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4000 IELTS Academic Word List (14)

qualification: Read
an attribute that must be met

qualified: Read
a. Syn. certified
restricted; having the appropriate qualifications for an office, position, or task

qualify: Read
make such as is required; give added or requisite qualities to; make legally capable

qualitative: Read
relating to quality; having the character of quality

quantitative: Read
expressed or expressible as a quantity; relating to measurement of quantity

quarter: Read
n. Syn. fourth
one of four equal parts; a fourth part or portion

quarterly: Read
every three months; in three month intervals

quartz: Read
a hard glossy mineral consisting of silicon dioxide in crystal form

quay: Read
n. Syn. dock
dock; landing place; reinforced bank where ships are loaded or unloaded

queer: Read
a. Syn. eccentric; mysterious
odd or unconventional, as in behavior; eccentric; mysterious; suspicious; questionable

quench: Read
v. Syn. extinguish
put out a fire; extinguish; put an end to; destroy

query: Read
n. Syn. inquiry; question
inquiry; doubt in the mind; mental reservation

quest: Read
n. Syn. search; expedition
act of searching for something

questionnaire: Read
form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

quilt: Read
bedding made of two layers of cloth filled with stuffing

quiver: Read
v. Syn. tremble; shake
shake with slight, rapid, tremulous movement

quota: Read
n. Syn. share; ration
limitation on imports; ration; prescribed number

quotation: Read
passage or expression that is quoted or cited; practice of quoting from books

quote: Read
cite or repeat a passage from; repeat or copy the words of another

rack: Read
framework for holding objects

racket: Read
device consisting of an oval frame with a tight interlaced network of strings and a handle; wooden paddle, as one used in table tennis

radar: Read
measuring instrument to detect distant objects by microwave

radiant: Read
a. Syn. ablaze; brilliant; delighted
brilliant; delighted

radiate: Read
v. Syn. effuse
spread out; effuse; issue or emerge in rays or waves

radiation: Read
very small particles of a radioactive substance that can cause illness or death

radical: Read
a. Syn. drastic; extreme
drastic; extreme; arising from or going to a root or source; basic

radius: Read
right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery

rage: Read
n. Syn. vogue
something that is desired intensely; state of extreme anger

raid: Read
n. Syn. invasion; attack
search without warning; surprise attack by a small armed force

rail: Read
v. Syn. scold; rant
scold; express objections or criticisms in bitter, harsh, or abusive language

rainbow: Read
arc of colored light in sky caused by refraction of the sun's rays by rain

rally: Read
v. Syn. gather; combine; assemble
call up or summon; call together for a common purpose

ramble: Read
v. Syn. wander
wander aimlessly; move about aimlessly; walk about casually or for pleasure

ranch: Read
farm consisting of a large tract of land

random: Read
a. Syn. haphazard; chance
without definite purpose, plan, or aim; having no specific pattern

range: Read
n. Syn. limit
limits within which something can be effective; variety of different things or activities

rank: Read
v. Syn. file; categorize
hold a particular position in a social hierarchy; form or stand in a row or rows

rapture: Read
state of being transported by a lofty emotion; ecstasy; violent taking and carrying away; seizure; forcible removal

rare: Read
a. Syn. scarce; uncommon; infrequent
scarce; infrequently occurring; uncommon

rarely: Read
ad. Syn. seldom
not often; in an unusual degree; exceptionally

rat: Read
any of various long tailed rodents, similar to but larger than mouse

ratify: Read
v. Syn. confirm; verify
approve formally; confirm; verify

ratio: Read
n. Syn. rate; proportion
relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind; rate; proportion

ration: Read
n. Syn. allotment; allowance; portion
allotment; allowance; portion; allot; distribute in rations

rational: Read
a. Syn. logical; reasonable
consistent with; based on; using reason

rattle: Read
a rapid series of short loud sounds; loosely connected horny sections

ravage: Read
bring heavy destruction on; devastate

raw: Read
in the natural unprocessed condition; cruel and unfair; uncooked; untrained and inexperienced

ray: Read
n. Syn. beam; light
one of a number of lines diverging from a point; a line of light or heat proceeding from a point

razor: Read
sharp-edged cutting instrument used especially for shaving the face or other body parts

