Hard Words with Meaning and Sentence

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Hard Words with Meaning and Sentence (Group 1)

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Word and Definition List

abjure: Read
/æb'dʒʊə(r)/ v. Syn. renounce; abandon
(发誓放弃) renounce upon oath; abandon forever
He will abjure his allegiance to the king.
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abrogate: Read
/'æbroʊgeɪt/ a. Syn. abolish
(废除) abolish, do away with, or annul, especially by authority
He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.

acumen: Read
/'ækjʊmɛn, ə'kju:mɛn/ n. Syn. acuteness; insight
(思想敏锐) mental keenness; quickness of perception
However, her team's political acumen is clearly beyond mine, an Ivy League Medical Science Professor and NOT a Political "Science" Professor.
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adumbrate: Read
/'ædʌmbreɪt/ v. Syn. overshadow; shade
(勾画出轮廓,隐约显示,预示,蒙上阴影) give hint or indication of something; disclose partially or guardedly; overshadow; shade
Her constant complaining about the job would adumbrate her intent to leave.
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alacrity: Read
/ə'lækrɪtɪ/ n.
(欢快的情绪) cheerful promptness or willingness; eagerness; speed or quickness
Phil and Dave were raring to get off to the mountains; they packed up their ski gear and climbed into the van with alacrity.

anathema: Read
/ə'næθəmə/ n.
(诅咒) solemn curse; someone or something regarded as a curse
To the Ayatolla, America and the West were anathema; he loathed the democratic nations, cursing them in his dying words.

antipathy: Read
/æn'tɪpəθɪ/ n. Syn. aversion; dislike
(反对,厌恶) strong feeling of aversion; dislike
Tom's extreme antipathy for disputes keeps him from getting into arguments with his temperamental wife.
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approbation: Read
/æprə'beɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. approval
(同意,批准) expression of warm approval; praise
She looked for some sign of approbation from her parents, hoping her good grades would please them.
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arrogate: Read
/'æroʊgeɪt/ v.
(非法霸占,僭越) claim without justification; claim for oneself without right
Lynn watch in astonishments as her coworkers arrogate the credit for her brilliant work in the project.
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ascetic: Read
/ə'sɛtɪk/ a. Syn. austere; severe
(苦行,禁欲) leading a life of self-discipline and self-denial; austere
The wealthy, self-indulgent young man felt oddly drawn to the strict, ascetic life led by members of some monastic orders.
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assiduous: Read
/ə'sɪdjʊəs/;/ə'sɪdʒʊəs/ a. Syn. diligent; persistent
(勤奋) constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing or persistent
He was assiduous, working at this task for weeks before he felt satisfied with his results.
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boon: Read
/bu:n/ n. Syn. blessing; benefit
(恩惠,福利) blessing; benefit bestowed, especially in response to a request
The recent rains that filled our empty reservoirs were a boon to the whole community.
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brusque: Read
/brʊsk/;/brʌsk/ a. Syn. blunt; abrupt
(唐图,直率,粗暴无礼) abrupt and curt in manner or speech; rudely abrupt, unfriendly
Was Bruce too brusque when he brushed off Bob's request with a curt "Not now!"?
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burnish: Read
/'bɜrnɪʃ/ v. Syn. polish
(擦拭) make shiny by rubbing; polish
I burnish the brass fixtures until they reflect the lamplight.
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buttress: Read
/'bʌtrɪs/ v. Syn. support
(支持) support physically; prop up; support something or someone by supplying evidence
The attorney came up with several far-fetched arguments in a vain attempt to buttress his weak case.
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cajole: Read
/kə'dʒoʊl/ v.
(哄骗,勾引) influence or urge by gentle urging or flattering
Diane tried to cajole her father into letting her drive the family car.
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calumny: Read
/'kæləmnɪ/ n. Syn. slander
(诽谤,中伤) false statement maliciously made to injure another's reputation; slander
He could endure his financial failure, but he could not bear the calumny that his foes heaped upon him.
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capricious: Read
/kə'prɪʃəs/ a. Syn. unpredictable; fickle; arbitrary
(反复无常的) fickle; impulsive and unpredictable; apt to change opinions suddenly
The storm was capricious: it changed course constantly.
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clemency: Read
/'klɛmənsɪ/ n.
(温和,仁慈) mildness, as of the weather; merciful, kind, or lenient act
The lawyer was pleased when the case was sent to Judge Smith's chambers because Smith was noted for her clemency toward first offenders.
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cogent: Read
/'koʊdʒənt/ a. Syn. convincing
(有说服力的) reasonable and convincing; based on evidence; forcefully persuasive
It was inevitable that David chose to go to Harvard: he had several cogent reasons for doing so, including a full-tuition scholarship.
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concomitant: Read
/kən'kɒmɪtənt/ a. Syn. accompanying
(伴随的) in conjunction with; accompanying; associated with
These two-sided attributes are known as concomitant characteristics.
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conflagration: Read
/kɒnflə'greɪʃ(ə)n/ a.
(大火灾,大火) large destructive fire; burning; large-scale military conflict
After the conflagration had finally died down, the city center was nothing but a mass of blackened embers.
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conundrum: Read
/kə'nʌndrəm/ n. Syn. riddle
(谜语) riddle; difficult problem; dilemma
For this reason, the best way out of this conundrum is a political compromise.

