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IELTS Academic Words Level 4 - 1: Print Flashcard

abbreviation
n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
abolish
v. cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
aboriginal
a. being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
abound
v. be full of; be plentiful
abrasion
n. scratch; friction; the process of rubbing away the surface of something
abridge
v. condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
abundance
n. great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
accelerate
v. move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
acclaim
v. applaud; announce with great approval
accommodation
n. living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a need; convenience
accord
n. settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
accumulate
v. pile up; collect;  mount up; increase
accuser
n. one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
acquaint
v. inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
adept
a. expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
adhere
v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adjacent
a. adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
adjoin
v. be next to; be contiguous to; border on
administrate
v. administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
adolescence
n. state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity
advent
n. coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
adverse
a. in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
aerial
a. of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
aesthetic
a. elegant or tasteful; of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate
v. associate; cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another
affirm
v. state something as true; assert; confirm
affix
v. fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict
v. cause pain, suffering, or distress
aggregate
v. gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation
n. anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agreeable
a. ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing
a. exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or television broadcast
albeit
ad. even though; although; notwithstanding
allege
v. state without proof; assert to be true
alleviate
v. provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate
v. assign; distribute according to plan
allot
v. parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot
alloy
v. combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alphabetical
a. arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
ambiguity
n. state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous
a. unclear or doubtful in meaning
amend
v. change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amid
ad. in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst
ad. amid; in the middle of; among
amplify
v. broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase
analyse
v. resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for examination of each separately
analytical
a. of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor
n. forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anecdote
n. a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
annihilate
v. destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annuity
n. annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed sum in each year
antagonism
n. active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
antarctic
a. opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or the region near it
anthology
n. book of literary selections by various authors
apologetic
a. offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal justification or defense
apparatus
n. a group of parts that work together to perform a given function; appliance, or device for a particular purpose
append
v. attach; add as supplement or appendix
appliance
n. durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
applicant
n. candidate; a person who formally requests something, especially a job
appraisal
n. assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
appreciable
a. large enough to be noticed or to affect; perceptible
apprentice
n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approximate
v. come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount
apt
a. likely; precisely suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
aquatic
a. consisting of, relating to, or being in the water
arbitrary
a. randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
archaic
a. no longer current or applicable; antiquated
ardent
a. displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
arduous
a. demanding great effort or labor; difficult
armour
n. defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arouse
v. excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
array
v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
ascend
v. move up or climb something; mount
ascent
n. upward slope or grade; movement upward
ascertain
v. find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe
v. inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
aspiration
n. ambition; something that you hope to achieve
aspire
v. seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
assert
v. declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
assorted
a. varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
astound
v. affect with wonder; surprise; shock
attain
v. achieve or accomplish; gain
attribute
n. essential quality; reputation; honor
audible
a. perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
augment
v. make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authoritative
a. weighting authority; peremptory and dictatorial
automate
v. replace or enhance human labor with machines
automation
n. the use of machines and computers that can operate without needing human control
autonomy
n. independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination
auxiliary
a. helper, additional or subsidiary
avail
v. turn to the advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avert
v. prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
aviation
n. art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics
axis
n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
badminton
n. game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
baffle
v. frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
bamboo
n. plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries
barometer
n. an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
barricade
n. hastily put together defensive barrier; obstacle
barter
v. trade goods or services without the exchange of money
bead
n. small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood that is pierced for stringing
beautician
n. one skilled in giving cosmetic treatments; one who does hair styling, manicures, and other beauty treatments
beneficial
a. helpful; tending to promote physical well-being
berth
n. space for the ship to dock or anchor; allotted place; the place to sleep or stay; appointment or job
beset
v. attack from all sides; trouble persistently; hem in
bewilder
v. lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes
bibliography
n. list of works of a specific author or publisher; list of writings relating to a given subject
bilateral
a. two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
bilingual
n. using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency
