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TOEIC Reading Vocabulary (1): Print Flashcard

acquisition
 
n. Syn. acquirement; attainment
act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
adolescent
 
n.
a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity;
adverse
 
a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aesthetic
 
a. Syn. artistic; elegant
elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate
 
v. Syn. associate; incorporate
associate; incorporate
afflict
 
v. Syn. plague; suffer; torment
cause pain, suffering or distress
aggravate
 
v. Syn. worsen; exacerbate
worsen; make worse or more troublesome
agitation
 
n. Syn. anxiety; disturbance
anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
alleviate
 
v. Syn. relieve; moderate; reduce
provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
amends
 
n.
compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation
anonymous
 
a. Syn. unknown; nameless
having no name; having unknown or unacknowledged name
appraisal
 
n. Syn. assessment; evaluation
assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
articulate
 
a. Syn. effective; distinct
expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
ascertain
 
v. Syn. discover; insure
find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe
 
v. Syn. refer; attribute; assign
inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
assault
 
n. Syn. attack; onslaught
attack; onslaught
assert
 
v. Syn. declare
declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
asset
 
n. Syn. properties; advantage
properties; advantage; useful or valuable quality
assimilate
 
v. Syn. absorb
incorporate and absorb into mind; make similar; cause to resemble
attorney
 
n. Syn. lawyer
lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy
augment
 
v. Syn. increase
make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authentic
 
a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
avail
 
v. Syn. profit; promote
turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avert
 
v. Syn. prevent
prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
baffle
 
v. Syn. frustrate; perplex
frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
barren
 
a. Syn. desolate
desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking
batch
 
n.
quantity of bread baked at one time; a collection of things or persons to be handled together
bizarre
 
a. Syn. fantastic
fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
bleak
 
a. Syn. cold; cheerless
cold or cheerless; unlikely to be favorable
blunder
 
n. Syn. error
serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
blunt
 
a. Syn. insensitive
having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive
bonus
 
n.
an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation
brace
 
n.
something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;
brittle
 
a.
easily broken; having little elasticity
capsule
 
n. Syn. pill
small container; pill in form of small rounded gelatinous; shortened version of a written work
casualty
 
n.
serious or fatal accident; someone injured or killed in an accident
ceramic
 
a.
of or pertaining to pottery; relating to the art of making earthenware; as, ceramic products; ceramic ornaments for ceilings.
cereal
 
n.
grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as food.
commentary
 
n.
written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material
commitment
 
n.
pledge, undertaking; act of binding yourself to a course of action
commute
 
v.
obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; travel regularly from a place of residence to another place
compatible
 
a. Syn. harmonious
harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
competence
 
n.
quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
compile
 
v. Syn. assemble; gather; accumulate
put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
compulsory
 
a. Syn. mandatory; obligatory
mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
concede
 
v. Syn. admit; yield
admit; yield; give up physical control of another
conceive
 
v. Syn. design; consider
form or develop in the mind; devise; become pregnant with; begin or originate in a specific way
concession
 
n.
act of yielding; point yielded; acknowledgment or admission
concise
 
a. Syn. succinct; terse
brief and compact; expressing much in few words
confer
 
v.
bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
configuration
 
n.
arrangement of parts or elements; outline
conform
 
v.
comply with; follow; fit; meet
confusion
 
n.
mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order
consecutive
 
a. Syn. successive; sequential
following one after another without interruption; sequential
consensus
 
n. Syn. Agreement; accord
general agreement or accord; opinion reached by a group as a whole
conserve
 
v. Syn. retain; preserve
retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
conspicuous
 
a. Syn. noticeable; prominent
noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
constituent
 
n. Syn. component; element; ingredient
component or part; citizen, voter
constrain
 
v. Syn. restrain; confine
restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
consultant
 
n.
an expert who gives advice
contaminate
 
v. Syn. taint; pollute; defile
make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate
 
v. Syn. ponder; meditate
look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contempt
 
n. Syn. disgrace
state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
contend
 
v.
strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
contradict
 
v. Syn. confront; oppose
confront; oppose
contrive
 
v.
form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design
controversial
 
a. Syn. controvertible; disputable
controvertible; disputable
controversy
 
n. Syn. contention; argument
contentious speech act; argument
converge
 
v. Syn. approach
approach; tend to meet; come together
convict
 
v.
find or declare guilty
cordial
 
a. Syn. gracious
gracious; showing warm and friendliness
corps
 
n.
an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions; a body of people associated together
corrode
 
v.
destroy metal or alloy gradually, especially by chemical action; be eaten or worn away
corrupt
 
a. Syn. spoiled; tainted
changed from sound to putrid state; spoiled; tainted
costume
 
n. Syn. dress; attire
dress; attire; aset of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion or season
courtesy
 
n.
polite behavior; act of civility or respect; consent or agreement in spite of fact
cripple
 
n. Syn. handicap; maim; disable
person or animal that is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limb
criterion
 
