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IELTS Academic Words Level 4 - 1: Print One-sided Flashcard

abbreviation:
n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
abolish:
v. cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
aboriginal:
a. being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
abound:
v. be full of; be plentiful
abrasion:
n. scratch; friction; the process of rubbing away the surface of something
abridge:
v. condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
abundance:
n. great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
accelerate:
v. move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
acclaim:
v. applaud; announce with great approval
accommodation:
n. living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a need; convenience
accord:
n. settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
accumulate:
v. pile up; collect;  mount up; increase
accuser:
n. one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
acquaint:
v. inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
adept:
a. expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
adhere:
v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adjacent:
a. adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
adjoin:
v. be next to; be contiguous to; border on
administrate:
v. administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
adolescence:
n. state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity
advent:
n. coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
adverse:
a. in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aerial:
a. of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
aesthetic:
a. elegant or tasteful; of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate:
v. associate; cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another
affirm:
v. state something as true; assert; confirm
affix:
v. fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict:
v. cause pain, suffering, or distress
aggregate:
v. gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation:
n. anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agreeable:
a. ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing:
a. exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or television broadcast
albeit:
ad. even though; although; notwithstanding
allege:
v. state without proof; assert to be true
alleviate:
v. provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate:
v. assign; distribute according to plan
allot:
v. parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot
alloy:
v. combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alphabetical:
a. arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
ambiguity:
n. state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous:
a. unclear or doubtful in meaning
amend:
v. change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amid:
ad. in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst:
ad. amid; in the middle of; among
amplify:
v. broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase
analyse:
v. resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for examination of each separately
analytical:
a. of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor:
n. forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anecdote:
n. a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
annihilate:
v. destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annuity:
n. annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed sum in each year
antagonism:
n. active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
antarctic:
a. opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or the region near it
anthology:
n. book of literary selections by various authors
apologetic:
a. offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal justification or defense
apparatus:
n. a group of parts that work together to perform a given function; appliance, or device for a particular purpose
append:
v. attach; add as supplement or appendix
appliance:
n. durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
applicant:
n. candidate; a person who formally requests something, especially a job
appraisal:
n. assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
appreciable:
a. large enough to be noticed or to affect; perceptible
apprentice:
n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approximate:
v. come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount
apt:
a. likely; precisely suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
aquatic:
a. consisting of, relating to, or being in the water
arbitrary:
a. randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
archaic:
a. no longer current or applicable; antiquated
ardent:
a. displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
arduous:
a. demanding great effort or labor; difficult
armour:
n. defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arouse:
v. excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
array:
v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
ascend:
v. move up or climb something; mount
ascent:
n. upward slope or grade; movement upward
ascertain:
v. find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe:
v. inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
aspiration:
n. ambition; something that you hope to achieve
aspire:
v. seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
assert:
v. declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
assorted:
a. varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
astound:
v. affect with wonder; surprise; shock
attain:
v. achieve or accomplish; gain
attribute:
n. essential quality; reputation; honor
audible:
a. perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
augment:
v. make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authoritative:
a. weighting authority; peremptory and dictatorial
automate:
v. replace or enhance human labor with machines
automation:
n. the use of machines and computers that can operate without needing human control
autonomy:
n. independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination
auxiliary:
a. helper, additional or subsidiary
avail:
v. turn to the advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avert:
v. prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
aviation:
n. art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics
axis:
n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
badminton:
n. game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
baffle:
v. frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
bamboo:
n. plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries
barometer:
n. an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
barricade:
n. hastily put together defensive barrier; obstacle
barter:
v. trade goods or services without the exchange of money
bead:
n. small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood that is pierced for stringing
beautician:
n. one skilled in giving cosmetic treatments; one who does hair styling, manicures, and other beauty treatments
beneficial:
a. helpful; tending to promote physical well-being
berth:
n. space for the ship to dock or anchor; allotted place; the place to sleep or stay; appointment or job
beset:
v. attack from all sides; trouble persistently; hem in
bewilder:
v. lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes
bibliography:
n. list of works of a specific author or publisher; list of writings relating to a given subject
bilateral:
a. two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
bilingual:
