling or slipping

scout: Read
v. Syn. probe; explore
find paths through unexplored territory

scramble: Read
n. Syn. jumble; mix
unceremonious and disorganized struggle; rushing about hastily in an undignified way

scrap: Read
n. Syn. piece; fragment
small piece or bit; fragment; fragment; leftover bits of food; remnant

scrape: Read
v.
gather something together over time; scratch repeatedly

scratch: Read
v. Syn. scrape; rub
cut the surface of; cause friction

screen: Read
n.
surface where pictures can be projected for viewing ; examine; test

screw: Read
n.
cause to penetrate with a circular motion; fastener with shank and slotted head

screwdriver: Read
n.
a hand tool for driving screws

script: Read
v. Syn. write
prepare text for filming or broadcasting

scrub: Read
v.
rub hard; wash with rubbing

scrutiny: Read
n.
close examination; minute inspection; critical observation.

sculptor: Read
n.
artist who creates sculptures

sculpture: Read
n. Syn. statue
statue; creating figures or designs in three dimensions

seal: Read
n.
middle size aquatic mammal; stamp used for authentication or security

seam: Read
n.
line of junction formed by sewing together two pieces; line across a surface, as a crack; scar

seaport: Read
n.
sheltered port where ships can take on or discharge cargo

seashore: Read
n. Syn. coast; beach; shore
coast; beach; the shore of a sea or ocean

seasonal: Read
a.
occurring at or dependent on a particular season

secondary: Read
a. Syn. subordinate
not of major importance; of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate

secret: Read
n.
something studiously concealed; a thing kept from general knowledge

section: Read
n. Syn. part; district; segment
one of several parts; pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object

sector: Read
n. Syn. segment
particular aspect of life or activity; body of people who form part of society or economy

secure: Read
v. Syn. anchor; defend; confident
free from fear, care, or anxiety; not have reason to doubt

security: Read
n. Syn. protection; safety
freedom from risk or danger; safety

seek: Read
v.
make an effort to; try to get; try to discover

seemingly: Read
ad. Syn. apparently; supposedly
apparently; supposedly

segment: Read
n. Syn. sector; portion; section
sector; portion; any of the parts into which something can be divided

select: Read
a.
taken from a number by preference; picked out as more valuable or excellent than others; of special value or excellence

selection: Read
n. Syn. choice; variety; collection
choice; variety; collection

senator: Read
n.
a member of a senate; a member of the king's council; a king's councilor

sensation: Read
n. Syn. feeling
feeling; perception associated with stimulation of a sense organ or with a specific body condition

sensational: Read
a. Syn. spectacular; exciting; exceptional
arousing or intended to arouse strong curiosity, interest, or reaction

sense: Read
n.
faculty through which to know external world; feeling produced by stimulus

sensible: Read
a. Syn. rational; wise
able to feel or perceive; perceivable; wise; showing reason or sound judgment

sensitive: Read
a. Syn. delicate
able to feel; responsive to external conditions; susceptible to attitudes of others

sensitivity: Read
n. Syn. sense; acuteness
sense; acuteness; capacity of an organ or organism to respond to stimulation

sentence: Read
n.
final judgment of guilty in criminal case and punishment that is imposed

sentiment: Read
n.
thought prompted by passion or feeling; feeling toward or respecting; disposition prompting to action or expression

sentimental: Read
a. Syn. emotional
emotional; Resulting from emotion rather than reason or realism

separate: Read
v.
set or keep apart; disunite; divide; disconnect

sequence: Read
n.
serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern

serene: Read
a.
completely clear and fine

serenity: Read
n. Syn. calmness; placidity
calmness of mind; quietness; stillness; peace

series: Read
n.
a number of things or events standing or succeeding in order; sequence

serious: Read
a. Syn. solemn
grave in manner or disposition; earnest; thoughtful; solemn; really intending what is said

seriously: Read
ad.
in a serious or literal manner; gravely; solemnly; in earnest; without levity

session: Read
n.
meeting devoted to a particular activity; time for school to hold classes

setting: Read
n.
context and environment in which something is set

settle: Read
v.
take up residence; form a community; come to rest; bring to an end; fix firmly

severe: Read
a. Syn. sedate; grave; austere
serious in feeling or manner; not light, lively, or cheerful

shabby: Read
a.
torn or worn to rage; poor; mean; ragged

shade: Read
n. Syn. shadow
a slight amount or degree of difference; shadow; protective covering that protects something from direct sunlight

shaft: Read
n. Syn. axes; spindle
axes; vertical passage into a mine; long narrow stem or body of a spear or arrow

shallow: Read
a. Syn. low
lacking physical depth; not deep or strong

sham: Read
v. Syn. pretend; feign
pretend; put on false appearance of; feign

sharpen: Read
v.
make pointed; make sharp or sharper

sharply: Read
ad. Syn. steeply; suddenly; abruptly
steeply; changing suddenly in direction and degree; acutely