credulity: Read
/krɪ'dju:lɪtɪ/;/krɪ'du:lɪtɪ/ n.
(轻信,易信) readiness of belief; disposition to believe on slight evidence
The rascal lives on the credulity of the people.
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cupidity: Read
/kju:'pɪdɪtɪ/ n. Syn. greed
(贪婪) greed; excessive desire, especially for wealth
The defeated people could not satisfy the cupidity of the conquerors, who demanded excessive tribute.
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cursory: Read
/'kɜrsərɪ/ a. Syn. casual
(草率,匆忙) casual; brief or broad; not cautious, nor detailed
Because a cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson, we believe the insurance agency should undertake a more extensive investigation of the fire's cause.
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decry: Read
/dɪ'kraɪ/ v. Syn. disparage
(强烈反对) express strong disapproval of; disparage
The founder of the Children's Defense Fund, Marian Wright Edelman, would strongly decry the lack of financial and moral support for children in America today.
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defile: Read
/di:'faɪl/ v. Syn. pollute
(污染,亵渎) pollute; make dirty or spotty
The hoodlums defile the church with their scurrilous writing.
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deleterious: Read
/dɛlɪ'tɪərɪəs/ a. Syn. harmful
(有害的) having harmful effect; injurious; having quality of destroying life; noxious; poisonous
If you believe that smoking is deleterious to your health, then quit!.

demure: Read
/dɪ'mjʊə(r)/ a. Syn. grave; serious
(端庄的,认真的,腼腆的) modest and reserved in manner or behavior
She was demure and reserved, a nice modest girl whom any young man would be proud to take home to his mother.
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deprecate: Read
/'dɛprɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. belittle
(抗议,蔑视) express disapproval of; protest against; belittle
A firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy, Miss Post must deprecate the modern tendency to address new acquaintances by their first names.
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deride: Read
/dɪ'raɪd/ v. Syn. ridicule
(打趣,取消) ridicule; make fun of; laugh at with contempt
The critics deride his pretentious dialogue and refused to consider his play seriously.
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desecrate: Read
/'dɛsɪkreɪt/ v.
(亵渎) violate with violence, especially to sacred place
Shattering the altar and trampling the holy objects underfoot, the invaders desecrate the sanctuary.
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discursive: Read
/dɪ'skɜrsɪv/ a.
(散漫的,不得要领的) tending to depart from main point or cover a wide range of subjects
As the lecturer wandered from topic to topic, we wondered what if any point there was to his discursive remarks.
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dissemble: Read
/dɪ'sɛmb(ə)l/ v. Syn. disguise; pretend
(伪装,做作,掩饰) disguise or conceal behind a false appearance; make a false show of
Even though John tried to dissemble his motive for taking modern dance, we all knew he was there not to dance but to meet girls.
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ebullient: Read
/ɪ'bʌlɪənt/ a.
(热情的,激动的) showing excitement; overflowing with enthusiasm
Amy's ebullient nature could not be repressed; she' was always bubbling over with excitement.
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effrontery: Read
/ɛ'frʌntərɪ/ n.
(厚颜无耻) shameless or brazen boldness; insolent and shameless audacity
She had the effrontery to insult the guest.
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egregious: Read
/ɪ'gri:dʒəs/ a. Syn. notorious
(及其令人痛恨的,声名狼藉,令人吃惊的) notorious; conspicuously bad or shocking
She was an egregious liar; we all knew better than to believe a word she said.

