Hard English Words

 Introduction
These 100 hard English words are for 12th graders to check vocabulary skills in minutes. As we know, a young adult, like a student being leaving high school for college, has 20K active words plus other 20K passive words on average. How to evaluate vocabulary skills easily and handily? Here you have an option: 100 difficult words in English. It is selected from high school's academic classes and readings and is a good sample set to quickly check your English vocabulary level. 
 Hard English Words

Hard English Words

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abjure
abrogate
abstemious
acumen
antebellum
auspicious
belie
bellicose
bowdlerize
chicanery
chromosome
churlish
circumlocution
circumnavigate
deciduous
deleterious
diffident
enervate
enfranchise
epiphany
equinox
evanescent
expurgate
fatuous
feckless
fiduciary
filibuster
gamete
gauche
gerrymander
hegemony
hemoglobin
homogeneous
hubris
hypotenuse
impeach
incognito
incontrovertible
inculcate
infrastructure
interpolate
irony
jejune
kinetic
kowtow
laissezfaire
lexicon
loquacious
lugubrious
metamorphosis
mitosis
moiety
nanotechnology
nihilism
nomenclature
nonsectarian
notarize
obsequious
oligarchy
omnipotent
orthography
paradigm
parameter
pecuniary
photosynthesis
plagiarize
plasma
polymer
precipitous
quasar
quotidian
recapitulate
reciprocal
reparation
respiration
sanguine
soliloquy
subjugate
suffragist
supercilious
tautology
taxonomy
tectonic
tempestuous
thermodynamics
totalitarian
unctuous
vehement
fervid
vortex
winnow
wrought
xenophobe
yeoman
ziggurat