shatter: Read
v. Syn. destroy; break up
destroy; break up; break into many pieces

shave: Read
n.
act of removing hair with a razor; thin slice or scraping

shear: Read
v.
cut or clip hair; strip of something; remove by cutting or clipping

shed: Read
v.
get rid of ; cast off; cause to pour forth

sheer: Read
a. Syn. absolute; pure
very thin or transparent; very steep; absolute or pure

sheet: Read
n.
bed linen consisting of a large rectangular piece; any broad thin surface

shell: Read
n. Syn. husk
ammunition consisting of a cylindrical metal casing containing an explosive charge; usually hard outer covering that encases certain organism

shelter: Read
n. Syn. asylum
structure that provides privacy and protection from danger

shepherd: Read
n.
a herder of sheep; someone who keeps the sheep together in a flock

sheriff: Read
n.
chief officer of a shire or county, to whom is entrusted the execution of the laws

shield: Read
n. Syn. protect; guard
protective covering or structure; protect; guard

shift: Read
n. Syn. change; turn
moving from one setting or context to another; moving very slightly

shine: Read
v. Syn. polish; radiate
emit rays of light; give light; beam with steady radiance; exhibit brightness or splendor

shiny: Read
a. Syn. lustrous; radiant
reflecting light; radiant; bright from reflected light

shipment: Read
n.
sending of cargo; act of sending off something

shipwreck: Read
n.
destruction of a ship, as by storm or collision; complete failure or ruin

shiver: Read
v.
shake with or as if with cold; tremble; break into fragments or splinters

shock: Read
n. Syn. jolt; tremble
unpleasant or disappointing surprise; surprise greatly; effect of such a collision or blow

short: Read
a.
not long; unwilling to endure; inadequate or insufficient; most direct; lasting a brief time

shortcut: Read
n. Syn. crosscut
a direct route; a route shorter than the usual one

shot: Read
n. Syn. photograph; picture
photographic view or exposure

shove: Read
v.
drive along by the direct and continuous application of strength; push along, aside, or away, in a careless manner

shovel: Read
n.
tool consisting of a broad scoop, or hollow blade, with a handle, used for lifting and throwing loose substances

shower: Read
n.
one who shows or exhibits; brief fall of precipitation, such as rain, hail; bath in which the water is sprayed

shrewd: Read
a. Syn. clever; astute
clever; characterized by keen awareness, sharp intelligence

shriek: Read
n.
sharp, shrill outcry or scream; shrill wild cry such as is caused by sudden or extreme terror, pain, or the like

shrill: Read
a.
acute; sharp; piercing; having or emitting a sharp, piercing tone or sound

shrine: Read
n.
case or box, especially one in which are deposited sacred relics, as the bones of a saint; sacred place, as altar or tomb

shrink: Read
v. Syn. contract; compress
become smaller or draw together; compress

shroud: Read
v. Syn. block
hide from view; wrap for burial; shut off from sight; shelter

shrub: Read
n. Syn. bush
bush

shrug: Read
v.
draw up or contract the shoulders, especially by way of expressing dislike, dread, doubt, or the like

shuffle: Read
v. Syn. disorder; jumble
disorder; move back and forth; mix so as to make a random order or arrangement

shun: Read
v. Syn. escape; avoid
avoid deliberately; keep away from

shutter: Read
n.
a hinged blind for a window

shuttle: Read
n.
public transport that consists of a bus or train or airplane that run between two points; spacecraft

shy: Read
a. Syn. timid; bashful
timid; bashful; easily startled; distrustful

sick: Read
a.
affected with disease of any kind; ill; indisposed; not in health

sickness: Read
n. Syn. ailment; disease; nausea
state that precedes vomiting; disease

sideways: Read
ad.
with the side forward; to or from a side

siege: Read
n.
seat, especially a royal seat; throne; rank; grade; sitting before a fortified place; surrounding or investing of a place by army

sieve: Read
n.
device to separate larger objects from smaller objects, or to separate solid objects from a liquid; utensil for separating; coarse basket

sift: Read
v.
separate with a sieve, as the fine part of a substance from the course; examine critically or minutely; scrutinize

sigh: Read
v.
inhale air than immediately expel it; make a deep single respiration, especially to express fatigue, exhaustion, grief, or sorrow

sightseeing: Read
n.
act or pastime of visiting sights of interest

sign: Read
n. Syn. mark
public display of message; visible mark or indication

signal: Read
n.
a sign made for the purpose of giving notice to a person

signature: Read
n.
name written in own handwriting

significance: Read
n. Syn. implication; meaning
message that is intended or expressed or signified; meaning

significant: Read
a. Syn. noteworthy; important
fairly large; important in effect or meaning