react: Read
act against or in opposition to; show a response or a reaction

reactionary: Read
opposition to progress or liberalism; extremely conservative

readily: Read
ad. Syn. easily; quickly; promptly
easily; quickly; in a prompt, timely manner; promptly

realization: Read
n. Syn. fulfillment; awareness
fulfillment; awareness; coming to understand something clearly and distinctly

realm: Read
n. Syn. kingdom; domain
kingdom; domain ruled by a king or queen

reap: Read
v. Syn. gain; harvest; glean
gain; harvest a crop from; get or derive; obtain as a result of effort

rear: Read
n. Syn. back
side of an object that is opposite its front; hind part; point or area farthest from the front

reasonable: Read
showing reason or sound judgment; capable of reasoning; rational; being within bounds of common sense

reassure: Read
give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain

rebel: Read
one who takes part in an armed group against the constituted authority; revolt;

rebellion: Read
organized opposition to authority

rebuke: Read
v. Syn. admonish; scold
scold harshly; criticize severely

recall: Read
v. Syn. remember
remember; call back; cause to be returned

recede: Read
move back; retreat; withdraw a claim or pretension

receipt: Read
n. Syn. reception
act of receiving; acknowledgment of goods delivered or money paid

reception: Read
n. Syn. receipt
act of receiving; manner in which something is greeted

receptionist: Read
secretary whose main duty is to answer the telephone and receive visitors

recession: Read
n. Syn. withdrawal; retreat
withdrawal; retreat; time of low economic activity

recipe: Read
n. Syn. prescription; instruction
medical prescription; a set of directions for making or preparing something, especially food

recipient: Read
n. Syn. receiver
receiver; one that receives or is receptive

reciprocal: Read
a. Syn. mutual; exchangeable; interacting
concerning each of two or more persons or things; exchangeable; interacting

recite: Read
repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory; rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor

reckless: Read
a. Syn. irresponsible; careless
headstrong; rash; indifferent to or disregardful of consequences

reckon: Read
v. Syn. expect; believe; suppose
compute; take account of; have faith or confidence in

reclaim: Read
v. Syn. rehabilitate; rejuvenate
bring into or return to a suitable condition for use; claim back; make useful again

recognition: Read
n. Syn. attention; acclaim; appreciation
acceptance ; appreciation; approval

recognize: Read
v. Syn. acknowledge; distinguish
perceive the identity of; consent or admit with a formal acknowledgment; show appreciation of

recollection: Read
n. Syn. memory; remembrance
memory; remembrance; power of recalling ideas to the mind

recommend: Read
v. Syn. suggest
suggest; bestow commendation on; represent favorably

recommendation: Read
n. Syn. advice
making attractive or acceptable; pushing for something

recompense: Read
render an equivalent to, for service, loss; requite; remunerate; compensate; give in return; pay back

reconcile: Read
v. Syn. adapt; settle; resolve
correct inconsistencies; become friendly after a quarrel; become compatible or consistent

reconnaissance: Read
n. Syn. reconnoitering
gain information about enemy; inspection or exploration of an area

recourse: Read
one that is turned or applied to for aid or security; resort for help or protection; access or admittance

recover: Read
v. Syn. regain
get or find back; regain a former condition

recreation: Read
amusement; entertainment

recruit: Read
v. Syn. enlist; enroll
enlist; register formally as a participant; engage for military service

rectangle: Read
a parallelogram with four right angles

rectify: Read
v. Syn. correct
set right; correct by calculation or adjustment

recur: Read
v. Syn. reappear
reappear; happen or occur again

recurrence: Read
act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return

redeem: Read
purchase back; regain possession of by payment; ransom or rescue from captivity; pay penalty; make amends for

reed: Read
tall woody perennial grasses with hollow slender stems

reef: Read
chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water

reel: Read
frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on axis, on which threads or lines are wound

referee: Read
someone to investigate and report on a case or to ensure fair play

reference: Read
act of referring or consulting; remark that calls attention to something or someone

refine: Read
v. Syn. purify
purify; make more precise; improve

refined: Read
a. Syn. cultured; purified
cultured; purified; made pure

refinement: Read
result of improving something; process of removing impurities

reflect: Read
throw or bend back light from a surface; give back or show an image of; mirror

