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TOEIC Reading Vocabulary (1): Print One-sided Flashcard

acquisition:
 
n. Syn. acquirement; attainment
(익히 비난 정품 인증) act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
adolescent:
 
n.
(스칼렛) a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity;
adverse:
 
a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
(불리한) in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aesthetic:
 
a. Syn. artistic; elegant
(미학) elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate:
 
v. Syn. associate; incorporate
(제휴 등록) associate; incorporate
afflict:
 
v. Syn. plague; suffer; torment
(괴롭히다) cause pain, suffering or distress
aggravate:
 
v. Syn. worsen; exacerbate
(악화) worsen; make worse or more troublesome
agitation:
 
n. Syn. anxiety; disturbance
(동요) anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
alleviate:
 
v. Syn. relieve; moderate; reduce
(경감) provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
amends:
 
n.
(보상) compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation
anonymous:
 
a. Syn. unknown; nameless
(익명) having no name; having unknown or unacknowledged name
appraisal:
 
n. Syn. assessment; evaluation
(평가) assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
articulate:
 
a. Syn. effective; distinct
(또렷하게 표현할) expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
ascertain:
 
v. Syn. discover; insure
(확인하다) find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe:
 
v. Syn. refer; attribute; assign
(돌리다) inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
assault:
 
n. Syn. attack; onslaught
(폭행) attack; onslaught
assert:
 
v. Syn. declare
(주장) declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
asset:
 
n. Syn. properties; advantage
(자산) properties; advantage; useful or valuable quality
assimilate:
 
v. Syn. absorb
(동화) incorporate and absorb into mind; make similar; cause to resemble
attorney:
 
n. Syn. lawyer
(변호사) lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy
augment:
 
v. Syn. increase
(확대) make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authentic:
 
a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
(정통) not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
avail:
 
v. Syn. profit; promote
(소용) turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avert:
 
v. Syn. prevent
(막기) prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
baffle:
 
v. Syn. frustrate; perplex
(배��) frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
barren:
 
a. Syn. desolate
(기술 불모) desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking
batch:
 
n.
(배치) quantity of bread baked at one time; a collection of things or persons to be handled together
bizarre:
 
a. Syn. fantastic
(기괴한) fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
bleak:
 
a. Syn. cold; cheerless
(의기소침한) cold or cheerless; unlikely to be favorable
blunder:
 
n. Syn. error
(이 끊긴) serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
blunt:
 
a. Syn. insensitive
(이 무딘) having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive
bonus:
 
n.
(보너스) an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation
brace:
 
n.
(브레 이스) something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;
brittle:
 
a.
(접근) easily broken; having little elasticity
capsule:
 
n. Syn. pill
(캡슐) small container; pill in form of small rounded gelatinous; shortened version of a written work
casualty:
 
n.
(사상자) serious or fatal accident; someone injured or killed in an accident
ceramic:
 
a.
(도자기) of or pertaining to pottery; relating to the art of making earthenware; as, ceramic products; ceramic ornaments for ceilings.
cereal:
 
n.
(시리얼) grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as food.
commentary:
 
n.
(논평) written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material
commitment:
 
n.
(헌신) pledge, undertaking; act of binding yourself to a course of action
commute:
 
v.
(출퇴근) obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; travel regularly from a place of residence to another place
compatible:
 
a. Syn. harmonious
(가능) harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
competence:
 
n.
(경쟁) quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
compile:
 
v. Syn. assemble; gather; accumulate
(컴파일) put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
compulsory:
 
a. Syn. mandatory; obligatory
(의무) mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
concede:
 
v. Syn. admit; yield
(꾸미다) admit; yield; give up physical control of another
conceive:
 
v. Syn. design; consider
(임신) form or develop in the mind; devise; become pregnant with; begin or originate in a specific way
concession:
 
n.
(양보) act of yielding; point yielded; acknowledgment or admission
concise:
 
a. Syn. succinct; terse
(간결한) brief and compact; expressing much in few words
confer:
 
v.
(부여) bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
configuration:
 
n.
(구성) arrangement of parts or elements; outline
conform:
 
v.
(준수) comply with; follow; fit; meet
confusion:
 
n.
(혼동) mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order
consecutive:
 
a. Syn. successive; sequential
(연속) following one after another without interruption; sequential
consensus:
 
n. Syn. Agreement; accord
(합의) general agreement or accord; opinion reached by a group as a whole
conserve:
 