signify: Read
v. Syn. denote; mean; indicate
denote; mean; indicate

silly: Read
a. Syn. foolish; stupid
exhibiting a lack of wisdom or good sense; foolish; stupid

similar: Read
a.
nearly corresponding; somewhat like; having a general likeness

simplicity: Read
n. Syn. easiness; plainness
easiness; plainness; absence of luxury or showiness; lack of good sense or intelligence; foolishness

simplify: Read
v.
make simple; make less complex; make clear by giving the explanation for

simulate: Read
v. Syn. feign; imitate
make a pretence of; reproduce someone's behavior or looks

simultaneous: Read
a.
existing, happening, or done at the same time

sincere: Read
a.
open and genuine; not deceitful; pure; unmixed

single: Read
a. Syn. individual; separate
one only; consisting of one alone; alone; having no companion

singular: Read
a. Syn. unique; extraordinary; odd
unique; extraordinary; being only one

sink: Read
v.
fall by, force of gravity; descend lower; decline gradually; enter deeply

siren: Read
n.
electronic device producing a similar sound as a signal or warning; something insidious or deceptive; mermaid

site: Read
n.
physical position in relation to the surroundings; position; location

skeleton: Read
n. Syn. framework
framework; internal supporting structure that gives an artifact its shape

sketch: Read
v. Syn. outline; draft
draw or describe briefly; give the main points; summary of

skim: Read
v.
pass near surface of; brush surface of; glide swiftly along surface of; read or examine rapidly, in order to cull the principal facts

skip: Read
v. Syn. escape; omit
jump lightly; hop; bypass

skirmish: Read
n.
minor battle in war; minor or preliminary conflict or dispute

skull: Read
n.
bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates

skyrocket: Read
v. Syn. soar
increase rapidly; rise quickly; soar

skyscraper: Read
n. Syn. edifice
very tall building with many stories

slack: Read
n.
area of still water; lack of tension; cord, rope, or cable that is hanging loosely; unused capacity; casual trousers

slam: Read
v.
shut with force and a loud noise; strike with force

slander: Read
n. Syn. defamation
defamation; false and malicious statement or report about someone

slap: Read
n.
sharp blow from a flat object as an open hand; smack; sharp insult

slaughter: Read
n.
act of killing; extensive, violent, bloody, or wanton destruction of life; carnage

slay: Read
v. Syn. kill; destroy
put to death with a weapon, or by violence; kill; put an end to; destroy; overwhelm, as with laughter or love

slender: Read
a. Syn. slim; thin
having little width in proportion to height or length; long and thin

slice: Read
n. Syn. piece; section
a serving that has been cut from a larger portion; piece; a share of something

slide: Read
v. Syn. slip; glide
slip; move usually in an uncontrolled manner; move smoothly along a surface

slight: Read
n. Syn. snub
almost no; very little; deliberate discourtesy

slightly: Read
ad. Syn. a little; a bit
a little; a bit

slim: Read
a.
small in quantity; being of delicate or slender build

slip: Read
v.
move smoothly and easily; move out of position; move stealthily

slipper: Read
n.
low footwear that can be on and off easily; one who slips or slides because of loss of traction

slippery: Read
a. Syn. smooth
smooth; being such as to cause things to slip or slide

slit: Read
n. Syn. slot
long, straight, narrow cut or opening; slot; pocket

slogan: Read
n.
phrase used repeatedly, as in advertising or promotion

slope: Read
v. Syn. slant; incline; gradient
be at an angle; incline; gradient

slum: Read
n.
a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions

slumber: Read
n. Syn. sleep; rest
sleep; state of inactivity or dormancy

slump: Read
n.
sudden falling off or decline, as in activity, prices, or business; gross amount; mass

smart: Read
a. Syn. clever; intelligent; cunning
clever; intelligent; showing mental alertness and calculation

smash: Read
v.
break in pieces by violence; dash to pieces; crush

smog: Read
n. Syn. fog; haze
air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog

smooth: Read
v.
free from obstructions; make surface shine

smoothly: Read
ad. Syn. placidly; successfully; easily
in a smooth manner; successfully; easily

smuggle: Read
v.
import or export without paying customs duties

snack: Read
v.
eat light informal meal; eat lightly

snap: Read
v. Syn. break; crack
make a sharp sound; break suddenly as under tension; utter in angry or sharp tone

snatch: Read
v.
grasp or seize hastily, eagerly, or suddenly

sneak: Read
v.
creep or steal privately; come or go meanly, as a person afraid or ashamed to be seen

sneer: Read
v.
show contempt by turning up the nose, or by a particular facial expression; speak derisively; show mirth awkwardly

snob: Read
n.
vulgar person who affects to be better, richer, or more fashionable, than he really is; one who apes his superiors.