reflection: Read
n. Syn. expression
image of something as reflected by mirror; remark expressing careful consideration

refrain: Read
v. Syn. resist; forbear
abstain from; resist; hold oneself back

refreshment: Read
activity that refreshes and recreates; snacks and drinks served as a light meal

refrigerator: Read
machines in which food can be stored at low temperatures

refugee: Read
one who flees to shelter, or place of safety

refund: Read
repayment of fund; an amount repaid

refusal: Read
act of refusing; denial of anything demanded

refute: Read
v. Syn. disprove
disprove; prove to be false or incorrect

regarding: Read
with respect to; by concerning

regardless: Read
without consideration; in spite of everything; anyway

regime: Read
n. Syn. government; administration
form of government; government in power; administration; prevailing social system or pattern

regiment: Read
government; mode of ruling; rule; authority

region: Read
province; district; tract; neighborhood; the upper air; sky or heavens; inhabitants of a district

register: Read
v. Syn. record
give outward signs of; express; record in writing; enroll as a student

regulate: Read
v. Syn. direct
bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations; fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of

regulation: Read
act of controlling or directing according to rule; prescribed by or according to rule

rehearsal: Read
act of rehearsing; exercise or practice to prepare for a public performance

rehearse: Read
v. Syn. practice; drill
practice; drill; engage in preparation for a public performance

reign: Read
n. Syn. sovereignty; rule; control
sovereignty; rule; dominance or widespread influence

reimburse: Read
v. Syn. repay; refund; indemnify
pay back for some expense incurred

rein: Read
strap or rope attached to the bridle or bit, used to control a horse or other animal; instrument or means of curbing, restraining, or governing

reinforce: Read
v. Syn. strengthen; enhance
give more force or effectiveness to; strengthen; enhance

reiterate: Read
say, state, or perform again or repeatedly

reject: Read
v. Syn. refuse; deny
turn down; refuse to accept; dismiss from consideration

rejection: Read
act of rejecting something

rejoice: Read
feel joy; experience gladness in a high degree; have pleasurable satisfaction; be delighted; enjoy

relax: Read
v. Syn. free; loosen; calm
make less severe or strict; become less tense

relaxation: Read
state of refreshing tranquility; act of making less strict

relay: Read
act of passing something along from one person, group, or station to another

release: Read
v. Syn. liberate; freedom
give off; liberate; grant freedom to; make something available

relevant: Read
a. Syn. pertinent
pertinent; having connection with matter at hand

reliability: Read
trait of being dependable or reliable

reliable: Read
a. Syn. dependable; trustworthy
worthy of being depended on; trustworthy

reliance: Read
dependence; certainty based on past experience

relief: Read
easing of burden or distress, such as pain or anxiety; release from post or duty; pleasant or amusing change

relieve: Read
v. Syn. assuage; alleviate
free from a burden; alleviate; save from ruin

religion: Read
n. Syn. belief; faith
belief in supernatural power regarded as creator and governor of the universe

religious: Read
a. Syn. devout; pious
of religion; concerned with religion; having or showing belief in and reverence for God or a deity

relinquish: Read
v. Syn. yield; abandon; surrender; waive
give up something with reluctance; retire from; give up or abandon

relish: Read
v. Syn. enjoy
take keen or zestful pleasure in; enjoy the flavor of; give spice or flavor to

reluctance: Read
state of being reluctant; unwillingness; hesitancy in taking some action

reluctant: Read
a. Syn. unwilling; averse
not wanting to take some action; averse

rely: Read
v. Syn. trust; depend
rest with confidence; have confidence; depend

remainder: Read
remnant; something left after other parts have been taken away

remains: Read
all that is left after other parts have been taken away, used up, or destroyed; corpse; ancient ruins or fossils

remark: Read
n. Syn. comment; commentary
expression, in speech or writing, of something remarked or noticed

remarkable: Read
a. Syn. outstanding; extraordinary
worthy of notice; extraordinary

remedy: Read
n. Syn. drug
a medicine or therapy; ; cure; fix; repair; provide relief for

