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TOEIC Reading Vocabulary (1): Print Flashcard

acquisition
 
n. Syn. acquirement; attainment
(익히 비난 정품 인증) act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
adolescent
 
n.
(스칼렛) a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity;
adverse
 
a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
(불리한) in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aesthetic
 
a. Syn. artistic; elegant
(미학) elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate
 
v. Syn. associate; incorporate
(제휴 등록) associate; incorporate
afflict
 
v. Syn. plague; suffer; torment
(괴롭히다) cause pain, suffering or distress
aggravate
 
v. Syn. worsen; exacerbate
(악화) worsen; make worse or more troublesome
agitation
 
n. Syn. anxiety; disturbance
(동요) anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
alleviate
 
v. Syn. relieve; moderate; reduce
(경감) provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
amends
 
n.
(보상) compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation
anonymous
 
a. Syn. unknown; nameless
(익명) having no name; having unknown or unacknowledged name
appraisal
 
n. Syn. assessment; evaluation
(평가) assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
articulate
 
a. Syn. effective; distinct
(또렷하게 표현할) expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
ascertain
 
v. Syn. discover; insure
(확인하다) find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe
 
v. Syn. refer; attribute; assign
(돌리다) inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
assault
 
n. Syn. attack; onslaught
(폭행) attack; onslaught
assert
 
v. Syn. declare
(주장) declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
asset
 
n. Syn. properties; advantage
(자산) properties; advantage; useful or valuable quality
assimilate
 
v. Syn. absorb
(동화) incorporate and absorb into mind; make similar; cause to resemble
attorney
 
n. Syn. lawyer
(변호사) lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy
augment
 
v. Syn. increase
(확대) make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authentic
 
a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
(정통) not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
avail
 
v. Syn. profit; promote
(소용) turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avert
 
v. Syn. prevent
(막기) prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
baffle
 
v. Syn. frustrate; perplex
(배��) frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
barren
 
a. Syn. desolate
(기술 불모) desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking
batch
 
n.
(배치) quantity of bread baked at one time; a collection of things or persons to be handled together
bizarre
 
a. Syn. fantastic
(기괴한) fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
bleak
 
a. Syn. cold; cheerless
(의기소침한) cold or cheerless; unlikely to be favorable
blunder
 
n. Syn. error
(이 끊긴) serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
blunt
 
a. Syn. insensitive
(이 무딘) having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive
bonus
 
n.
(보너스) an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation
brace
 
n.
(브레 이스) something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;
brittle
 
a.
(접근) easily broken; having little elasticity
capsule
 
n. Syn. pill
(캡슐) small container; pill in form of small rounded gelatinous; shortened version of a written work
casualty
 
n.
(사상자) serious or fatal accident; someone injured or killed in an accident
ceramic
 
a.
(도자기) of or pertaining to pottery; relating to the art of making earthenware; as, ceramic products; ceramic ornaments for ceilings.
cereal
 
n.
(시리얼) grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as food.
commentary
 
n.
(논평) written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material
commitment
 
n.
(헌신) pledge, undertaking; act of binding yourself to a course of action
commute
 
v.
(출퇴근) obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; travel regularly from a place of residence to another place
compatible
 
a. Syn. harmonious
(가능) harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
competence
 
n.
(경쟁) quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
compile
 
v. Syn. assemble; gather; accumulate
(컴파일) put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
compulsory
 
a. Syn. mandatory; obligatory
(의무) mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
concede
 
v. Syn. admit; yield
(꾸미다) admit; yield; give up physical control of another
conceive
 
v. Syn. design; consider
(임신) form or develop in the mind; devise; become pregnant with; begin or originate in a specific way
concession
 
n.
(양보) act of yielding; point yielded; acknowledgment or admission
concise
 
a. Syn. succinct; terse
(간결한) brief and compact; expressing much in few words
confer
 
v.
(부여) bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
configuration
 
n.
(구성) arrangement of parts or elements; outline
conform
 
v.
(준수) comply with; follow; fit; meet
confusion
 
n.
(혼동) mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order
consecutive
 
a. Syn. successive; sequential
(연속) following one after another without interruption; sequential
consensus
 
n. Syn. Agreement; accord
(합의) general agreement or accord; opinion reached by a group as a whole
conserve
 
v. Syn. retain; preserve
(보존) retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
conspicuous
 