v. Syn. retain; preserve
(보존) retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
conspicuous:
 
a. Syn. noticeable; prominent
(이채) noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
constituent:
 
n. Syn. component; element; ingredient
(구성) component or part; citizen, voter
constrain:
 
v. Syn. restrain; confine
(제약) restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
consultant:
 
n.
(포함) an expert who gives advice
contaminate:
 
v. Syn. taint; pollute; defile
(오염) make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate:
 
v. Syn. ponder; meditate
(명상) look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contempt:
 
n. Syn. disgrace
(경멸) state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
contend:
 
v.
(주장) strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
contradict:
 
v. Syn. confront; oppose
(반대) confront; oppose
contrive:
 
v.
(꾸미다) form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design
controversial:
 
a. Syn. controvertible; disputable
(논쟁) controvertible; disputable
controversy:
 
n. Syn. contention; argument
(논쟁) contentious speech act; argument
converge:
 
v. Syn. approach
(수렴) approach; tend to meet; come together
convict:
 
v.
(죄수) find or declare guilty
cordial:
 
a. Syn. gracious
(코디얼) gracious; showing warm and friendliness
corps:
 
n.
(군단) an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions; a body of people associated together
corrode:
 
v.
(부식) destroy metal or alloy gradually, especially by chemical action; be eaten or worn away
corrupt:
 
a. Syn. spoiled; tainted
(부패) changed from sound to putrid state; spoiled; tainted
costume:
 
n. Syn. dress; attire
(의상) dress; attire; aset of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion or season
courtesy:
 
n.
(예의) polite behavior; act of civility or respect; consent or agreement in spite of fact
cripple:
 
n. Syn. handicap; maim; disable
(장애인) person or animal that is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limb
criterion:
 
n.
(임계) standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crucial:
 
a.
(원유) of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
culminate:
 
v.
(절정에 달하다) reach the highest or most decisive point; rise to summit
cumulative:
 
a.
(누적) increasing by successive addition
curb:
 
v.
(보도) bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain
curt:
 
a.
(커트) having been shortened; effectively cut short; rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
cynical:
 
a.
(냉소) skeptical of motives of others; selfishly calculating; negative or pessimistic
deficit:
 
n. Syn. shortfall; shortage
(적자) inadequacy or insufficiency; sum of money falls short of required amount; shortage
degenerate:
 
v. Syn. deteriorate
(타락한) become worse; decline; fall
deliberate:
 
v. Syn. consider; ponder
(고의) consider; think about carefully; weigh
denote:
 
v. Syn. signify; indicate; show
(상징) indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
denounce:
 
v. Syn. condemn; criticize; announce
(비난하다) condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner
depict:
 
v. Syn. portray; describe
(축도) represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
designate:
 
v. Syn. nominate; assign; name
(지정) indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
despise:
 
v.
(경멸) dislike intensely; regard with contempt or scorn
deteriorate:
 
v. Syn. decline
(저하) become worse; decline
diffuse:
 
v.
(확산) spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilemma:
 
n. Syn. predicament
(딜레마) predicament; state of uncertainty or between equally unfavorable options
dilute:
 
v. Syn. weaken; attenuate
(희석) weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
discern:
 
v. Syn. detect; perceive
(분별) detect; perceive
discrepancy:
 
n. Syn. difference
(차이) lack of consistency; difference
discrete:
 
a. Syn. separate; distinct
(이 매각하다) separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
disguise:
 
n.
(위장) dress or exterior put on for purposes of concealment or of deception
dismay:
 
v. Syn. discourage; frighten
(골칫거리인이) destroy courage or resolution by exciting dread; cause to lose enthusiasm
dispatch:
 
n. Syn. expedition; sending off
(파견) act of sending off something; property of being prompt and efficient; message usually sent in haste
disperse:
 
v. Syn. scatter
(분산을 얼룩말) move away from each other; cause to separate; cause to become widely known
disposition:
 
n. Syn. temperament; nature; tendency
(처분) natural or acquired habit with tendency; act or means of getting rid of something
disrupt:
 
v. Syn. upset; interrupt
(혼란) upset; throw into confusion or disorder
dissipate:
 
v. Syn. waste; scatter
(낭비) spend or expend wastefully; vanish by dispersion; drive away; disperse
distil:
 
v.
(증류) drop; fall in drops; flow in a small stream
disturbance:
 
n. Syn. disorder; turmoil
(소동) disorder; turmoil; mental or emotional unbalance or disorder
divine:
 