remind: Read
recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection

reminiscence: Read
n. Syn. recollection
recollection; process of remembering

remit: Read
send back; give up; surrender; resign; restore; transmit or send, especially as money in payment of a demand

remittance: Read
transmitting money, bills, especially to a distant place, as in satisfaction of a demand, or in discharge of an obligation

remnant: Read
n. Syn. remainder; relic
remainder; small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

remove: Read
move away from the position occupied; cause to change place; take away

renaissance: Read
revival; renewal; revival of learning and culture

render: Read
v. Syn. deliver; provide; represent
deliver;give or make available; provide; represent in a drawing or painting

renew: Read
v. Syn. renovate; restart
renovate; make new or as if new again; restore

renewable: Read
capable of being renewed or extended

renewal: Read
act of renewing; filling again by supplying what has been used up

rent: Read
payment, usually of an amount fixed by contract

rental: Read
amount paid or collected as rent; act of renting

repeal: Read
v. Syn. revoke; annul
revoke or annul, especially by official or formal act

repel: Read
v. Syn. disgust; reject; refuse
force or drive back; disgust; offer resistance to; fight against

repent: Read
cause to feel remorse or regret; feel regret or self-reproach for

repetition: Read
act of doing or performing again

replace: Read
substitute; put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items

replacement: Read
act of replacing; substitution; person or thing that takes the place of another

replenish: Read
v. Syn. refill; restock
fill or make complete again; add a new stock or supply to

represent: Read
v. Syn. illustrate; depict
stand for; describe or present; play a role or part

representation: Read
act of representing; standing in for someone or some group and speaking with authority in their behalf

representative: Read
n. Syn. delegate
one that represents anything; that which exhibits a likeness or similitude; agent

reproach: Read
v. Syn. admonish
express disapproval or disappointment; bring shame upon; disgrace

reproduce: Read
have offspring or young; duplicate; make a copy

reproduction: Read
act of making copies

reptile: Read
cold-blooded vertebrate including tortoises turtles snakes lizards alligators crocodiles

repudiate: Read
v. Syn. disown
disown; refuse to acknowledge; reject validity or authority of

reputable: Read
a. Syn. respectable; honorable
having a good reputation; honorable

reputation: Read
state of being held in high esteem; general estimation in which a person is held by the public

repute: Read
ascribe a particular fact or characteristic to; consider; suppose

request: Read
v. Syn. demand; require
express the need or desire for; ask for

require: Read
v. Syn. demand; request
insist upon having; request and expect

requisite: Read
necessary requirement; indispensable item

rescind: Read
v. Syn. cancel; annul; repeal
cancel; make void; repeal or annul

rescue: Read
n. Syn. save; salvage
free from harm or evil; take from legal custody by force

research: Read
inquire into; attempt to find out in scientific manner

resemblance: Read
n. Syn. likeness; similarity
likeness; similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resemble: Read
v. Syn. be similar to; take after; look like
be similar to; take after; look like

resent: Read
v. Syn. begrudge
feel bitter; consider as injury or affront; be in angry

resentment: Read
n. Syn. indignation; bitterness; displeasure
indignation; deep sense of injury; strong displeasure

reserve: Read
lack of enthusiasm; skeptical caution; something saved for future use; self-restraint in expression

reservoir: Read
n. Syn. receptacle
tank used for collecting and storing a liquid; holding pond; lake used to store water for community use

reside: Read
v. Syn. dwell; live; inhabit
dwell; live in a place permanently or for an extended period

residence: Read
n. Syn. dwelling; house; abode
official house; large house; act of dwelling in a place

resident: Read
n. Syn. inhabitant; dweller
one who resides in a place permanently or for an extended period; dweller

residual: Read
a. Syn. remaining; surplus
remaining as a residue; surplus

resign: Read
v. Syn. yield; surrender; abandon
sign back; return by a formal act; yield to another; abandon

resignation: Read
act of resigning or giving up, as a claim, possession, or office; surrender

resist: Read
v. Syn. withstand
stand up or offer resistance; refuse to comply; withstand the force of something

resistance: Read
action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with

resistant: Read
unaffected; incapable of being affected

resolute: Read
a. Syn. firm; determined; decided
firm, unyielding, or determined; having decided purpose