bitumen
n. mineral pitch; black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame
bloc
n. a group of nations, parties, or persons united for common action
blot
n. spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; a weak point or failing
blunder
n. serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
boast
v. show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
bookcase
n. case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors
bookkeeper
n. one who keeps accounts; one who has charge of keeping books and accounts in an office
bookstall
n. stall where books are sold, as on the street; table with enclosed sides, for displaying books for sale
boundary
n. dividing line; border; frontier
boycott
v. refrain from buying or using
brashness
n. characteristic of being brash; the trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
brisk
a. marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner
browse
v. graze; skim or glance at casually
bulge
v. cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
bungalow
n. small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
buoyant
a. able to float; cheerful and optimistic
bureaucracy
n. over-regulated administrative system
burrow
n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
bustle
v. move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
calamity
n. the event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; disaster; misery
calcium
n. silvery, moderately hard metallic element
calorie
n. unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree
canteen
n. a vessel used by soldiers for carrying water or other drinks; snack bar or small cafeteria
caption
n. title; chapter heading; text under illustration
carcass
n. the dead body of an animal, especially one slaughtered and dressed for food
catalyst
n. an agent which brings about chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged
caustic
a. capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action
censor
n. overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or sensitive content
centenary
a. relating to a 100-year period; occurring once every 100 years
certify
v. give certain information to; assure; make certain
characterize
v. distinguish; be characteristic of; be a distinctive trait or mark of
chasm
n. deep opening in the earth surface
chaste
a. morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
chore
n. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
chronological
a. arranged in order of time of occurrence
circulate
v. move through space, circuit, or system, returning to the starting point
circumference
n. the boundary line of a circle,  figure, area, or object
cite
v. quote; adduce as an instance
clasp
n. fastening device; firm grip
classify
v. declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or categories
clockwise
ad. in the direction that the hands of a clock move
cluster
n. group; bunch; group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely
coarse
a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
coeducation
n. system of education in which both men and women attend the same institution or classes
cognitive
a. knowing or perceiving; part of mental functions that deals with logic
coherent
a. adhesive; sticking together; capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
coil
n. a series of connected spirals or concentric rings formed by gathering or winding; spiral pipe or series of spiral pipes
coincide
v. occur at the same time as; correspond
collaboration
n. act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
collide
v. bump; hit something violently
combustible
a. capable of igniting and burning; easily aroused or excited
commemorate
v. serve as a memorial to; honor the memory of with a ceremony
commend
v. commit, entrust, or give in charge for care or preservation; recommend as worthy of confidence or regard
commodity
n. goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit
commonplace
a. ordinary; having no remarkable features
commute
v. obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; regularly travel from a place of residence to another place
commuter
n. someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
comparable
a. similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
compel
v. force; coerce; necessitate or pressure by force
compile
v. put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
complement
v. complete; consummate; make perfect
compliance
n. readiness to yield; happy friendly agreement
compose
v. write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
composite
a. made up of distinct parts or elements; compounded
compress
v. close; squeeze or press together; contract
comprise
v. include; consist of; be composed of
compulsory
a. mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
compute
v. reckon; make a mathematical calculation
concerted
a. planned or accomplished together; combined
concise
a. brief and compact; expressing much in few words
concoct
v. digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition
concurrent
a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
condense
v. change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops; compress or concentrate
condolence
n. expression of sympathy with another in sorrow or grief.
confer
v. bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
configuration
n. arrangement of parts or elements; outline
confine
v. restrict in movement; circumscribe
conform
v. comply with; follow; fit; meet
congestion
n. act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass
congruent
a. possessing congruity; suitable; agreeing; corresponding
conscientious
a. diligent; responsible; reliable
consecutive
a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
consequent
a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
conservation
n. preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect
conservatory
n. greenhouse; school of music or dramatic art
conserve
v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
consign
v. give, transfer, or deliver formally, as if by signing over into the possession of another
consist
v. be made up or composed; be comprised or contained in
consolidate
v. make solid; unite or press together into a compact mass; harden or make dense and firm
conspicuous
a. noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
constituent
n. component or part; citizen, voter
constitute
v. make up; form something
constrain
v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
constrict
v. restrict; shrink; make smaller or narrower by binding or squeezing
construct
v. form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
contaminate
v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
contemplate
v. look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contend
v. strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
contention
n. competing as for any profit or prize
continuity
n. property of a continuous and connected period of time
contradict
v. confront; state the opposite of what someone has said
contradiction
n. the assertion of contrary; denial of the truth of a statement; opposition, whether by argument or conduct
contrive
v. form by an exercise of ingenuity; invent or design
convene
v. cause to come together formally
converge
v. approach; tend to meet; come together
converse
v. chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
conversely
ad. in a converse manner; with change of order or relation; reciprocally.