v.
(신성) perceive intuitively; foresee future; have nature of or being a deity
drastic:
 
a. Syn. radical; severe
(과감한) radical; taking effect violently or rapidly
dubious:
 
a. Syn. questionable
(모호한) questionable; filled with doubt
dwell:
 
v. Syn. reside; inhabit
(면만) live as a resident; exist in a given place or state
eccentric:
 
a. Syn. irregular; odd; whimsical; bizarre
(편심) departing from a recognized, conventional, or established norm or pattern
edible:
 
a. Syn. eatable
(식용) eatable; substance that can be used as food
ego:
 
n.
(자아) self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves; exaggerated sense of self-importance
elicit:
 
v. Syn. provoke
(유도) draw out; bring forth or to light; generate or provoke as response or answer
elite:
 
n.
(엘리트) a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status
eloquent:
 
a. Syn. expressive; persuasive
(웅변) vividly or movingly expressive; persuasive
embark:
 
v. Syn. commence
(승선) commence; go on board a boat or airplane; begin a journey
empirical:
 
a.
(경험적) derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
endow:
 
v. Syn. grant; award
(부여) grant; award; give qualities or abilities to
enhance:
 
v. Syn. increase; improve
(음란 강화) make better or more attractive; increase; improve
ensue:
 
v. Syn. follow
(뒤이어 일어나다) pursue; follow or come afterward; follow as a consequence
entail:
 
v. Syn. require; necessitate; involve
(수반) imply or require; cause to ensue or accrue; cut or carve in ornamental way
entity:
 
n.
(단체) real being; something that exists as a particular and discrete unit; fact of existence
entrepreneur:
 
n. Syn. businessperson; enterprise
(기업) person who organizes and operates a business; contractor
envisage:
 
v.
(직시하다) look in the face of; apprehend; consider or regard in a certain way
epoch:
 
n. Syn. era
(시대) particular period of history, especially one considered remarkable
equilibrium:
 
n. Syn. balance
(평형) mental or emotional balance; state of balance of any causes, powers, or motives
erosion:
 
n. Syn. corrosion
(침식) corrosion; a gradual decline of something
erroneous:
 
a. Syn. mistaken; wrong
(말세) containing or derived from error; mistaken
escort:
 
n.
(호위) one who conducts someone as attendant; guard; protection, care, or safeguard on a journey
essence:
 
n.
(에센스) most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
ethics:
 
n. Syn. morals; principles
(윤리) morals; study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.
ethnic:
 
a. Syn. racial
(소수 민족) relating to races; group of people sharing common racial, national, or religious heritage
evoke:
 
v. Syn. bring out; arouse
(연상) bring out; arouse; call forth
exemplify:
 
v. Syn. embody
(예시) serve as an example of; embody
exempt:
 
a.
(면제) not subject to duty or obligation; not subject to taxation
exotic:
 
a. Syn. strange
(이색) from another part of the world; foreign; strikingly strange or unusual
expertise:
 
n. Syn. skill
(규정) specialized knowledge; expert skill
explicit:
 
a. Syn. definite; outspoken
(조명 담금질) precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken
exposition:
 
n.
(박람회) exhibition; part of a play that provides the background information; opening section of a fugue
exquisite:
 
a. Syn. excellent; flawless
(아름다운) excellent; flawless; acutely perceptive or discriminating
extinct:
 
a. Syn. nonexistent; vanished; dead
(멸종) no longer existing or living; vanished; dead
extinguish:
 
v.
(소화) quench; put out, as a light or fire; cause to die out; put an end to; destroy
fabricate:
 
v. Syn. build
(조작) build; put together out of components or parts
facet:
 
n. Syn. side
(일면) small, smooth, flat surface, as on a bone or tooth; side; a smooth surface
facilitate:
 
v. Syn. promote; expedite
(촉진) help bring about; make less difficult
feeble:
 
a. Syn. weak; frail
(거미) lacking vigor, force, or effectiveness; faint; frail
flap:
 
n.
(플랩) flat, usually thin piece attached at only one side; act of waving or fluttering; blow given with something flat; slap
fling:
 
v. Syn. discard
(날뛰는) throw with force or recklessness; throw or cast away; move in an abrupt
fluctuate:
 
v. Syn. waver; shift
(변동) rise and fall in or as if in waves; shift; vary irregularly
flutter:
 
v.
(떨림) vibrate or move quickly; drive in disorder; throw into confusion; wave or flap rapidly in an irregular manner
foam:
 