resolution: Read
n. Syn. determination; resolve
determination; resolving to do something; formal statement of a decision

resolve: Read
n. Syn. determination; resolution; decision
determination; formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

resort: Read
vacation spot; act of turning to for assistance

resource: Read
n. Syn. materials; abilities
materials; abilities; available source

respect: Read
n. Syn. honor; esteem; admire
honor or esteem; admire; aspect; detail or point

respective: Read
a. Syn. individual
individual; relating to particular persons or things, each to each; particular; respectful; regardful

respectively: Read
ad. Syn. separately; individually
separately; individually; in the order given

respond: Read
v. Syn. react; answer
show a reaction to something favorably or as hoped

responsibility: Read
n. Syn. duties; obligation
duties; obligation; state of being responsible, accountable, or answerable

responsible: Read
a. Syn. accountable
accountable; held accountable

restless: Read
never resting; unquiet; uneasy; continually moving; eager for change; discontented

restore: Read
v. Syn. reinstate; renovate; renew
give or bring back; return to its original condition

restrain: Read
v. Syn. inhibit; stop; repress
keep under control; hold back ; place limits on

restraint: Read
n. Syn. restriction; limitation
moderation or limitation; controlling force; loss of freedom; control of feelings

restrict: Read
v. Syn. limit; inhibit; confine
keep or confine within limits

restriction: Read
act of keeping something within specified bounds; a principle that limits the extent of something

restrictive: Read
a. Syn. limiting; confining
tending or serving to restrict; limiting; confining

resume: Read
give a summary; return to a previous location or condition

retail: Read
selling of goods to consumers

retailer: Read
company which sells goods

retain: Read
v. Syn. keep; employ
keep; maintain possession of; hire by payment of a fee; keep in mind; remember

retire: Read
move back and away from; stop performing one's work or withdraw from one's position

retirement: Read
period of your life after you have stopped work at a certain age

retort: Read
reply, especially to answer in a quick, caustic, or witty manner

retreat: Read
n. Syn. receding
receding; pull back or move away or backward; withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position

retroactive: Read
extending in scope or effect to a prior time or to prior conditions

reveal: Read
v. Syn. expose; uncover
make known; disclose or show

revenge: Read
v. Syn. avenge
do punishment in return for injury or insult; avenge

revenue: Read
n. Syn. income; reward
money which returns from an investment; annual income; reward

reverence: Read
profound respect and esteem with fear and affection, as for a holy being or place; act showing respect, especially a bow or curtsy

reverse: Read
v. Syn. back; rear
overturn; turn inside out or upside down; turning in the opposite direction

revert: Read
v. Syn. relapse; backslide; return
return to a former condition, practice, subject, or belief; backslide; turn back to

review: Read
summary of a longer discussion; formal examination; practice to refresh memory

revise: Read
v. Syn. amend; change
amend; change

revision: Read
n. Syn. modification; correction
modification; correction; act of altering

revival: Read
n. Syn. resuscitation; resurgence
bringing again into activity and prominence

revive: Read
v. Syn. resuscitate; recover; renew
restore from a depressed; renew

revoke: Read
v. Syn. cancel; retract; void; annul
void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing; cancel; retract

revolt: Read
v. Syn. resist; rebel
organize opposition to authority; make revolution

revolution: Read
act of revolving; motion of body round a fixed point or line; rotation; total or radical change; fundamental change in political organization

revolutionary: Read
marked by new or introducing radical change

revolve: Read
turn or roll round on, or as on, an axis, like a wheel; rotate; move in curved path round a center; pass in cycles

reward: Read
satisfying return or result; profit, return for performance of a desired behavior; positive reinforcement.