snobbish: Read
a.
of or pertaining to a snob; vulgarly pretentious

soak: Read
v.
cause or suffer to lie in a fluid; absorb; drain; drink intemperately or gluttonously

soar: Read
v.
fly aloft, as a bird; mount upward on wings; rise in thought, spirits, or imagination

sober: Read
a. Syn. temperate; serious
not extreme; marked by seriousness or gravity; not affected by use of drugs; self-restraint

sociable: Read
a.
gregarious; friendly; inclined to or conducive to companionship with others

sociology: Read
n.
branch of philosophy which treats of the constitution, phenomena, and development of human society; social science

sock: Read
n.
plowshare; short stocking reaching a point between ankle and knee; hard blow or punch; comic drama

soil: Read
n.
material in the surface of the earth

solar: Read
a.
of or relating to the sun

soldier: Read
n.
one who is engaged in military service as an officer or a private; one who serves in an army

sole: Read
n. Syn. bottom
bottom; underside of foot or shoe or boot; bottom surface of a plow

solely: Read
ad.
alone; only; without another

solemn: Read
a. Syn. serious; somber; sober
serious; somber; deeply earnest, serious, and sober

solicitor: Read
n. Syn. layer
petitioner who seeks contributions or trade or votes; chief law officer of a city, town, or government department

solidarity: Read
n. Syn. unity; accord
union of interests, purposes, or sympathies among members of a group; accord

solitary: Read
a. Syn. isolated; alone; unaccompanied
isolated; existing, living, or going without others; alone; unaccompanied

solitude: Read
n. Syn. seclusion; isolation
state of being alone; seclusion; lonely or secluded place

solo: Read
a.
composed or performed by a single voice or instrument; unaccompanied; single

solution: Read
n.
method for solving a problem; successful action of solving a problem

solvent: Read
a.
able to pay all debts; capable of meeting financial obligations

somehow: Read
ad.
in one way or another; in some way not yet known; by some means

somewhat: Read
ad. Syn. slightly
to some extent or degree; rather; a bit; slightly

soothe: Read
v. Syn. alleviate; mitigate
cause to feel better; give moral or emotional strength to

sophisticated: Read
a. Syn. complex; complicated
wide-ranging knowledge; complex; intellectually appealing

sophistication: Read
n.
being expert or having knowledge of some technical subject

sore: Read
n.
skin infection; hurting; inflamed and painful; source of pain, distress, or irritation

sort: Read
n.
kind or species; a class of;

sound: Read
n.
sensation perceived by the ear; distinctive noise; long narrow inlet

sour: Read
a. Syn. tart; acidic
taste experience when vinegar or lemon juice; showing ill humor

source: Read
n.
point of origin, such as spring, of stream or river; one that causes, creates, or initiates

souvenir: Read
n. Syn. reminder; memento
token of remembrance; memento; something of sentimental value

sovereign: Read
a. Syn. excellent; independent
having supreme rank or power; self governing; excellent; independent

sovereignty: Read
n. Syn. autonomy; independence
autonomy; independence

sow: Read
v. Syn. plant; seed
plant; place seeds in or on

soy: Read
n.
soybean; most highly protein vegetable

spacecraft: Read
n.
a vehicle for travelling in space

spaceship: Read
n.
spacecraft designed to carry a crew into interstellar space

spacious: Read
a. Syn. wide; large; sizable
wide; generous or large in area or extent; sizable

span: Read
n. Syn. duration; distance
duration; distance; cover; extent or measure of space between two points

spare: Read
v.
give up what is not strictly needed; hold back from; withhold or avoid; save or relieve from action

spark: Read
n. Syn. flash; sparkle
flash; sparkle; emit or produce sparks

sparkle: Read
v.
be brilliant in performance; give off or reflect flashes of light; glitter

sparrow: Read
n.
any of several small dull-colored singing birds feeding on seeds or insects

spatial: Read
a.
relating to space; existing in or connected with space

spear: Read
n.
a long, pointed weapon, used in war and hunting, by thrusting or throwing

specialize: Read
v.
mention specially; particularize; apply to some specialty or limited object

specialized: Read
a.
developed or designed for a special activity or function

species: Read
n. Syn. kind
a specific kind of something

specific: Read
a. Syn. particular; definite
stated explicitly or in detail; definite

specification: Read
n. Syn. instruction; description
instruction; description; act of specifying, or making a detailed statement

specify: Read
v. Syn. detail; designate
detail; designate

specimen: Read
n. Syn. model; sample
model; sample; an example regarded as typical of its class

spectacle: Read
n. Syn. demonstration; show
demonstration; show

spectacular: Read
a. Syn. fascinating; grand
impressive or sensational; lavishly produced performance; grand

spectator: Read
n. Syn. observer; audience
observer; audience; one who looks on

spectrum: Read
n.
colored band produced when beam of light passes through a prism; a range of values

