作者: Wan H. Liang

美国高考SAT:十大语法重点

在参加SAT英语考试之前,考生必须正确评估自己的语法能力,了解语法的严谨性和在SAT考试中的重要性。然而,掌握所有的英语语法规则并不容易,事实上是不可能的,对SAT考生也是不必要的。但是,必须具备合格的语法技能,才可能通过SAT考试。

SAT考试中的写作与语言测试其实就有专门针对语法知识的考题,这也是直接考查语法能力的单元,而阅读,作文,甚至数学测试,也都在间接地考查你的语法技能。那么,什么才是合格的SAT语法技能?既然不能掌握所有的英语语法规则,自然是多多益善。但是,起码的合格线在哪里呢?

SAT的官方机构College Board在关于新SAT的写作和语言测试的相关文件和样题中重点强调了如下语法规则。

1 修饰失当
语句中的修饰成分是描述某事物的单词或短语。 修饰涉及词法,句法,和复合句,在SAT写作和语言测试中纠正其错误是常见的考题。例如,短语与其应该修饰的名词脱离,不知它想修饰的应该是什么,听起来像在解释错误的对象;再有,用逗号错误地将短语从句与修饰的名词隔开,混淆了原意。SAT考试时常考查两种修饰问题:修饰悬空和修饰错位。

1.1 修饰悬空

修饰悬空的常见情形源于以短语作为修饰成分,它开始一个句子,后面加上一个逗号,但是修饰对象不在逗号之后。 在下面的第一个例子中,例如,修饰语"Coating the sidewalk"应该描述雪。 但是,由于"we"是逗号后的第一个字,所以这句话听起来像"we"是"Coating the sidewalk"。

例句:修饰成分用下划线表示,修饰对象为黑体。

错误 Coating the sidewalk, we trudged through the heavy snow.

正确  We trudged through the heavy snow coating the sidewalk.

错误 Long and tangled, it was difficult to comb the child's hair.

正确  Long and tangled, the child's hair was difficult to comb.



1.2 修饰错位

修饰错位是指修饰成分,即描述性的短语,不够接近它描述的东西,使它听起来像是指错误的东西。 在下面的第一个例子中,"on the sale rack"修饰对象应该"jacket"。 然而,由于它被放置在“too small”的旁边,所以这句话似乎表明这是夹克太小的方式。 为了纠正它,我们将修饰成分移到更接近它描述的对象。

例句:修饰成分用下划线表示,修饰对象为黑体。

错误 The jacket was too small on the sale rack.

正确  The jacket on the sale rack was too small.

错误 Ray wore his one collared shirt to the job interview, which was stained with mustard.

正确  Ray wore his one collared shirt, which was stained with mustard, to the job interview.

错误 She handed out brownies to children wrapped in foil.

正确  She handed out brownies wrapped in foil to children.



2 并行结构
并行结构是指使用相同的语法格式表诉一系列相关联的项目。 例如,如果项目中的两个东西是以-ing结尾的动词,则第三个也应该是以-ing结尾的动词。 如果其中一个项目是介词短语,则第二个项目也应使用介词短语的形式。纠正并行结构中的错误是SAT中常见的考试内容。

例句:并行结构对象为黑体,有待修改的部分用下划线表示。

错误 The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and they sat down in their seats.

正确  The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and sat down in their seats.

错误 Painting your bedroom requires picking a color, measuring the walls, get the right tools, and buying paint.

正确  Painting your bedroom requires picking a color, measuring the walls, getting the right tools, and buying paint.

错误 The workshop had a whiteboard on one wall, a set of shelves against another wall, and a third wall had many drawers for tools.

正确  The workshop had a whiteboard on one wall, a set of shelves against another wall, and many drawers for tools along a third wall.



3 句法
多数句子是由两个或多个子句组成的,这些子句既可能是独立的,也可能其间有某些依赖关系。子句的连接错误是SAT的常见考点,要求考生能正确地将子句加入到复杂的句子中,或者从复杂的句子中分解出子句。对于分解出的句子成分,既可以通过独立子句将其连接到主句,也可以通过添加动词或主语来复原其本意。另外,也可以通过连词来构成子句, 如which, because。使用逗号将分解出的句子成分与原主句分成两部分,也是复原其本意的基本方法。总之,子句是语法中最具综合性的考点之一。

我们可以将子句分为两种类型:独立子句和关联子句。 一个独立子句可以作为一个完整的句子,因为它有主语和谓语,并不是从一个连接词或短语开始,如"when","because",形成对其它子句的关联。关联子句则不同,它必须依附于独立子句,作为完整句子的一部分。

SAT考试中对句法的考查常见如下三种类型:句子片段,子句连接,使用子句作为句子的主语。

3.1 句子片段

句子片段是小于一个由独立子句的任意语法成分。 常见的题型有将片段连接到独立子句,如例1;或添加缺少的主语或动词,如例2。

例1: 将片段连接到独立子句

片段
  • To boost the number of women in STEM fields, including electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering.
  • From diving hard for every attempted shot to deftly throwing the ball to the most open defender.
独立子句
  • The goalie was saving her team at a time when they needed her.
  • Senior female executives also act as mentors to young women.