a. Syn. noticeable; prominent
(이채) noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
constituent
 
n. Syn. component; element; ingredient
(구성) component or part; citizen, voter
constrain
 
v. Syn. restrain; confine
(제약) restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
consultant
 
n.
(포함) an expert who gives advice
contaminate
 
v. Syn. taint; pollute; defile
(오염) make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate
 
v. Syn. ponder; meditate
(명상) look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contempt
 
n. Syn. disgrace
(경멸) state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
contend
 
v.
(주장) strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
contradict
 
v. Syn. confront; oppose
(반대) confront; oppose
contrive
 
v.
(꾸미다) form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design
controversial
 
a. Syn. controvertible; disputable
(논쟁) controvertible; disputable
controversy
 
n. Syn. contention; argument
(논쟁) contentious speech act; argument
converge
 
v. Syn. approach
(수렴) approach; tend to meet; come together
convict
 
v.
(죄수) find or declare guilty
cordial
 
a. Syn. gracious
(코디얼) gracious; showing warm and friendliness
corps
 
n.
(군단) an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions; a body of people associated together
corrode
 
v.
(부식) destroy metal or alloy gradually, especially by chemical action; be eaten or worn away
corrupt
 
a. Syn. spoiled; tainted
(부패) changed from sound to putrid state; spoiled; tainted
costume
 
n. Syn. dress; attire
(의상) dress; attire; aset of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion or season
courtesy
 
n.
(예의) polite behavior; act of civility or respect; consent or agreement in spite of fact
cripple
 
n. Syn. handicap; maim; disable
(장애인) person or animal that is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limb
criterion
 
n.
(임계) standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crucial
 
a.
(원유) of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
culminate
 
v.
(절정에 달하다) reach the highest or most decisive point; rise to summit
cumulative
 
a.
(누적) increasing by successive addition
curb
 
v.
(보도) bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain
curt
 
a.
(커트) having been shortened; effectively cut short; rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
cynical
 
a.
(냉소) skeptical of motives of others; selfishly calculating; negative or pessimistic
deficit
 
n. Syn. shortfall; shortage
(적자) inadequacy or insufficiency; sum of money falls short of required amount; shortage
degenerate
 
v. Syn. deteriorate
(타락한) become worse; decline; fall
deliberate
 
v. Syn. consider; ponder
(고의) consider; think about carefully; weigh
denote
 
v. Syn. signify; indicate; show
(상징) indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
denounce
 
v. Syn. condemn; criticize; announce
(비난하다) condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner
depict
 
v. Syn. portray; describe
(축도) represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
designate
 
v. Syn. nominate; assign; name
(지정) indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
despise
 
v.
(경멸) dislike intensely; regard with contempt or scorn
deteriorate
 
v. Syn. decline
(저하) become worse; decline
diffuse
 
v.
(확산) spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilemma
 
n. Syn. predicament
(딜레마) predicament; state of uncertainty or between equally unfavorable options
dilute
 
v. Syn. weaken; attenuate
(희석) weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
discern
 
v. Syn. detect; perceive
(분별) detect; perceive
discrepancy
 
n. Syn. difference
(차이) lack of consistency; difference
discrete
 
a. Syn. separate; distinct
(이 매각하다) separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
disguise
 
n.
(위장) dress or exterior put on for purposes of concealment or of deception
dismay
 
v. Syn. discourage; frighten
(골칫거리인이) destroy courage or resolution by exciting dread; cause to lose enthusiasm
dispatch
 
n. Syn. expedition; sending off
(파견) act of sending off something; property of being prompt and efficient; message usually sent in haste
disperse
 
v. Syn. scatter
(분산을 얼룩말) move away from each other; cause to separate; cause to become widely known
disposition
 
n. Syn. temperament; nature; tendency
(처분) natural or acquired habit with tendency; act or means of getting rid of something
disrupt
 
v. Syn. upset; interrupt
(혼란) upset; throw into confusion or disorder
dissipate
 
v. Syn. waste; scatter
(낭비) spend or expend wastefully; vanish by dispersion; drive away; disperse
distil
 
v.
(증류) drop; fall in drops; flow in a small stream
disturbance
 
n. Syn. disorder; turmoil
(소동) disorder; turmoil; mental or emotional unbalance or disorder
divine
 
v.
(신성) perceive intuitively; foresee future; have nature of or being a deity
drastic
 
