Hard English Words: Study Tools

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v. formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure


Spelling Word: abjure
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v. revoke formally, repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement)


Spelling Word: abrogate
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a. sparing in consumption of especially food and drink, marked by temperance in indulgence


Spelling Word: abstemious
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n. shrewdness shown by keen insight, a tapering point


Spelling Word: acumen
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a. belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War


Spelling Word: antebellum
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a. auguring favorable circumstances and good luck


Spelling Word: auspicious
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v. represent falsely, be in contradiction with


Spelling Word: belie
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a. having or showing a ready disposition to fight


Spelling Word: bellicose
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v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate


Spelling Word: bowdlerize
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n. the use of tricks to deceive someone (usually to extract money from them)


Spelling Word: chicanery
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n. a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order


Spelling Word: chromosome
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a. having a bad disposition, rude in a mean-spirited and surly way


Spelling Word: churlish
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n. a style that involves indirect ways of expressing things, an indirect way of expressing something


Spelling Word: circumlocution
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v. travel around either by plane or ship, go around or avoid (an obstacle)


Spelling Word: circumnavigate
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a. shedding foliage at the end of the growing season, being shed at the end of a period of growth


Spelling Word: deciduous
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a. harmful to living things, causing harm or damage


Spelling Word: deleterious
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a. showing modest reserve, lacking self-confidence


Spelling Word: diffident
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v. weaken mentally or morally, disturb the composure of


Spelling Word: enervate
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v. grant freedom to; as from slavery or servitude, grant voting rights


Spelling Word: enfranchise
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n. a divine manifestation, twelve days after Christmas


Spelling Word: epiphany
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n. either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length


Spelling Word: equinox
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a. tending to vanish like vapor, soon passing out of sight, memory, or existence; quickly fading or disappearing


Spelling Word: evanescent
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v. edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate


Spelling Word: expurgate
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a. devoid of intelligence, silly and pointless


Spelling Word: fatuous
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a. generally incompetent and ineffectual, not fit to assume responsibility


Spelling Word: feckless
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a. involving trust, referring to paper currency depending on securities for its value


Spelling Word: fiduciary
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n. a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches


Spelling Word: filibuster
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n. a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes


Spelling Word: gamete
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a. lacking social polish, lacking ease or grace


Spelling Word: gauche
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v. divide unfairly and to one's advantage, of voting districts


Spelling Word: gerrymander
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n. the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others


Spelling Word: hegemony
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n. function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues


Spelling Word: hemoglobin
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a. all of the same or similar kind or nature


Spelling Word: homogeneous
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n. overbearing pride or presumption, excessive pride or self-confidence


Spelling Word: hubris
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n. the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle


Spelling Word: hypotenuse
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v. challenge the honesty or veracity of, bring an accusation against; level a charge against


Spelling Word: impeach
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a. with your identity concealed


Spelling Word: incognito
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a. necessarily or demonstrably true, impossible to deny or disprove


Spelling Word: incontrovertible
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v. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions


Spelling Word: inculcate
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n. the basic structure or features of a system or organization


Spelling Word: infrastructure
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v. estimate the value of, insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby


Spelling Word: interpolate
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n. a trope that involves incongruity between what is expected and what occurs


Spelling Word: irony
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a. lacking in nutritive value, displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity


Spelling Word: jejune
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a. relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith


Spelling Word: kinetic
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v. try to gain favor by cringing or flattering


Spelling Word: kowtow
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n. unwillingness to get involved in or influence other people's activities


Spelling Word: laissezfaire
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n. a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them


Spelling Word: lexicon
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a. full of trivial conversation, tending to talk a great deal; talkative


Spelling Word: loquacious
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a. excessively mournful, looking or sounding sad and dismal


Spelling Word: lugubrious
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n. a complete change of physical form or substance especially as by magic or witchcraft


Spelling Word: metamorphosis
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n. type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having same number and kind of chromosomes as parent nucleus


Spelling Word: mitosis
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n. one of two basic subdivisions of a tribe, one of two (approximately) equal parts


Spelling Word: moiety
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n. the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)


Spelling Word: nanotechnology
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n. rejection of all religious and moral principles


Spelling Word: nihilism
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n. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline


Spelling Word: nomenclature
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a. not involving or relating to different religious sects or political groups


Spelling Word: nonsectarian
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v. authenticate as a notary, acknowledge or attest as a notary public


Spelling Word: notarize
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a. attempting to win favor from influential people by flattery


Spelling Word: obsequious
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n. a political system governed by a few people


Spelling Word: oligarchy
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a. having unlimited power, having virtually unlimited authority or influence


Spelling Word: omnipotent
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n. a part of language study that deals with letters and spelling


Spelling Word: orthography
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n. the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time


Spelling Word: paradigm
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n. any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance


Spelling Word: parameter
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a. relating to or involving money, consisting of or measured in money


Spelling Word: pecuniary
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n. synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)


Spelling Word: photosynthesis
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v. take without referencing from someone else's writing or speech; of intellectual property


Spelling Word: plagiarize
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n. the colorless watery fluid of the blood and lymph that contains no cells, but in which the blood cells are suspended


Spelling Word: plasma
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n. a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers


Spelling Word: polymer
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a. done with very great haste and without due deliberation, extremely steep


Spelling Word: precipitous
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n. massive and extremely remote celestial object


Spelling Word: quasar
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a. found in the ordinary course of events, occurring every day


Spelling Word: quotidian
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v. repeat an earlier theme of a composition, repeat stages of evolutionary development during the embryonic phase of life


Spelling Word: recapitulate
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a. of or relating to the multiplicative inverse of a quantity or function


Spelling Word: reciprocal
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n. compensation exacted from a defeated nation by the victors, compensation (given or received) for an insult or injury


Spelling Word: reparation
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n. the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation, the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide


Spelling Word: respiration
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n. a blood-red color, confidently optimistic and cheerful


Spelling Word: sanguine
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n. a (usually long) dramatic speech intended to give the illusion of unspoken reflections, speech you make to yourself


Spelling Word: soliloquy
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v. put down by force or intimidation, make subservient, force to submit or subdue


Spelling Word: subjugate
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n. an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)


Spelling Word: suffragist
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a. having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy, expressive of contempt


Spelling Word: supercilious
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n. (logic) a statement that is necessarily true, useless repetition


Spelling Word: tautology
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n. practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships


Spelling Word: taxonomy
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a. pertaining to the structure or movement of the earth's crust ,of or pertaining to construction or architecture


Spelling Word: tectonic
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a. (of the elements) as if showing violent anger, characterized by violent emotions or behavior


Spelling Word: tempestuous
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n. the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy


Spelling Word: thermodynamics
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a. characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control


Spelling Word: totalitarian
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a. unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech


Spelling Word: unctuous
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a. marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; inclined to react violently


Spelling Word: vehement
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a. characterized by great force or energy, intensely enthusiastic or passionate, especially to an excessive degree


Spelling Word: fervid
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n. a powerful circular current of water, the shape of something rotating rapidly


Spelling Word: vortex
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v. blow away or off with a current of air, separate the chaff from by using air currents


Spelling Word: winnow
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a. shaped to fit by or as if by altering the contours of a pliable mass (as by work or effort)


Spelling Word: wrought
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n. person having dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries


Spelling Word: xenophobe
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n. officer in the (ceremonial) bodyguard of the British monarch


Spelling Word: yeoman
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n. a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians


Spelling Word: ziggurat