n.
standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crucial
 
a.
of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
culminate
 
v.
reach the highest or most decisive point; rise to summit
cumulative
 
a.
increasing by successive addition
curb
 
v.
bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain
curt
 
a.
having been shortened; effectively cut short; rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
cynical
 
a.
skeptical of motives of others; selfishly calculating; negative or pessimistic
deficit
 
n. Syn. shortfall; shortage
inadequacy or insufficiency; sum of money falls short of required amount; shortage
degenerate
 
v. Syn. deteriorate
become worse; decline; fall
deliberate
 
v. Syn. consider; ponder
consider; think about carefully; weigh
denote
 
v. Syn. signify; indicate; show
indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
denounce
 
v. Syn. condemn; criticize; announce
condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner
depict
 
v. Syn. portray; describe
represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
designate
 
v. Syn. nominate; assign; name
indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
despise
 
v.
dislike intensely; regard with contempt or scorn
deteriorate
 
v. Syn. decline
become worse; decline
diffuse
 
v.
spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilemma
 
n. Syn. predicament
predicament; state of uncertainty or between equally unfavorable options
dilute
 
v. Syn. weaken; attenuate
weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
discern
 
v. Syn. detect; perceive
detect; perceive
discrepancy
 
n. Syn. difference
lack of consistency; difference
discrete
 
a. Syn. separate; distinct
separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
disguise
 
n.
dress or exterior put on for purposes of concealment or of deception
dismay
 
v. Syn. discourage; frighten
destroy courage or resolution by exciting dread; cause to lose enthusiasm
dispatch
 
n. Syn. expedition; sending off
act of sending off something; property of being prompt and efficient; message usually sent in haste
disperse
 
v. Syn. scatter
move away from each other; cause to separate; cause to become widely known
disposition
 
n. Syn. temperament; nature; tendency
natural or acquired habit with tendency; act or means of getting rid of something
disrupt
 
v. Syn. upset; interrupt
upset; throw into confusion or disorder
dissipate
 
v. Syn. waste; scatter
spend or expend wastefully; vanish by dispersion; drive away; disperse
distil
 
v.
drop; fall in drops; flow in a small stream
disturbance
 
n. Syn. disorder; turmoil
disorder; turmoil; mental or emotional unbalance or disorder
divine
 
v.
perceive intuitively; foresee future; have nature of or being a deity
drastic
 
a. Syn. radical; severe
radical; taking effect violently or rapidly
dubious
 
a. Syn. questionable
questionable; filled with doubt
dwell
 
v. Syn. reside; inhabit
live as a resident; exist in a given place or state
eccentric
 
a. Syn. irregular; odd; whimsical; bizarre
departing from a recognized, conventional, or established norm or pattern
edible
 
a. Syn. eatable
eatable; substance that can be used as food
ego
 
n.
self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves; exaggerated sense of self-importance
elicit
 
v. Syn. provoke
draw out; bring forth or to light; generate or provoke as response or answer
elite
 
n.
a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status
eloquent
 
a. Syn. expressive; persuasive
vividly or movingly expressive; persuasive
embark
 
v. Syn. commence
commence; go on board a boat or airplane; begin a journey
empirical
 
a.
derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
endow
 
v. Syn. grant; award
grant; award; give qualities or abilities to
enhance
 
v. Syn. increase; improve
make better or more attractive; increase; improve
ensue
 
v. Syn. follow
pursue; follow or come afterward; follow as a consequence
entail
 
v. Syn. require; necessitate; involve
imply or require; cause to ensue or accrue; cut or carve in ornamental way
entity
 
n.
real being; something that exists as a particular and discrete unit; fact of existence
entrepreneur
 
n. Syn. businessperson; enterprise
person who organizes and operates a business; contractor
envisage
 
v.
look in the face of; apprehend; consider or regard in a certain way
epoch
 
n. Syn. era
particular period of history, especially one considered remarkable
equilibrium
 
n. Syn. balance
mental or emotional balance; state of balance of any causes, powers, or motives
erosion
 
n. Syn. corrosion
corrosion; a gradual decline of something
erroneous
 
a. Syn. mistaken; wrong
containing or derived from error; mistaken
escort
 
n.
one who conducts someone as attendant; guard; protection, care, or safeguard on a journey
essence
 
n.
most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
ethics
 
n. Syn. morals; principles
morals; study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.
ethnic
 
a. Syn. racial
relating to races; group of people sharing common racial, national, or religious heritage
evoke
 
v. Syn. bring out; arouse
bring out; arouse; call forth
exemplify
 
v. Syn. embody
serve as an example of; embody
exempt
 
a.
not subject to duty or obligation; not subject to taxation
exotic
 
a. Syn. strange
from another part of the world; foreign; strikingly strange or unusual
expertise
 
n. Syn. skill
specialized knowledge; expert skill
explicit
 
a. Syn. definite; outspoken
precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken
exposition
 