a. Syn. radical; severe
(과감한) radical; taking effect violently or rapidly
dubious
 
a. Syn. questionable
(모호한) questionable; filled with doubt
dwell
 
v. Syn. reside; inhabit
(면만) live as a resident; exist in a given place or state
eccentric
 
a. Syn. irregular; odd; whimsical; bizarre
(편심) departing from a recognized, conventional, or established norm or pattern
edible
 
a. Syn. eatable
(식용) eatable; substance that can be used as food
ego
 
n.
(자아) self, especially as distinct from the world and other selves; exaggerated sense of self-importance
elicit
 
v. Syn. provoke
(유도) draw out; bring forth or to light; generate or provoke as response or answer
elite
 
n.
(엘리트) a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status
eloquent
 
a. Syn. expressive; persuasive
(웅변) vividly or movingly expressive; persuasive
embark
 
v. Syn. commence
(승선) commence; go on board a boat or airplane; begin a journey
empirical
 
a.
(경험적) derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
endow
 
v. Syn. grant; award
(부여) grant; award; give qualities or abilities to
enhance
 
v. Syn. increase; improve
(음란 강화) make better or more attractive; increase; improve
ensue
 
v. Syn. follow
(뒤이어 일어나다) pursue; follow or come afterward; follow as a consequence
entail
 
v. Syn. require; necessitate; involve
(수반) imply or require; cause to ensue or accrue; cut or carve in ornamental way
entity
 
n.
(단체) real being; something that exists as a particular and discrete unit; fact of existence
entrepreneur
 
n. Syn. businessperson; enterprise
(기업) person who organizes and operates a business; contractor
envisage
 
v.
(직시하다) look in the face of; apprehend; consider or regard in a certain way
epoch
 
n. Syn. era
(시대) particular period of history, especially one considered remarkable
equilibrium
 
n. Syn. balance
(평형) mental or emotional balance; state of balance of any causes, powers, or motives
erosion
 
n. Syn. corrosion
(침식) corrosion; a gradual decline of something
erroneous
 
a. Syn. mistaken; wrong
(말세) containing or derived from error; mistaken
escort
 
n.
(호위) one who conducts someone as attendant; guard; protection, care, or safeguard on a journey
essence
 
n.
(에센스) most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
ethics
 
n. Syn. morals; principles
(윤리) morals; study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.
ethnic
 
a. Syn. racial
(소수 민족) relating to races; group of people sharing common racial, national, or religious heritage
evoke
 
v. Syn. bring out; arouse
(연상) bring out; arouse; call forth
exemplify
 
v. Syn. embody
(예시) serve as an example of; embody
exempt
 
a.
(면제) not subject to duty or obligation; not subject to taxation
exotic
 
a. Syn. strange
(이색) from another part of the world; foreign; strikingly strange or unusual
expertise
 
n. Syn. skill
(규정) specialized knowledge; expert skill
explicit
 
a. Syn. definite; outspoken
(조명 담금질) precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken
exposition
 
n.
(박람회) exhibition; part of a play that provides the background information; opening section of a fugue
exquisite
 
a. Syn. excellent; flawless
(아름다운) excellent; flawless; acutely perceptive or discriminating
extinct
 
a. Syn. nonexistent; vanished; dead
(멸종) no longer existing or living; vanished; dead
extinguish
 
v.
(소화) quench; put out, as a light or fire; cause to die out; put an end to; destroy
fabricate
 
v. Syn. build
(조작) build; put together out of components or parts
facet
 
n. Syn. side
(일면) small, smooth, flat surface, as on a bone or tooth; side; a smooth surface
facilitate
 
v. Syn. promote; expedite
(촉진) help bring about; make less difficult
feeble
 
a. Syn. weak; frail
(거미) lacking vigor, force, or effectiveness; faint; frail
flap
 
n.
(플랩) flat, usually thin piece attached at only one side; act of waving or fluttering; blow given with something flat; slap
fling
 
v. Syn. discard
(날뛰는) throw with force or recklessness; throw or cast away; move in an abrupt
fluctuate
 
v. Syn. waver; shift
(변동) rise and fall in or as if in waves; shift; vary irregularly
flutter
 
v.
(떨림) vibrate or move quickly; drive in disorder; throw into confusion; wave or flap rapidly in an irregular manner
foam
 