correlate
v. relate; associate; bring into a mutual relation
correspond
v. be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
correspondence
n. similarity or analogy; communication by the exchange of letters
correspondent
a. one who communicates information, especially, by letter or telegram to newspaper or periodical
corresponding
a. accompanying; analogous or equivalent in character, form, or function; comparable
cosmopolitan
a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
cosy
n. padded or knitted covering placed especially over a teapot to keep the tea hot; cozy
counterbalance
v. act as force or influence that balances, checks, or limits an opposite one
counterpart
n. duplicate copy; one that closely resembles another
crater
n. a bowl-shaped opening at the top of a volcano
crease
n. a line or long thin mark made by folding or doubling
criterion
n. standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
crouch
v. bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear
culminate
v. reach the highest or most decisive point;  rise to the summit
cultivate
v. improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote the growth of
cumbersome
a. heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk
cumulative
a. increasing by successive addition
curriculum
n. the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college; course or program
curtail
v. cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part
custodian
n. a person who has responsibility for or looks after something; guardian
deadlock
n. standstill resulting from the opposition of two forces or factions; stalemate
dearth
n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
decompose
v. decay, or to cause something to decay
decrease
v. lessen; reduce; make a quantity smaller
decrepit
a. weakened, worn out, or broken down by old age, illness, or hard use
deduce
v. lead forth; conclude by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
deduct
v. lead forth or out; take away, separate, or remove, in numbering, estimating, or calculating; subtract
deem
v. decide; judge; sentence; condemn
default
n. failure to act; an option that is selected automatically
defer
v. delay till later; put off; hold back to a later time
defiance
n. refusal to yield; readiness to contend or resist
defile
v. pollute; make dirty or spotty
deflate
v. reduce from an inflated condition; release contained air or gas from
deflect
v. turn aside; draw someone's attention away from something
defraud
v. deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device
deft
a. quick and skillful; neat in action or performance
degrade
v. reduce level; lower grade of something
delectable
a. delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste
delegate
n. a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
delirium
n. a mental disorder marked by confusion
delude
v. deceive mind or judgment of; lead from truth or into error; frustrate or disappoint
deluge
n. great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water
demolish
v. raze; destroy; do away with completely; put an end to
denomination
n. class, society, or collection of individuals called by the same name; specifically, a religious sect
denote
v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
depict
v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
deplete
v. decrease fullness of; use up or empty out
depletion
n. act of emptying, reducing, or exhausting
deplore
v. feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn; express sorrow or grief over; regret
depress
v. lower in spirits; press down
derelict
a. left and abandoned; negligent in performing a duty
derive
v. obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
descend
v. move downward and lower; come from; be connected by a relationship of blood
designate
v. indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
desolate
a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
destine
v. intend or choose someone or something for a particular purpose or end  
detach
v. part; separate or disunite; disengage
detain
v. keep back or from; withhold; restrain from proceeding; stay or stop; delay
deter
v. keep from; stop; prevent or discourage from acting
detriment
n. harm; damage; injury; something that causes damage, harm, or loss
detrimental
a. causing damage or harm; injurious
devastate
v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
deviate
v. turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
devise
v. form, plan, or arrange in mind; transmit or give by will
devour
v. consume; eat greedily; destroy completely
diagnose
v. analyze; examine; identify the cause of something
diagram
n. graph; chart; figure or drawing made to illustrate a statement; plan
dialect
n. vocabulary that is for a specific group of people
diameter
n. length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference
differentiate
v. set apart; distinguish; perceive or show the difference in or between
diffuse
v. spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
dilapidated
a. in disrepair, run-down; of very poor quality or condition
dilate
v. make wider or larger; cause to expand; enlarge; widen
diligent
a. assiduous; industrious; hard-working
dilute
v. weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
diminish
v. dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
din
n. loud, confused, harsh noise; loud, continuous, rattling, or clanging sound
dingy
a. darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored
diplomat
n. one who is in charge to deal with others, like an ambassador, who is appointed to represent a government
disarray
v. throw into disorder; break the array of.
discard
v. throw out something from one's hand; get rid of
discern
v. detect; perceive, recognize, or understand something that is not clear
disclose
v. unclose; open; remove a cover or envelope from; lay open or expose to view
discord
n. conflict; lack of agreement among persons, groups, or things