In some cases, we don't see a noun led by article that should be there by generic rules, it's called zero article or omitting article.
1. Title, rank, and job position , especially high rank position or leader title, and as predictive, they usually omit articles. For example:
- This is Professor Trump, head of the history department.
- He succeeded his father as president of the company.
- I will accept the position of software engineer.
- She worked as reporter to our newspaper.
- I prefer the title of teacher to others.
- The officer holds the rank of captain.
2. The predictive or object of "turn" , usually omits article. For example:
- He was a Conservative but turned Socialist.
- He has turned artist from an actor.
3. Individual noun usually omits articles , if it represents an abstract concept, or say is used as abstract noun. For example:
- We were at school together.
- It's too early for bed.
- There is room for three more.
- You should go to hospital at once.
- She went by bus.
Lots of individual nouns in phrase don't use article because they are treated like abstract concept, such as:
- from head to end
- from bumper to bumper
- from day to day
- from time to time
- year after year
- in case of
- in place of
- make fun of
- make room of
4. Omitting article for date related noun : to express season, month, week, or day. For example:
- Spring was at hand.
- She was born in May.
- He will come on Monday.
- November 23rd is my birthday.
If date is applied by limiting attribute, it becomes a specific date and usually use definite article to emphasize it. For example:
- She was born in the May of 1993.
- It happened in the summer of 2003.
5. Omitting article for time related noun : like daybreak, dusk, dawn, noon, midnight, sunset, sunrise. For example:
- At daybreak we started on our journey.
- At dust the lights of the city come on.
- We left home at sunrise.
- Before daylight it started to drizzle.
Occasionally definite article is used on time related noun to specify a particular scenario. For example:
- The dawn here in the mountain is beautiful.
- One cannot see very far in the dust.
6. Omitting article for nouns of family members : sometimes also for cook, nurse, or anyone living in closing. For example:
- Mother is with Grandma.
- Big sister is playing chess with uncle.
7. Omitting article for nouns used in parallel : For example:
- Host and guest came together.
- I cannot tell either teacher or students.
8. Other cases to omit article : like news title, announcement, book name. For example:
- City Congress to be in Session Friday
(The City Congress to be in Session Friday, news title)
- Lift out of order
(The Lift out of order, announcement)
- Outline History of the Americas
(An Outline History of Americas, book name)