speculate: Read
v. Syn. hypothesize; guess; ponder; consider
assume to be true without conclusive evidence; engage in buying or selling of a commodity for profit

speculation: Read
n. Syn. view
speculating; examination by eye; intellectual check; business venture in unusual risks, with a chance for large profits

speedy: Read
a. Syn. fast; rapid
fast; rapid; accomplished or arrived at without delay; prompt

spell: Read
v.
name or write in order the letters constituting; add up to; signify

sphere: Read
n. Syn. ball; globe
ball; globe; a particular aspect of life or activity

spill: Read
v. Syn. pour
pour; sudden drop from an upright position; flow or run out

spin: Read
v. Syn. whirl
turn round rapidly; move round rapidly; move swiftly

spiral: Read
a. Syn. rotary; curled
rotary; curled; moving in a zigzag course; moving in shape of a coil

spiritual: Read
a. Syn. immaterial; sacred; supernatural
not tangible or material; belonging to religion; sacred; supernatural

spit: Read
v.
expel or eject from the mouth; rain gently

spite: Read
n.
ill-will or hatred toward another, accompanied with the disposition to irritate, annoy, or thwart

splash: Read
v.
cause fluid to scatter in flying masses; strike and dash about, as water, mud

splendid: Read
a. Syn. magnificent; brilliant
shining; very bright; magnificent; brilliant

split: Read
v. Syn. devide
break apart; cut; devide

spoil: Read
v. Syn. mar; rot; decay
go bad; rot; decay; become unfit for consumption or use

spokesman: Read
n.
man who speaks on behalf of another or others

sponge: Read
n.
soaking up; small absorbent contraceptive pad, used for bathing or cleaning

sponsor: Read
n.
one who binds himself to answer for another, and is responsible for his default; godfather or godmother

spontaneous: Read
a.
arising without external cause; growing without cultivation or human labor

spoon: Read
n.
a piece of cutlery with a shallow bowl-shaped container and a handle

sport: Read
n.
activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often engaged in competitively

spot: Read
n. Syn. location; place; site
location; place; site; pinpoint; mark to allow easy recognition

sprain: Read
n.
violent wrenching of the soft parts surrounding a joint; injury caused by pushing or pressing; painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching

spray: Read
n. Syn. disseminate; sprinkle
a quantity of small objects flying through air

spring: Read
v.
develop suddenly; jump; move forward by leaps and bounds

sprout: Read
v. Syn. germinate
have new growth of a plant such as a new branch or a bud; shoot up

spur: Read
v. Syn. stimulate; urge
urge a horse; incite or stimulate; ride quickly by spurring a horse; proceed in haste

square: Read
v.
be compatible with; cause to match; cut to rectangular shape; bring into agreement or balance; settle

squash: Read
n.
a game played in an enclosed court by two or four players who strike the ball with long-handled rackets; crush; press; depress

squat: Read
a. Syn. stocky
stocky; short and thick; low and broad

squeeze: Read
v. Syn. extract
force something into or through a restricted space; compress with violence

squirrel: Read
n.
a kind of arboreal rodent having a long bushy tail

stab: Read
v.
pierce with a pointed weapon; wound or kill by pointed instrument

stability: Read
n. Syn. balance; constancy
balance; constancy

stable: Read
a. Syn. fixed; steadfast; constant
not easily moved or disturbed

stack: Read
n.
an orderly pile; heap; a large number ; arrange in pile

stadium: Read
n.
large, usually open structure for sports events with tiered seating for spectators

staff: Read
n. Syn. personnel; crew; team
personnel who assist superior to carry out assigned task

stagger: Read
v.
sway; walk as if unable to control one's movements

stain: Read
n. Syn. blemish; flaw
soiled or discolored; symbol of disgrace or infamy; natural spot of a color different from the gound

staircase: Read
n.
a way of access consisting of a set of steps

stake: Read
n.
money risked on gamble; pole set up to mark something; right or legal share of something

stale: Read
a.
having lost freshness; lacking originality or spontaneity

stalk: Read
v. Syn. follow; pursue
go through an area in search of prey; pursue; walk with a stiff or angry gait; move threateningly

stall: Read
n.
small area set off by walls for special use; booth

stammer: Read
v.
make involuntary stops in uttering syllables or words; hesitate or falter in speaking; speak with stops and difficulty

standard: Read
n. Syn. criteria
criteria; basis for comparison

standardize: Read
v. Syn. normalize
normalize; cause to conform to a standard

standing: Read
a. Syn. fame; reputation
high reputation; esteem; maintaining an erect position

standpoint: Read
n.
a mental position from which things are viewed

staple: Read
n.
necessary foods or commodities; basic elements; secure or fasten; a short U-shaped wire nail for securing cables

stapler: Read
n.
one who deals in staple goods or staple fibers; device used to bind material together by means of staples