enervate: Read
/'ɛnəveɪt/ v. Syn. weaken
(使变弱) weaken or destroy strength or vitality of; remove a nerve or part of a nerve
She was slow to recover from her illness; even a short walk to the window would enervate her.
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ephemeral: Read
/ɪ'fɛmərəl/ a.
(朝生暮死,短暂,短命) short-lived; enduring a very short time
The mayfly is an ephemeral creature: its adult life lasts little more than a day.
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eschew: Read
/ɪs'tʃu:/ v. Syn. avoid; escape
(避免) avoid; refuse to use or participate in; stand aloof from
Hoping to present himself to his girlfriend as a totally reformed character, he tried to eschew all the vices, especially chewing tobacco and drinking bathtub gin.
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evanescent: Read
/i:və'nɛs(ə)nt/;/ɛv-/ a. Syn. fleeting; vanishing
(消散的,凋零的) fleeting; vanishing or likely to vanish like vapor
Brandon's satisfaction in his new job was evanescent, for he immediately began to notice its many drawbacks.
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evince: Read
/ɪ'vɪns/ v. Syn. manifest
(表示) show or demonstrate clearly; overcome; conquer
When he tried to answer the questions, I heard he evince his ignorance of the subject matter.
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exculpate: Read
/'ɛkskʌlpeɪt/ v.
(开脱,洗脱) pronounce not guilty of criminal charges
The court will exculpate him of the crime after the real criminal confesses.
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execrable: Read
/'ɛksɪkrəb(ə)l/ a.
(非常糟糕的) very bad; extremely inferiorl; intolerable; very hateful
The anecdote was in such execrable taste that it revolted the audience.
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expiate: Read
/'ɛkspɪeɪt/ v. Syn. atone
(赎罪) make amends or pay the penalty for; relieve or cleanse of guilt
He tried to expiate his crimes by a full confession to the authorities.
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expunge: Read
/ɛk'spʌndʒ/ v. Syn. cancel; remove
(取消,去除,排除) cancel; remove; erase or strike out
If you behave, I will expunge this notation from your record.

extant: Read
/ɛk'stænt/ a.
(现存的) still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct
Although the book is out of print, some copies are still extant. Unfortunately, all of them are in libraries or private collections; none are for sale.
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extol: Read
/ɪk'stɔl/ v. Syn. praise; glorify
(赞美) praise highly; glorify; celebrate
In his speech, the president will extol the astronauts, calling them the pioneers of the Space Age.
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fallacious: Read
/fə'leɪʃəs/ a. Syn. false; deceptive
(假的,误导的) false; tending to mislead; deceptive
Paradoxically, fallacious reasoning does not always yield erroneous results: even though your logic may be faulty, the answer you get may nevertheless be correct.
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fastidious: Read
/fæ'stɪdɪəs/ a.
(挑剔的,难伺候的) difficult to please; having complicated requirements; excessively particular demanding about details
Bobby was such a fastidious eater that he would eat a sandwich only if his mother first cut off every scrap of crust.
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fatuous: Read
/'fætjʊəs/ a. Syn. foolish
(愚蠢的,不可理喻的,不理智的) foolish or silly, especially in self-satisfied way
He is far too intelligent to utter such fatuous remarks.
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feral: Read
/'fɪər(ə)l/ a. Syn. wild
(野生的,未驯服的) not domestic; wild; existing in wild or untamed state
Abandoned by their owners, dogs may revert to their feral state, roaming the woods in packs.