n.
(거품) white substance, consisting of an aggregation of bubbles, which is formed on the surface of liquids
foil:
 
v. Syn. hinder
(호일) prevent from being successful
formidable:
 
a. Syn. menacing; threatening
(무서운) arousing fear; threatening; difficult to undertake or defeat
formulate:
 
v. Syn. policy; theory
(공식화) decide upon and express in words
fort:
 
n. Syn. fortress; stronghold
(요새) a fortified defensive structure; permanent army post
fossil:
 
n. Syn. remnant
(화석) remnant; remains of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age
foster:
 
v. Syn. rear
(육성) rear; promote the growth of; help develop
foul:
 
n. Syn. disgusting; filthy
(파울) act that violates of the rules of a sport
fracture:
 
v. Syn. break; crack
(골절) break into pieces; crack; destroy; violate or abuse
fraud:
 
n.
(사기) getting money by lying or cheating; something intended to deceive
fringe:
 
n. Syn. margin; periphery
(프린지) margin; periphery; decorative border of hanging threads, cords, or strips, often attached to a separate band
frustrate:
 
v. Syn. thwart; defeat
(좌절) make null; bring to nothing; prevent from taking effect or attaining fulfillment
galaxy:
 
n.
(은하계) large, isolated system of stars, as the Milky Way; any collection of brilliant personalities
gaol:
 
n. Syn. jail
(교도소) place of confinement, especially for minor offenses or provisional imprisonment
garment:
 
n.
(의류) any article of clothing, as coat or gown
gear:
 
n.
(기어) toothed machine part, such as a wheel or cylinder, to transmit motion or to change speed or direction
glide:
 
v. Syn. slide; slip
(글라이드) slide; move in a smooth, effortless manner
gloomy:
 
a. Syn. dusky; dim
(우울) imperfectly illuminated; dusky; dim; clouded
gorgeous:
 
a. Syn. beautiful; magnificent
(화려한) dazzlingly beautiful; magnificent
gossip:
 
n. Syn. rumor
(잡담) rumor; malicious report about other people; light informal conversation for social occasions
graze:
 
v. Syn. feed
(스친) scrape gently; feed on growing grasses and herbage
grease:
 
n.
(그리스) oil; fat; state of being covered with unclean things
grief:
 
n.
(슬픔) pain of mind; mental suffering arising from any cause, as misfortune, loss of friends; sorrow; sadness
grieve:
 
v.
(절망) cause to be sorrowful; distress
grim:
 
a.
(어두운) unrelenting; rigid; dismal and gloomy; cold and forbidding
hamper:
 
v. Syn. obstruct
(타락) put at disadvantage; prevent progress or free movement of
hatch:
 
v. Syn. breed
(해치) breed; emerge from the egg
haul:
 
v. Syn. transport; drag
(정규직) draw slowly or heavily; pull or drag forcibly; shift direction
haunt:
 
v. Syn. torment; bother; disturb
(괴롭힐테야) be a regular or frequent visitor to a certain place; bother; disturb
heal:
 
v. Syn. cure
(치유) cure; make or get healthy again
heave:
 
v. Syn. lift; raise; hoist; throw
(쉬다) cause to move upward or onward by a lifting effort; lift; raise; hoist; throw
heir:
 
n. Syn. descendent; offspring
(후손) person who inherits some title or office
heritage:
 
n. Syn. legacy; bequest; tradition
(문화 유산) legacy; something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition
hierarchy:
 
n. Syn. class; order
(계층) arrangement by rank or standing; series in which each element is graded or ranked
hinder:
 
v. Syn. stunt; inhibit; hamper; impede
(방해) put at a disadvantage; tie up; hamper; prevent the progress
hinge:
 
n.
(경첩) a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other
hitherto:
 
ad.
(역사) to this place; to a prescribed limit; up to this time; as yet; until now
homogeneous:
 
a. Syn. uniform; similar
(균질) of the same or similar nature or kind
hose:
 
n.
(호스) a flexible pipe for conveying a liquid or gas
hover:
 
v. Syn. float; waver; vacillate
(마우스를 가져가면) hang about; wait nearby; remain floating
humidity:
 
n. Syn. dampness; moisture
(습도) dampness; moisture
hurl:
 
v. Syn. throw; cast; toss
(헐링 스틱) throw with great force; cast; toss
hypothesis:
 
n. Syn. assumption; theory
(가설) assumption; theory
hysterical:
 
a.
(히스테리) marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion; affected, or troubled, with fear or panic