rhythm: Read
n. Syn. pattern; beat; tempo
pattern; beat; recurring at regular intervals

rib: Read
one of the curved bones attached to the vertebral column and supporting the lateral walls of the thorax

ribbon: Read
fillet or narrow woven fabric, commonly of silk; narrow strip of fine material used for trimming

riddle: Read
v. Syn. permeate; spread
pierce with numerous holes; perforate; permeate or spread throughout

ridge: Read
long, narrow upper section or crest; chain of hills or mountains

ridicule: Read
n. Syn. mock
words or actions intended to evoke contemptuous laughter; make fun of

ridiculous: Read
a. Syn. foolish
completely lacking of wisdom or good sense

rifle: Read
shoulder firearm with a long barrel

righteous: Read
morally justified; equitable; free from wrong, guilt, or sin

rigid: Read
a. Syn. stiff; strict
stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending; not flexible

rigidity: Read
n. Syn. stiffness
stiffness; physical property of being stiff and resisting bending

rigor: Read
n. Syn. severity
strictness or severity, as in temperament, action, or judgment; something hard to endure

rigorous: Read
a. Syn. severe; harsh; exact
full of rigors; harsh; rigidly accurate; precise

rim: Read
border, edge, or margin of a thing, usually of something circular or curving

rinse: Read
v. Syn. flush
cleanse with water; flush; wash lightly without soap

riot: Read
n. Syn. commotion; rebellion
state of disorder involving group violence; rebellion

rip: Read
v. Syn. tear; rend
tear or be torn violently; criticize or abuse strongly and violently

ripe: Read
a. Syn. ready; mature
ready; fully developed; mature

ripen: Read
grow ripe; cause to ripen or develop fully

ripple: Read
wavelike motion; undulation; sound like that of water running over a stony bottom

rise: Read
v. Syn. ascend
move from a lower position to a higher; mount up; move upward; reach a higher level

risky: Read
a. Syn. hazardous; dangerous
involving risk or danger; hazardous

rival: Read
v. Syn. compete
compete; be equal to in quality or ability; match

rivalry: Read
n. Syn. competition; contest
competition; the act of competing as for profit or a prize

roam: Read
v. Syn. wander; ramble; stroll
wander; ramble; stroll

roar: Read
n. Syn. bellow; rumble
bellow; rumble; make a loud noise

roast: Read
v. Syn. bake; toast
cook with dry heat, usually in an oven; subject to laughter or ridicule

robe: Read
outer garment; dress of rich, flowing, and elegant style or make; dress of state, rank, office

robust: Read
a. Syn. vigorous; strong; healthy
vigorous; full of health and strength; vigorous

rod: Read
n. Syn. stick; shaft
stick; a long thin implement made of metal or wood

role: Read
n. Syn. part; function
normal activity of a person in particular social setting; part played by a performer

roll: Read
a list of names

rooster: Read
adult male chicken

rot: Read
v. Syn. decay
become decomposed by a natural process; perish slowly; become corrupt

rotary: Read
turning, as a wheel on its axis; pertaining to, or resembling, the motion of a wheel on its axis

rotate: Read
v. Syn. alternate
plant or grow in a fixed cyclic order of succession; swirl; revolve; turn on or around an axis or a center

rotation: Read
n. Syn. revolution
revolution; act of rotating as if on an axis

rough: Read
a. Syn. coarse; harsh
not perfected; having or caused by an irregular surface

roughly: Read
ad. Syn. approximately; more or less
approximately; more or less

round: Read
by moving in or forming a circle; from beginning to end; throughout; to a specific place or person

roundabout: Read
circuitous; going round; indirect; encircling; enveloping; comprehensive

rouse: Read
become active; excite, as to anger or action; stir up; awaken

route: Read
n. Syn. way
way for travel or transportation

routine: Read
n. Syn. convention; habit; custom
unvarying or habitual method of procedure; occurring at fixed times or predictable intervals

royalty: Read
being royal; quality of royal person; kingship; sovereignty; share of product, as a percentage paid to owner of copyright

rub: Read
v. Syn. graze; chafe
move over the surface with pressure and friction; spread a substance thinly over

ruin: Read
v. Syn. destroy; devastate; exterminate
fall or tumble down; destroy; devastate; exterminate

ruinous: Read
causing, or tending to cause ruin; destructive; baneful; pernicious

rule: Read
n. Syn. regulation; prescription
governing direction for a specific purpose; regulation; systematic method

rural: Read
a. Syn. country; rustic
country; relating to rural areas

rust: Read
become destroyed by water, air, or an etching chemical such as an acid

ruthless: Read
a. Syn. pitiless; cruel
pitiless; cruel; having no compassion or pity; merciless