Word and Definition List
abjure
Pronounce   v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure
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abrogate
Pronounce   v. revoke formally, repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement)
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abstemious
Pronounce   a. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink, marked by temperance in indulgence
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acumen
Pronounce   n. shrewdness shown by keen insight, a tapering point
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antebellum
Pronounce   a. belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War
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auspicious
Pronounce   a. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck
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belie
Pronounce   v. represent falsely, be in contradiction with
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bellicose
Pronounce   a. having or showing a ready disposition to fight
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bowdlerize
Pronounce   v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate
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chicanery
Pronounce   n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)
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chromosome
Pronounce   n. a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
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churlish
Pronounce   a. having a bad disposition, rude in a mean-spirited and surly way
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circumlocution
Pronounce   n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things, an indirect way of expressing something
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circumnavigate
Pronounce   v. travel around either by plane or ship, go around or avoid (an obstacle)
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deciduous
Pronounce   a. shedding foliage at the end of the growing season, being shed at the end of a period of growth
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deleterious
Pronounce   a. harmful to living things, causing harm or damage
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diffident
Pronounce   a. showing modest reserve, lacking self-confidence
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enervate
Pronounce   v. weaken mentally or morally, disturb the composure of
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enfranchise
Pronounce   v. grant freedom to; as from slavery or servitude, grant voting rights
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epiphany
Pronounce   n. a divine manifestation, twelve days after Christmas
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equinox
Pronounce   n. either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
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evanescent
Pronounce   a. tending to vanish like vapor, soon passing out of sight, memory, or existence; quickly fading or disappearing
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expurgate
Pronounce   v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate
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fatuous
Pronounce   a. devoid of intelligence, silly and pointless
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feckless
Pronounce   a. generally incompetent and ineffectual, not fit to assume responsibility
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fiduciary
Pronounce   a. involving trust, referring to paper currency depending on securities for its value
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filibuster
Pronounce   n. a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
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gamete
Pronounce   n. a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
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gauche
Pronounce   a. lacking social polish, lacking ease or grace
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gerrymander
Pronounce   v. divide unfairly and to one's advantage, of voting districts
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hegemony
Pronounce   n. the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others
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hemoglobin
Pronounce   n. function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
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homogeneous
Pronounce   a. all of the same or similar kind or nature
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hubris
Pronounce   n. overbearing pride or presumption, excessive pride or self-confidence
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hypotenuse
Pronounce   n. the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle
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impeach
Pronounce   v. challenge the honesty or veracity of, bring an accusation against; level a charge against
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incognito
Pronounce   a. with your identity concealed
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incontrovertible
Pronounce   a. necessarily or demonstrably true, impossible to deny or disprove
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inculcate
Pronounce   v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions
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infrastructure
Pronounce   n. the basic structure or features of a system or organization
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interpolate
Pronounce   v. estimate the value of, insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby
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irony
Pronounce   n. a trope that involves incongruity between what is expected and what occurs
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jejune
Pronounce   a. lacking in nutritive value, displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity
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kinetic
Pronounce   a. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith
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kowtow
Pronounce   v. try to gain favor by cringing or flattering
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laissezfaire
Pronounce   n. unwillingness to get involved in or influence other people's activities
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lexicon
Pronounce   n. a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them
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loquacious
Pronounce   a. full of trivial conversation, tending to talk a great deal; talkative
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lugubrious
Pronounce   a. excessively mournful, looking or sounding sad and dismal
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metamorphosis
Pronounce   n. a complete change of physical form or substance especially as by magic or witchcraft
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mitosis
Pronounce   n. type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having same number and kind of chromosomes as parent nucleus
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moiety
Pronounce   n. one of two basic subdivisions of a tribe, one of two (approximately) equal parts
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nanotechnology
Pronounce   n. the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)
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nihilism
Pronounce   n. rejection of all religious and moral principles
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nomenclature
Pronounce   n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
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nonsectarian
Pronounce   a. not involving or relating to different religious sects or political groups
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notarize
Pronounce   v. authenticate as a notary, acknowledge or attest as a notary public
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obsequious
Pronounce   a. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery
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oligarchy
Pronounce   n. a political system governed by a few people
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omnipotent
Pronounce   a. having unlimited power, having virtually unlimited authority or influence
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orthography
Pronounce   n. a part of language study that deals with letters and spelling
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paradigm
Pronounce   n. the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time
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parameter
Pronounce   n. any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance
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pecuniary
Pronounce   a. relating to or involving money, consisting of or measured in money
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photosynthesis
Pronounce   n. synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
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plagiarize
Pronounce   v. take without referencing from someone else's writing or speech; of intellectual property
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plasma
Pronounce   n. the colorless watery fluid of the blood and lymph that contains no cells, but in which the blood cells are suspended
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polymer
Pronounce   n. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
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precipitous
Pronounce   a. done with very great haste and without due deliberation, extremely steep
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quasar
Pronounce   n. massive and extremely remote celestial object
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quotidian
Pronounce   a. found in the ordinary course of events, occurring every day
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recapitulate
Pronounce   v. repeat an earlier theme of a composition, repeat stages of evolutionary development during the embryonic phase of life
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reciprocal
Pronounce   a. of or relating to the multiplicative inverse of a quantity or function
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reparation
Pronounce   n. compensation exacted from a defeated nation by the victors, compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury
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respiration
Pronounce   n. the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation, the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide
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sanguine
Pronounce   n. a blood-red color, confidently optimistic and cheerful
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soliloquy
Pronounce   n. a (usually long) dramatic speech intended to give the illusion of unspoken reflections, speech you make to yourself
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subjugate
Pronounce   v. put down by force or intimidation, make subservient, force to submit or subdue
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suffragist
Pronounce   n. an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)
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supercilious
Pronounce   a. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy, expressive of contempt
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tautology
Pronounce   n. (logic) a statement that is necessarily true, useless repetition
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taxonomy
Pronounce   n. practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
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tectonic
Pronounce   a. pertaining to the structure or movement of the earth's crust ,of or pertaining to construction or architecture
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tempestuous
Pronounce   a. (of the elements) as if showing violent anger, characterized by violent emotions or behavior
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thermodynamics
Pronounce   n. the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy
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totalitarian
Pronounce   a. characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
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unctuous
Pronounce   a. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech
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vehement
Pronounce   a. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently
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fervid
Pronounce   a. characterized by great force or energy, intensely enthusiastic or passionate, especially to an excessive degree
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vortex
Pronounce   n. a powerful circular current of water, the shape of something rotating rapidly
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winnow
Pronounce   v. blow away or off with a current of air, separate the chaff from by using air currents
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wrought
Pronounce   a. shaped to fit by or as if by altering the contours of a pliable mass (as by work or effort)
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xenophobe
Pronounce   n. person having dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries
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yeoman
Pronounce   n. officer in the (ceremonial) bodyguard of the British monarch
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ziggurat
Pronounce   n. a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
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