fetid: Read
/'fɛtɪd/ a. Syn. stinking
(恶臭的) unpleasant-smelling; having offensive smell; stinking
These dogs are housed in fetid, dark sheds and barns or left outside in cages exposed to the cold, the heat, the rain and the snow.
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florid: Read
/'flɒrɪd/;/'flɔ:rɪd/ a. Syn. ruddy; reddish
(华丽的,红润的) reddish; elaborately or excessively ornamented
If you go to beach and get a sunburn, your complexion will look florid.
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fractious: Read
/'frækʃəs/ a. Syn. unruly; disobedient; irritable
(蛮横倔强的) inclined to make trouble; disobedient; irritable
Bucking and kicking, the fractious horse unseated its rider.

garrulous: Read
/'gærʊləs/ a. Syn. wordy; talkative
(贫嘴) talking much and repetition of unimportant or trivial details
My Uncle Henry can outtalk any three people I know. He is the most garrulous person in Cayuga County.
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gregarious: Read
/grɪ'gɛərɪəs/ a. Syn. sociable
(社交的,群居) sociable; seeking and enjoying the company of others
Natural selection in gregarious animals operates upon groups rather than upon individuals.
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hackneyed: Read
/'hæknɪd/ a. Syn. commonplace
(常见的,不希罕,陈腐) repeated too often; over familiar through overuse
When the reviewer criticized the movie for its hackneyed plot, we agreed; we had seen similar stories hundreds of times before.
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hapless: Read
/'hæplɪs/ a.
(不幸的) without hap or luck; luckless; unfortunate; unlucky; unhappy
His hapless lover was knocked down by a car.
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harangue: Read
/hə'ræŋ/ n.
(夸大的讲话) noisy speech; speech or piece of writing with strong feeling or expression
In her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders.
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harangue: Read
/hə'ræŋ/ n.
(夸大的讲话) noisy speech; speech or piece of writing with strong feeling or expression
In her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders.
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hegemony: Read
/hɪ'gɛmənɪ/;/'hɛdʒɛmoʊnɪ/ n.
(霸权,盟主权) domination, influence, or authority over another, especially by political group or nation over others
When Germany claimed hegemony over Russia, Stalin was outraged.

impassive: Read
/ɪm'pæsɪv/ a.
(冷漠的) without feeling; revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily aroused or excited
Refusing to let the enemy see how deeply shaken he was by his capture, the prisoner kept his face impassive.
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imperious: Read
/ɪm'pɪərɪəs/ a. Syn. dictatorial
(专横的) urgent or pressing; able to deal authoritatively; dictatorial
Jane rather liked a man to be masterful, but Mr. Rochester seemed so bent on getting his own way that he was actually imperious!
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impertinent: Read
/ɪm'pɜrtɪnənt/ a. Syn. rude
(不相干的,鲁莽的) improperly forward or bold; rude
His neighbors' impertinent curiosity about his lack of dates angered Ted; it was downright rude of them to ask him such personal questions.
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impervious: Read
/ɪm'pɜrvɪəs/ a. Syn. impenetrable
(不能渗透的,不为所动的,不受影响的) impenetrable; incapable of being damaged or distressed
The carpet salesman told Simone that his most expensive brand of floor covering was warranted to be impervious to ordinary wear and tear.
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impetuous: Read
/ɪm'pɛtjʊəs/ a. Syn. violent; hasty; rash.
(冲动的,鲁莽的) marked by sudden and violent force; hasty; impulsive and passionate
I don't believe that "Leap before you look" is the motto suggested by one particularly impetuous young man.
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impinge: Read
/ɪm'pɪndʒ/ v. Syn. infringe; touch
(撞击,碰撞) infringe; advance beyond usual limit; make physical impact on; touch
How could they be married not to impinge on one another's freedom?.
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implacable: Read
/ɪm'plækəb(ə)l/ a.
(不能平静的) incapable of being pacified; not to be relieved;
Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family.
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inchoate: Read
/'ɪnkoʊət/ a. Syn. rudimentary; elementary
(未成型的,早期的,刚开始的,发展中的) recently begun; imperfectly formed or developed; elementary
Before the Creation, the world was an inchoate mass.

incontrovertible: Read
/ɪnkɒntrə'vɜrtɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. indisputable
(无疑的,无可争议的) indisputable; not open to question
Unless you find the evidence against my client absolutely incontrovertible, you must declare her not guilty of this charge.