n.
exhibition; part of a play that provides the background information; opening section of a fugue
exquisite
 
a. Syn. excellent; flawless
excellent; flawless; acutely perceptive or discriminating
extinct
 
a. Syn. nonexistent; vanished; dead
no longer existing or living; vanished; dead
extinguish
 
v.
quench; put out, as a light or fire; cause to die out; put an end to; destroy
fabricate
 
v. Syn. build
build; put together out of components or parts
facet
 
n. Syn. side
small, smooth, flat surface, as on a bone or tooth; side; a smooth surface
facilitate
 
v. Syn. promote; expedite
help bring about; make less difficult
feeble
 
a. Syn. weak; frail
lacking vigor, force, or effectiveness; faint; frail
flap
 
n.
flat, usually thin piece attached at only one side; act of waving or fluttering; blow given with something flat; slap
fling
 
v. Syn. discard
throw with force or recklessness; throw or cast away; move in an abrupt
fluctuate
 
v. Syn. waver; shift
rise and fall in or as if in waves; shift; vary irregularly
flutter
 
v.
vibrate or move quickly; drive in disorder; throw into confusion; wave or flap rapidly in an irregular manner
foam
 
n.
white substance, consisting of an aggregation of bubbles, which is formed on the surface of liquids
foil
 
v. Syn. hinder
prevent from being successful
formidable
 
a. Syn. menacing; threatening
arousing fear; threatening; difficult to undertake or defeat
formulate
 
v. Syn. policy; theory
decide upon and express in words
fort
 
n. Syn. fortress; stronghold
a fortified defensive structure; permanent army post
fossil
 
n. Syn. remnant
remnant; remains of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age
foster
 
v. Syn. rear
rear; promote the growth of; help develop
foul
 
n. Syn. disgusting; filthy
act that violates of the rules of a sport
fracture
 
v. Syn. break; crack
break into pieces; crack; destroy; violate or abuse
fraud
 
n.
getting money by lying or cheating; something intended to deceive
fringe
 
n. Syn. margin; periphery
margin; periphery; decorative border of hanging threads, cords, or strips, often attached to a separate band
frustrate
 
v. Syn. thwart; defeat
make null; bring to nothing; prevent from taking effect or attaining fulfillment
galaxy
 
n.
large, isolated system of stars, as the Milky Way; any collection of brilliant personalities
gaol
 
n. Syn. jail
place of confinement, especially for minor offenses or provisional imprisonment
garment
 
n.
any article of clothing, as coat or gown
gear
 
n.
toothed machine part, such as a wheel or cylinder, to transmit motion or to change speed or direction
glide
 
v. Syn. slide; slip
slide; move in a smooth, effortless manner
gloomy
 
a. Syn. dusky; dim
imperfectly illuminated; dusky; dim; clouded
gorgeous
 
a. Syn. beautiful; magnificent
dazzlingly beautiful; magnificent
gossip
 
n. Syn. rumor
rumor; malicious report about other people; light informal conversation for social occasions
graze
 
v. Syn. feed
scrape gently; feed on growing grasses and herbage
grease
 
n.
oil; fat; state of being covered with unclean things
grief
 
n.
pain of mind; mental suffering arising from any cause, as misfortune, loss of friends; sorrow; sadness
grieve
 
v.
cause to be sorrowful; distress
grim
 
a.
unrelenting; rigid; dismal and gloomy; cold and forbidding
hamper
 
v. Syn. obstruct
put at disadvantage; prevent progress or free movement of
hatch
 
v. Syn. breed
breed; emerge from the egg
haul
 
v. Syn. transport; drag
draw slowly or heavily; pull or drag forcibly; shift direction
haunt
 
v. Syn. torment; bother; disturb
be a regular or frequent visitor to a certain place; bother; disturb
heal
 
v. Syn. cure
cure; make or get healthy again
heave
 
v. Syn. lift; raise; hoist; throw
cause to move upward or onward by a lifting effort; lift; raise; hoist; throw
heir
 
n. Syn. descendent; offspring
person who inherits some title or office
heritage
 
n. Syn. legacy; bequest; tradition
legacy; something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition
hierarchy
 
n. Syn. class; order
arrangement by rank or standing; series in which each element is graded or ranked
hinder
 
v. Syn. stunt; inhibit; hamper; impede
put at a disadvantage; tie up; hamper; prevent the progress
hinge
 
n.
a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other
hitherto
 
ad.
to this place; to a prescribed limit; up to this time; as yet; until now
homogeneous
 
a. Syn. uniform; similar
of the same or similar nature or kind
hose
 
n.
a flexible pipe for conveying a liquid or gas
hover
 
v. Syn. float; waver; vacillate
hang about; wait nearby; remain floating
humidity
 
n. Syn. dampness; moisture
dampness; moisture
hurl
 
v. Syn. throw; cast; toss
throw with great force; cast; toss
hypothesis
 
n. Syn. assumption; theory
assumption; theory
hysterical
 
a.
marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion; affected, or troubled, with fear or panic