n.
(거품) white substance, consisting of an aggregation of bubbles, which is formed on the surface of liquids
foil
 
v. Syn. hinder
(호일) prevent from being successful
formidable
 
a. Syn. menacing; threatening
(무서운) arousing fear; threatening; difficult to undertake or defeat
formulate
 
v. Syn. policy; theory
(공식화) decide upon and express in words
fort
 
n. Syn. fortress; stronghold
(요새) a fortified defensive structure; permanent army post
fossil
 
n. Syn. remnant
(화석) remnant; remains of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age
foster
 
v. Syn. rear
(육성) rear; promote the growth of; help develop
foul
 
n. Syn. disgusting; filthy
(파울) act that violates of the rules of a sport
fracture
 
v. Syn. break; crack
(골절) break into pieces; crack; destroy; violate or abuse
fraud
 
n.
(사기) getting money by lying or cheating; something intended to deceive
fringe
 
n. Syn. margin; periphery
(프린지) margin; periphery; decorative border of hanging threads, cords, or strips, often attached to a separate band
frustrate
 
v. Syn. thwart; defeat
(좌절) make null; bring to nothing; prevent from taking effect or attaining fulfillment
galaxy
 
n.
(은하계) large, isolated system of stars, as the Milky Way; any collection of brilliant personalities
gaol
 
n. Syn. jail
(교도소) place of confinement, especially for minor offenses or provisional imprisonment
garment
 
n.
(의류) any article of clothing, as coat or gown
gear
 
n.
(기어) toothed machine part, such as a wheel or cylinder, to transmit motion or to change speed or direction
glide
 
v. Syn. slide; slip
(글라이드) slide; move in a smooth, effortless manner
gloomy
 
a. Syn. dusky; dim
(우울) imperfectly illuminated; dusky; dim; clouded
gorgeous
 
a. Syn. beautiful; magnificent
(화려한) dazzlingly beautiful; magnificent
gossip
 
n. Syn. rumor
(잡담) rumor; malicious report about other people; light informal conversation for social occasions
graze
 
v. Syn. feed
(스친) scrape gently; feed on growing grasses and herbage
grease
 
n.
(그리스) oil; fat; state of being covered with unclean things
grief
 
n.
(슬픔) pain of mind; mental suffering arising from any cause, as misfortune, loss of friends; sorrow; sadness
grieve
 
v.
(절망) cause to be sorrowful; distress
grim
 
a.
(어두운) unrelenting; rigid; dismal and gloomy; cold and forbidding
hamper
 
v. Syn. obstruct
(타락) put at disadvantage; prevent progress or free movement of
hatch
 
v. Syn. breed
(해치) breed; emerge from the egg
haul
 
v. Syn. transport; drag
(정규직) draw slowly or heavily; pull or drag forcibly; shift direction
haunt
 
v. Syn. torment; bother; disturb
(괴롭힐테야) be a regular or frequent visitor to a certain place; bother; disturb
heal
 
v. Syn. cure
(치유) cure; make or get healthy again
heave
 
v. Syn. lift; raise; hoist; throw
(쉬다) cause to move upward or onward by a lifting effort; lift; raise; hoist; throw
heir
 
n. Syn. descendent; offspring
(후손) person who inherits some title or office
heritage
 
n. Syn. legacy; bequest; tradition
(문화 유산) legacy; something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition
hierarchy
 
n. Syn. class; order
(계층) arrangement by rank or standing; series in which each element is graded or ranked
hinder
 
v. Syn. stunt; inhibit; hamper; impede
(방해) put at a disadvantage; tie up; hamper; prevent the progress
hinge
 
n.
(경첩) a joint that holds two parts together so that one can swing relative to the other
hitherto
 
ad.
(역사) to this place; to a prescribed limit; up to this time; as yet; until now
homogeneous
 
a. Syn. uniform; similar
(균질) of the same or similar nature or kind
hose
 
n.
(호스) a flexible pipe for conveying a liquid or gas
hover
 
v. Syn. float; waver; vacillate
(마우스를 가져가면) hang about; wait nearby; remain floating
humidity
 
n. Syn. dampness; moisture
(습도) dampness; moisture
hurl
 
v. Syn. throw; cast; toss
(헐링 스틱) throw with great force; cast; toss
hypothesis
 
n. Syn. assumption; theory
(가설) assumption; theory
hysterical
 
a.
(히스테리) marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion; affected, or troubled, with fear or panic