startle: Read
v. Syn. alarm; surprise
move suddenly, or be excited; excite by sudden alarm, surprise

starvation: Read
n.
act of depriving of food or subjecting to famine

starve: Read
v. Syn. hunger
hunger; deprive of food

statesman: Read
n.
one occupied with the affairs of government, and influential in shaping policy

static: Read
a. Syn. stationary
having no motion; being at rest; fixed; stationary

stationary: Read
a. Syn. fixed; immobile; static
fixed; immobile; static; not capable of being moved

stationery: Read
n.
paper cut to right size for writing letters; writing materials and office supplies

statistics: Read
n.
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data

statue: Read
n.
sculpture representing a human or animal

status: Read
n. Syn. standing; state
position relative to others; standing

statute: Read
n. Syn. decree; law
law enacted by legislature; decree or edict, as of a ruler

steady: Read
a. Syn. stable
securely in position; not shaky; not easily excited

steak: Read
n.
slice of meat, typically beef, usually cut thick

steamer: Read
n.
vessel propelled by steam; steamship or steamboat; road locomotive for use on common roads

steep: Read
v. Syn. soak; saturate
soak; make thoroughly wet

steer: Read
v. Syn. drive; direct
drive; direct; guide by means of a device such as a rudder, paddle, or wheel

stem: Read
v.
stop flow of a liquid; make headway against

stereo: Read
n.
stereophonic sound-reproduction system

sterling: Read
n.
any English coin of standard value; coined money

stern: Read
a. Syn. severe; relentless
hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character; firm or unyielding

steward: Read
n.
one who manages another's property, finances, or other affairs; attendant on a ship or airplane

stick: Read
v.
fasten into place by fixing an end; be a follower or supporter

sticky: Read
a. Syn. glutinous; adhesive
glutinous; adhesive; covered with an adhesive agent; humid; stiff

stiff: Read
a. Syn. rigid
not moving or operating freely; lacking ease in bending; resistant

stimulate: Read
v. Syn. whet; encourage; motivate; exhilarate; arouse; spur
encourage; motivate; arouse; spur; excite or invigorate with a stimulant

stimulation: Read
n.
arousing an organism to action

sting: Read
v. Syn. puncture
pierce painfully with sharp pointed structure or organ; cause to suffer keenly in the mind or feelings

stink: Read
n. Syn. stench
strong, offensive smell; disgusting odor; stench

stipulate: Read
v. Syn. specify
specify or arrange in agreement; express demand in agreement; promise in agreement

stipulation: Read
n. Syn. provision
provision; an agreement made by parties in a judicial proceeding

stitch: Read
v. Syn. sew; knit
sew; knit; fasten or join with or as if with thread

stock: Read
n.
certificate for shareholder of corporation; total amount of goods in a shop

stomach: Read
n.
principal organ of digestion; abdomen or belly; appetite for food; desire, especially for something difficult

stoop: Read
v.
bend forward and down from the waist or the middle of the back

storey: Read
n.
story; floor or level of a building or ship

stout: Read
a. Syn. sturdy; stocky
dependable; stocky; euphemisms for fat

straightforward: Read
a.
proceeding in a straight course or manner; not deviating; honest; frank.

strain: Read
n. Syn. tension; pressure
group of organisms within a species; tension; pressure

strait: Read
a.
difficult; stressful; narrow; not broad; tight; close; closely fitting

strand: Read
n. Syn. thread
complex of fibers that twisted together to form a cable, rope, thread; land bordering a body of water; single filament

strap: Read
n. Syn. belt
belt; band that goes over the shoulder and supports a garment or bag

strategic: Read
a.
important or essential in relation to a plan of action; essential to the effective conduct of war; highly important to an intended objective

strategy: Read
n.
elaborate and systematic plan; plan of action intended to accomplish a specific goal

streak: Read
n.
a line or long mark of a different color from the ground; stripe; vein

strengthen: Read
v. Syn. reinforce; fortify
reinforce; fortify; make strong or increase the strength of

stress: Read
n. Syn. emphasis
put special emphasis on; utter with an accent; state of extreme difficulty, pressure, or strain

stretch: Read
v. Syn. extend
extend; pull in opposite directions; lie down comfortably

stride: Read
n. Syn. step; pace
step; pace; significant progress

strife: Read
n.
act of striving; earnest endeavor; exertion or contention for superiority; contest of emulation, either by intellectual or physical efforts

strike: Read
n.
a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions

striking: Read
a. Syn. dramatic; outstanding; remarkable
dramatic; outstanding; arresting attention and producing a vivid impression

string: Read
n.
lightweight cord; a collection of objects threaded on a single strand; plant fiber