n. using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency
bitumen:
n. mineral pitch; black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame
bloc:
n. a group of nations, parties, or persons united for common action
blot:
n. spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; a weak point or failing
blunder:
n. serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
boast:
v. show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
bookcase:
n. case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors
bookkeeper:
n. one who keeps accounts; one who has charge of keeping books and accounts in an office
bookstall:
n. stall where books are sold, as on the street; table with enclosed sides, for displaying books for sale
boundary:
n. dividing line; border; frontier
boycott:
v. refrain from buying or using
brashness:
n. characteristic of being brash; the trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
brisk:
a. marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner
browse:
v. graze; skim or glance at casually
bulge:
v. cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
bungalow:
n. small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
buoyant:
a. able to float; cheerful and optimistic
bureaucracy:
n. over-regulated administrative system
burrow:
n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
bustle:
v. move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
calamity:
n. the event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; disaster; misery
calcium:
n. silvery, moderately hard metallic element
calorie:
n. unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree
canteen:
n. a vessel used by soldiers for carrying water or other drinks; snack bar or small cafeteria
caption:
n. title; chapter heading; text under illustration
carcass:
n. the dead body of an animal, especially one slaughtered and dressed for food
catalyst:
n. an agent which brings about chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged
caustic:
a. capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action
censor:
n. overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or sensitive content
centenary:
a. relating to a 100-year period; occurring once every 100 years
certify:
v. give certain information to; assure; make certain
characterize:
v. distinguish; be characteristic of; be a distinctive trait or mark of
chasm:
n. deep opening in the earth surface
chaste:
a. morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
chore:
n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
chronological:
a. arranged in order of time of occurrence
circulate:
v. move through space, circuit, or system, returning to the starting point
circumference:
n. the boundary line of a circle,  figure, area, or object
cite:
v. quote; adduce as an instance
clasp:
n. fastening device; firm grip
classify:
v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or categories
clockwise:
ad. in the direction that the hands of a clock move
cluster:
n. group; bunch; group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely
coarse:
a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
coeducation:
n. system of education in which both men and women attend the same institution or classes
cognitive:
a. knowing or perceiving; part of mental functions that deals with logic
coherent:
a. adhesive; sticking together; capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
coil:
n. a series of connected spirals or concentric rings formed by gathering or winding; spiral pipe or series of spiral pipes
coincide:
v. occur at the same time as; correspond
collaboration:
n. act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
collide:
v. bump; hit something violently
combustible:
a. capable of igniting and burning; easily aroused or excited
commemorate:
v. serve as a memorial to; honor the memory of with a ceremony
commend:
v. commit, entrust, or give in charge for care or preservation; recommend as worthy of confidence or regard
commodity:
n. goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit
commonplace:
a. ordinary; having no remarkable features
commute:
v. obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; regularly travel from a place of residence to another place
commuter:
n. someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
comparable:
a. similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
compel:
v. force; coerce; necessitate or pressure by force
compile:
v. put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
complement:
v. complete; consummate; make perfect
compliance:
n. readiness to yield; happy friendly agreement
compose:
v. write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
composite:
a. made up of distinct parts or elements; compounded
compress:
v. close; squeeze or press together; contract
comprise:
v. include; consist of; be composed of
compulsory:
a. mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
compute:
v. reckon; make a mathematical calculation
concerted:
a. planned or accomplished together; combined
concise:
a. brief and compact; expressing much in few words
concoct:
v. digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition
concurrent:
a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
condense:
v. change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops; compress or concentrate
condolence:
n. expression of sympathy with another in sorrow or grief.
confer:
v. bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
configuration:
n. arrangement of parts or elements; outline
confine:
v. restrict in movement; circumscribe
conform:
v. comply with; follow; fit; meet
congestion:
n. act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass
congruent:
a. possessing congruity; suitable; agreeing; corresponding
conscientious:
a. diligent; responsible; reliable
consecutive:
a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
consequent:
a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
conservation:
n. preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect
conservatory:
n. greenhouse; school of music or dramatic art
conserve:
v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
consign:
v. give, transfer, or deliver formally, as if by signing over into the possession of another
consist:
v. be made up or composed; be comprised or contained in
consolidate:
v. make solid; unite or press together into a compact mass; harden or make dense and firm
conspicuous:
a. noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
constituent:
n. component or part; citizen, voter
constitute:
v. make up; form something
constrain:
v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
constrict:
v. restrict; shrink; make smaller or narrower by binding or squeezing
construct:
v. form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
contaminate:
v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate:
v. look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contend:
v. strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
contention:
n. competing as for any profit or prize
continuity:
n. property of a continuous and connected period of time
contradict:
v. confront; state the opposite of what someone has said
contradiction:
n. the assertion of contrary; denial of the truth of a statement; opposition, whether by argument or conduct
contrive:
v. form by an exercise of ingenuity; invent or design
convene:
v. cause to come together formally
converge:
v. approach; tend to meet; come together
converse:
v. chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
conversely:
ad. in a converse manner; with change of order or relation; reciprocally.