indefatigable: Read
/ɪndɪ'fætɪgəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. tireless
(疲倦) tireless; showing sustained enthusiastic action
Although the effort of taking out the garbage tired Wayne out for the entire morning, when it came to partying, he was indefatigable.
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ineffable: Read
/ɪn'ɛfəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. unutterable
(不可言喻的,无法用语言表达的,不能说的,避讳的) unutterable; cannot be expressed in speech
Such ineffable joy must be experienced; it cannot be described.
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inexorable: Read
/ɪn'ɛksərəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. unyielding; implacable
(无情的,残酷的) not capable of being swayed; unyielding; implacable
The judge was inexorable and gave the convicted man the maximum punishment allowed by law.
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ingenuous: Read
/ɪn'dʒɛnjʊəs/ a. Syn. young; unsophisticated
(心无城府的,天真的,幼稚的,可信的) naive and trusting; young; unsophisticated
The woodsman had not realized how ingenuous Little Red Riding Hood was until he heard that she had gone off for a walk in the woods with the Big Bad Wolf.
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inimical: Read
/ɪ'nɪmɪk(ə)l/ a. Syn. unfriendly; hostile; harmful; detrimental
(不友好的,敌意的,有害的) unfriendly; hostile; harmful; detrimental
I've always been friendly to Martha. Why is she so inimical to me?.
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iniquity: Read
/ɪ'nɪkw(ə)tɪ/ n.
(邪恶,不公正) absence of, or deviation from, just dealing; want of rectitude or uprightness; gross injustice; unrighteousness; wickedness
He thought of New York as a den of iniquity.
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insidious: Read
/ɪn'sɪdɪəs/ a. Syn. treacherous; stealthy; sly
(阴险的,奸诈的,狡猾的,鬼鬼祟祟的) spreading harmfully in a subtle manner; designed or adapted to entrap
More insidious is the whole issue of the second amendment.
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inure: Read
/ɪ'njʊə(r)/ v. Syn. harden; habituate
(使习惯于) apply in use; use or accustom till no pain or inconvenience; harden; habituate
Then as it relates to the benefits that we expect to inure from the system itself, let me turn that over to Stan to give you some highlights.
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invective: Read
/ɪn'vɛktɪv/ n. Syn. abuse
(谩骂,非难,恶言相加) abusive language used to express blame or ill will
He had expected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal.
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inveterate: Read
/ɪn'vɛtərət/ a. Syn. habitual
(根深蒂固的,积习已深的) deep-rooted; firmly and long established; habitual
An inveterate smoker, Bob cannot seem to break the habit, no matter how hard he tries.
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jubilant: Read
/'dʒu:bɪlənt/ a. Syn. exultant; happy; merry
(欢腾的,喜气洋洋的) happy; merry; joyful and proud especially because of triumph or success
Arriving in Rome to a jubilant crowd and tearful relatives, the women said they had been treated well.
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juxtaposition: Read
/dʒʌkstəpə'zɪʃən/ n. Syn. apposition
(并列,并置) act of positioning close together; side-by-side position
It is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors.
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laconic: Read
/lə'kɒnɪk/ a. Syn. concise
(简洁的) brief; effectively cut short; marked by use of few words
Many of the characters portrayed by Clint Eastwood are laconic types: strong men of few words.
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languid: Read
/'læŋgwɪd/ a. Syn. weak; sluggish
(疲倦的,无精打采的) lacking energy or vitality; weak; sluggish; lacking spirit or liveliness
Her siege of illness left her languid and pallid.
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largess: Read
/lɑrdʒɪs/ n.
(赠送,赠礼) generous gift; money or gifts bestowed
Lady Bountiful distributed largess to the poor.
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latent: Read
/'leɪtənt/ a. Syn. dormant; hidden
(潜在的) present or potential but not evident or active; dormant; hidden
Existing arrangements contain latent functions that can be neither seen nor replaced by the reformer.
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legerdemain: Read
/lɛdʒədə'meɪn/ n.
(戏法,花招) show of skill or deceitful cleverness, considered magical by naive observers
The magician demonstrated his renowned legerdemain.