strip: Read
v. Syn. remove; deprive; divest
remove the surface from

stripe: Read
n. Syn. band; ribbon
a kind or category; band; ribbon

strive: Read
v. Syn. endeavor; struggle
endeavor; struggle or fight forcefully; exert much effort or energy

stroke: Read
n. Syn. blow
blow; light touch; sudden loss of consciousness for brain blood vessel lacking oxygen

stroll: Read
v.
wander on foot; ramble idly or leisurely

structural: Read
a.
of structure; affecting structure; constructional

structure: Read
n.
complex construction or entity; complex composition of knowledge

stubborn: Read
a. Syn. headstrong; obstinate; tenacious
unreasonably, often perversely unyielding; persistent; difficult to treat

studio: Read
n.
workplace for the teaching or practice of an art

stuff: Read
n.
unspecified objects; tangible substance

stuffy: Read
a.
stout; lacking sufficient ventilation; close; dull and boring

stumble: Read
v. Syn. fall
miss a step and fall or nearly fall; walk unsteadily

sturdy: Read
a. Syn. robust; strong; substantial; firm
robust; strong; substantially made or constructed

style: Read
n.
particular kind; a way of expressing something

subdue: Read
v.
quiet or bring under control by physical force or persuasion; make less intense; tone down

subject: Read
n.
something to be treated; course or area of study

subjective: Read
a. Syn. unreal
occurring or taking place in person's mind rather than external world; unreal

submarine: Read
n.
submersible warship; move forward or under in a sliding motion; underwater

submerge: Read
v. Syn. sink; immerse
sink; immerse; put under water

submit: Read
v. Syn. defer; yield
refer for judgment or consideration; hand in; present

subordinate: Read
a. Syn. inferior; submissive
occupying lower rank; inferior; submissive

subscribe: Read
v.
write underneath, as one's name; sign to a document; give consent to; promise to give, by writing one's name with the amount

subsequent: Read
a. Syn. following
following in time or order; succeeding; later

subsequently: Read
ad. Syn. later; accordingly
in a subsequent manner; at a later time; accordingly; therefore

subsidiary: Read
a. Syn. subordinate; secondary
subordinate; secondary; serving to assist or supplement

substantial: Read
a. Syn. solid; strong; material
fairly large; in essentials; material; true or real; not imaginary; solidly built

substantiate: Read
v. Syn. verify; support
establish by evidence; make firm or solid; support

substitute: Read
v. Syn. exchange; replace
exchange; put in the place of another

subtle: Read
a. Syn. slight; delicate
slight; be difficult to detect or grasp by the mind

subtract: Read
v.
remove a part from the whole

subtraction: Read
n. Syn. reduction; deduction
reduction; deduction; removing a part from the whole

suburb: Read
n. Syn. outskirts
outskirts; usually residential area or community outlying a city

succession: Read
n.
act of succeeding, or following after; following of things in order of time or place, or a series of things so following; sequence

successive: Read
a. Syn. consecutive
consecutive

successor: Read
n.
one who or that which succeeds or follows; one who takes the place which another has left

suck: Read
v.
draw liquid into mouth; take in; draw something by vacuum

suffice: Read
v.
be enough, or sufficient; meet the need; be equal to the end proposed; be adequate; satisfy

sufficient: Read
a. Syn. adequate; enough
adequate; enough; being as much as is needed

suit: Read
v. Syn. accommodate; fit; adapt
meet the requirements of; fit; please; satisfy

suitable: Read
a.
appropriate to a purpose or an occasion

suitcase: Read
n.
portable rectangular traveling bag for carrying clothes

suite: Read
n.
apartment consisting of a series of connected rooms; a matching set of furniture

sullen: Read
a.
lonely; solitary; desolate; gloomy; dismal; affected with ill humor

sultry: Read
a.
burning hot; extremely and unpleasantly hot

sum: Read
n.
mount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added together; amount

summary: Read
n.
brief statement that presents the main points

summit: Read
n. Syn. peak; acme; zenith
utmost height; highest point of a mountain

summon: Read
v.
call, bid, or cite; notify to come to appear; call upon to surrender

sunburn: Read
n.
redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun

sunflower: Read
n.
plant having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays

sunlight: Read
n.
rays of the sun

sunrise: Read
n.
daily event of the sun rising above the horizon

sunset: Read
n. Syn. sundown
daily event of the sun sinking below the horizon

sunshine: Read
n.
moderate weather; suitable for outdoor activities; the rays of the sun

superb: Read
a. Syn. excellent; wonderful
of unusually high quality; excellent; wonderful

superficial: Read
a. Syn. trivial
trivial; of little substance; involving a surface only

superintendent: Read
n. Syn. director; supervisor
director; person who has the authority to supervise or direct; janitor or custodian in a building

superior: Read
a. Syn. excellent
greater rank or station or quality; excellent

supersede: Read
v. Syn. replace
be placed in or take the room of; replace; make obsolete; make void or useless by superior power