correlate:
v. relate; associate; bring into a mutual relation
correspond:
v. be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
correspondence:
n. similarity or analogy; communication by the exchange of letters
correspondent:
a. one who communicates information, especially, by letter or telegram to newspaper or periodical
corresponding:
a. accompanying; analogous or equivalent in character, form, or function; comparable
cosmopolitan:
a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
cosy:
n. padded or knitted covering placed especially over a teapot to keep the tea hot; cozy
counterbalance:
v. act as force or influence that balances, checks, or limits an opposite one
counterpart:
n. duplicate copy; one that closely resembles another
crater:
n. a bowl-shaped opening at the top of a volcano
crease:
n. a line or long thin mark made by folding or doubling
criterion:
n. standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crouch:
v. bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear
culminate:
v. reach the highest or most decisive point;  rise to the summit
cultivate:
v. improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote the growth of
cumbersome:
a. heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk
cumulative:
a. increasing by successive addition
curriculum:
n. the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college; course or program
curtail:
v. cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part
custodian:
n. a person who has responsibility for or looks after something; guardian
deadlock:
n. standstill resulting from the opposition of two forces or factions; stalemate
dearth:
n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
decompose:
v. decay, or to cause something to decay
decrease:
v. lessen; reduce; make a quantity smaller
decrepit:
a. weakened, worn out, or broken down by old age, illness, or hard use
deduce:
v. lead forth; conclude by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
deduct:
v. lead forth or out; take away, separate, or remove, in numbering, estimating, or calculating; subtract
deem:
v. decide; judge; sentence; condemn
default:
n. failure to act; an option that is selected automatically
defer:
v. delay till later; put off; hold back to a later time
defiance:
n. refusal to yield; readiness to contend or resist
defile:
v. pollute; make dirty or spotty
deflate:
v. reduce from an inflated condition; release contained air or gas from
deflect:
v. turn aside; draw someone's attention away from something
defraud:
v. deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device
deft:
a. quick and skillful; neat in action or performance
degrade:
v. reduce level; lower grade of something
delectable:
a. delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste
delegate:
n. a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
delirium:
n. a mental disorder marked by confusion
delude:
v. deceive mind or judgment of; lead from truth or into error; frustrate or disappoint
deluge:
n. great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water
demolish:
v. raze; destroy; do away with completely; put an end to
denomination:
n. class, society, or collection of individuals called by the same name; specifically, a religious sect
denote:
v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
depict:
v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
deplete:
v. decrease fullness of; use up or empty out
depletion:
n. act of emptying, reducing, or exhausting
deplore:
v. feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn; express sorrow or grief over; regret
depress:
v. lower in spirits; press down
derelict:
a. left and abandoned; negligent in performing a duty
derive:
v. obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
descend:
v. move downward and lower; come from; be connected by a relationship of blood
designate:
v. indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
desolate:
a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
destine:
v. intend or choose someone or something for a particular purpose or end  
detach:
v. part; separate or disunite; disengage
detain:
v. keep back or from; withhold; restrain from proceeding; stay or stop; delay
deter:
v. keep from; stop; prevent or discourage from acting
detriment:
n. harm; damage; injury; something that causes damage, harm, or loss
detrimental:
a. causing damage or harm; injurious
devastate:
v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
deviate:
v. turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
devise:
v. form, plan, or arrange in mind; transmit or give by will
devour:
v. consume; eat greedily; destroy completely
diagnose:
v. analyze; examine; identify the cause of something
diagram:
n. graph; chart; figure or drawing made to illustrate a statement; plan
dialect:
n. vocabulary that is for a specific group of people
diameter:
n. length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference
differentiate:
v. set apart; distinguish; perceive or show the difference in or between
diffuse:
v. spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilapidated:
a. in disrepair, run-down; of very poor quality or condition
dilate:
v. make wider or larger; cause to expand; enlarge; widen
diligent:
a. assiduous; industrious; hard-working
dilute:
v. weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
diminish:
v. dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
din:
n. loud, confused, harsh noise; loud, continuous, rattling, or clanging sound
dingy:
a. darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored
diplomat:
n. one who is in charge to deal with others, like an ambassador, who is appointed to represent a government
disarray:
v. throw into disorder; break the array of.
discard:
v. throw out something from one's hand; get rid of
discern:
v. detect; perceive, recognize, or understand something that is not clear
disclose:
v. unclose; open; remove a cover or envelope from; lay open or expose to view
discord:
n. conflict; lack of agreement among persons, groups, or things