licentious: Read
/laɪ'sɛnʃəs/ a. Syn. amoral; unrestrained
(不道德的,下流的,放纵的) amoral; unrestrained; lacking moral discipline or ignoring legal restraint
Unscrupulously seducing the daughter of his host, Don Juan felt no qualms about the immorality of his licentious behavior.
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limpid: Read
/'lɪmpɪd/ a. Syn. clear
(清澈) clear, transparent or bright; calm, untroubled, and without worry
A limpid stream ran through his property.
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maelstrom: Read
/'meɪlstrəm/ n. Syn. whirlpool
(漩涡) whirlpool; powerful circular current of water
The canoe was tossed about in the maelstrom, it had to leave the dangerous water quickly.
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magnanimous: Read
/mæg'nænɪməs/ a. Syn. generous; noble
(宽宏大量的) generous; high-minded; chivalrous
The last area where Obama should be magnanimous is on Defense policy.
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malediction: Read
/mælɪ'dɪkʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. curse
(诅咒) curse; evil speaking; utterance of curse or execration
When the magic mirror revealed that Snow White was still alive, the wicked queen cried out in rage and uttered dreadful malediction.
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malevolent: Read
/mə'lɛvələnt/ a. Syn. malicious
(坏心肠的) having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious
Lago is a malevolent villain who takes pleasure in ruining Othello.
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manifold: Read
/'mænɪfoʊld/ a.
(繁多的,多种的) various in kind or quality; many in number; numerous; multiplied; complicated
The same threat is repeated in manifold forms to awaken the careless.
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maudlin: Read
/'mɔ:dlɪn/ a. Syn. sentimental
(多愁善感) tearfully sentimental; over-emotional; sickly-sentimental
One moment he was in maudlin tears and the next he was cracking some miserable joke about the disaster.
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mawkish: Read
/'mɔ:kɪʃ/ a. Syn. maudlin
(过分多愁善感,感情脆弱到令人作呕的) insincerely emotional; showing a sickly excess of sentiment
Whenever Gigi and her boyfriend would sigh and get all lovey-dovey, her little brother would shout, "Yuck!" protesting their mawkish behavior.

mendacious: Read
/mɛn'deɪʃəs/ a. Syn. lying
(撒谎成性的,撒谎的,假的) lying; habitually dishonest; speaking falsely
Distrusting Huck from the start, Miss Watson assumed he was mendacious and refused to believe a word he said.

mercurial: Read
/mɜrkjʊərɪəl/ a. Syn. capricious
(善变的,无常的) capricious; liable to sudden unpredictable change; quick and changeable in temperament
Quick as quicksilver to change, he was mercurial in nature and therefore unreliable.
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modicum: Read
/'mɒdɪkəm/ n.
(少量) limited quantity; small or moderate amount; any small thing
Although his story is based on a modicum of truth, most of the events he describes are fictitious.
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multifarious: Read
/mʌltɪ'fɛərɪəs/ a. Syn. varied
(多样的,各式各样的) varied; greatly diversified; made up of many differing parts
A career woman and mother, she was constantly busy with the multifarious activities of her daily life.
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myriad: Read
/'mɪrɪəd/ a. Syn. innumerable; many; countless; numberless
(无数,非常多) of very large or indefinite number; of ten thousand
In China, for example, where a number of different dialects are spoken, the same character can be pronounced in myriad ways.
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nadir: Read
/'neɪdɪə(r)/ n.
(谷底,最低点,天底) lowest point; point on sphere opposites zenith diametrically
Although few people realized it, the Dow-Jones averages had reached their nadir and would soon begin an upward surge.

nascent: Read
/'næsənt/ a. Syn. incipient
(初生的) incipient; coming into existence; emerging
If we could identify these revolutionary movements in their nascent state, we would be able to eliminate serious trouble in later years.

nefarious: Read
/nɪ'fɛərɪəs/ a. Syn. abominable
(十恶不赦的) very wicked; infamous by being extremely wicked
Our elected leaders, movie stars and sports heroes sometimes engaged in nefarious activities but rarely were they headlined in the daily newspapers.

neophyte: Read
/'ni:oʊfaɪt/ n. Syn. beginner
(新入教者,新信徒) recent convert to a belief; one newly initiated
This mountain slope contains slides that will challenge anyone, either expert or neophyte.
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