supersonic: Read
a.
having, caused by, or relating to speed greater than the speed of sound

superstition: Read
n.
excessive reverence for, or fear of, that which is unknown or mysterious; worship of a false god; false religion

supervise: Read
v. Syn. administer; direct
administer; direct

supervision: Read
n.
management by overseeing the performance

supervisor: Read
n. Syn. director; overseer
director; overseer; one who is in charge of a particular unit, as in government or school system

supplement: Read
v. Syn. add; complement
add as something seems insufficient; complement; extension; addition

supplementary: Read
a.
added to complete or make up a deficiency

suppose: Read
v. Syn. presume; assume; conjecture
imagine or admit to exist; assume to be true; believe; receive as true

suppress: Read
v. Syn. overwhelm
put down by force or authority; overwhelm; keep from being revealed

supreme: Read
a. Syn. highest; superior
most outstanding; highest; superior

surcharge: Read
n.
an additional charge; charge an extra fee

surface: Read
n.
exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; outside; outward or external appearance

surge: Read
n. Syn. outburst; eruption
outburst; roll or be tossed about on waves, as a boat

surgeon: Read
n.
one who performs manual operations on a patient

surgery: Read
n.
medical treatment that involves cutting open a person's body

surmise: Read
v. Syn. guess
guess; infer something without sufficiently conclusive evidence

surpass: Read
v. Syn. exceed
be or go beyond, as in degree or quality; exceed

surplus: Read
a. Syn. extra; remaining
remainder; more than is needed; quantity much larger than is needed; remaining

surrender: Read
v.
hand over, give up, give something into another's control

survey: Read
n. Syn. poll; review
poll; detailed critical inspection

survival: Read
n. Syn. existence; subsistence
existence; remaining alive

survive: Read
v. Syn. endure; tolerate; outlive
continue to live; endure or last

survivor: Read
n.
one who outlives another; one who lives through affliction

suspect: Read
v. Syn. doubt
have doubts about; distrust

suspend: Read
v. Syn. hang; append
hang freely; postpone; delay

suspense: Read
n. Syn. uncertainty
uncertain cognitive state; uncertainty

suspicion: Read
n. Syn. mistrust; doubt
mistrust; act of suspecting something, especially something wrong, on little evidence or without proof

suspicious: Read
a. Syn. skeptical
openly distrustful and unwilling to confide; questionable

sustain: Read
v. Syn. support; nourish; maintain
admit as valid; keep in existence; lengthen or extend in duration or space

swallow: Read
v.
take back what one has said ; enclose or envelop completely

swamp: Read
n. Syn. marsh; bog
low land that is seasonally flooded; low land region saturated with water

swarm: Read
n. Syn. throng; flock; crowd
dense moving crowd; large group of honeybees

sway: Read
v. Syn. swing
swing; move back and forth or sideways; win approval or support for; convince

swear: Read
v.
affirm or utter a solemn declaration; make promise or resolve on oath

sweater: Read
n.
knitted garment covering the upper part of the body

sweep: Read
n.
movement in an arc; clean with a broom; wide scope; winning all

swell: Read
v. Syn. bulge; enlarge
bulge; expand abnormally; increase in size; become filled with pride or anger

swift: Read
a. Syn. quick; rapid; nimble
quick; moving or capable of moving with great speed

swing: Read
v. Syn. wave; vibrate; oscillate
sway or move from one side to another; turn round by wind or tide; be hanged

syllable: Read
n.
a unit of spoken language larger than a phoneme

symbol: Read
n. Syn. sign; signal
sign; something visible to represent something else invisible

symbolize: Read
v. Syn. represent; signify
represent; signify; stand for

symmetry: Read
n. Syn. congruity; proportion
arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained; congruity

sympathetic: Read
a. Syn. approving
expressing compassion or friendly fellow feelings; approving; having similar disposition and tastes

sympathize: Read
v.
be understanding of; feel or express sympathy or compassion

sympathy: Read
n. Syn. compassion; pity; concern
compassion; pity; concern

symphony: Read
n. Syn. orchestra
large orchestra; harmony, especially of sound or color

symposium: Read
n.
collection of writings on a particular topic, as in a magazine; meeting or conference for discussion of a topic; drinking together; merry feast

symptom: Read
n. Syn. sign; prognosis; indication
sign; indication; any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient

synonym: Read
n.
two words that can be interchanged in a context

synthesis: Read
n. Syn. formation; integration
combining parts into a coherent whole; putting of two or more things togethe

synthetic: Read
a. Syn. artificial
artificial; involving or of the nature of synthesis as opposed to analysis

system: Read
n. Syn. structure
organized structure for arranging or classifying

systematic: Read
a. Syn. ordered; methodical
ordered; methodical; carried on using step-by-step procedures