答案 To boost the number of women in STEM fields, including electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering, senior female executives also act as mentors to young women.

答案 From diving hard for every attempted shot to deftly throwing the ball to the most open defender, the goalie was saving her team at a time when they needed her.

例2: 将片段改成独立子句

For the sake of a better experience at school, asking his adviser for a new room assignment.

答案 For the sake of a better experience at school, the freshman asked his adviser for a new room assignment.



3.2 子句连接

如果一个句子是由多个独立子句组成的,而且只有逗号或根本无标点符号连接,它一般都有问题,称之为"Run on"。 在SAT考试中,请使用以下三条规律找到正确的答案:

  1. 如果一个独立子句是对方的解释或定义,则在解释的开头添加一个连接词,如"because","which"。
  2. 如果独立子句既不定义或解释其它名词,分隔它们的方法有 ", and", ", but", 或者分号组合。
  3. 或者,将它们分成两个单独的句子。
例句: 两个独立子句之间的分隔标记为|。

错误 The dog Mary wants to put in the dog show is a beagle, | it is a medium-sized member of the hound family.

正确 The dog Mary wants to put in the dog show is a beagle, which is a medium-sized member of the hound family.

错误 The deli had no milk left after a rush of morning customers, | the owner rushed to order more.

正确 Because the deli had no milk left after a rush of morning customers, the owner rushed to order more.

错误 Hummus, a favorite Mediterranean spread, is creamy and smooth, | it is very garlicky.

正确 Hummus, a favorite Mediterranean spread, is creamy and smooth, and it is very garlicky.

错误 Air plants like the Tillandsia species are tolerant of a wide range of climates, | they thrive in room temperatures.

正确 Air plants like the Tillandsia species are tolerant of a wide range of climates; they thrive in room temperatures.

错误 Deciding which play to put on is only the first step, | even a great script won’t succeed without a well-selected cast and a set design that works with the director’s vision.

正确 Deciding which play to put on is only the first step. Even a great script won’t succeed without a well-selected cast and a set design that works with the director’s vision.



3.3 使用子句作主语

主语多数情况下是名词,有时候,句子可以使用一个完整的关联子句作为主语,而不是一个简单的名词。 当这种情况发生时,应该将关联子句视为单数名词。

例如,在第一个例子中,"Whoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftops"这个子句是这个句子的主语。

例句: 子句用下划线标记。

错误 Whoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftops are geniuses.

正确 Whoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftops is a genius.

错误 That cleaning a kitchen is a repetitive chore which makes it especially thankless.

正确 That cleaning a kitchen is a repetitive chore makes it especially thankless.



4 名词复数和所有格
对每个英语学习者来说名词的单复数和所有格是最基本的语法知识。但是,即使是如此基本的知识点,在SAT测试中也可能会变得棘手。所以,多复习和准备一些规则,如不规侧的复数单词,复数的所有格等。整理这些听起来简单,却很容易出错的知识点,对SAT测试大有裨益。

常见是考试要点有
  1. 普通的复数名词,将"s"添加到单数名词的末尾。
  2. 单数名词的所有格,在单数名词的末尾加上"撇号'+ s"。
  3. 复数名词的所有格,在复数名词的末尾添加一个撇号"撇号'+ s"。
例句:

错误 Every morning, many hawk's circled the field, looking for prey.

正确 Every morning, many hawks circled the field, looking for prey.

错误 The more I read the novel, the closer I felt to the authors' point of view.

正确 The more I read the novel, the closer I felt to the author's point of view.

错误 Art Deco furniture is marked by the artists use of geometric shapes, curves, strong colors, and new materials, such as plastics.

正确 Art Deco furniture is marked by the artist's use of geometric shapes, curves, strong colors, and new materials, such as plastics.



5 代词
代词的语法作用与名词相同,代表一个名词。例如,代词"she"可以代替“女人”,“女生”,或“女王”。但是,与名词不同,代词如果以不同的方式使用,则会改变其形式。SAT中常有考查测试代词形式的题目。

5.1 代词的主格和宾格 

名词和代词可以是主语或动词的对象,即宾语。主语是动词的执行者,宾语则接受动词。例如,在句子"A dog chases its tail."中,dog是主语,追逐是它所做的动词,而tail是宾语。对普通名词而言,作主语和宾语的形式是完全一样的。

代词的情况就不同了,根据它们是主语或是宾语,形式可能有变化。例如,在"She like him."中,She是主语,所以代词d的形式是主格。另一方面,在"He likes her."中,her就是对象,所以代词形式为宾格。

代词主格Iyouhesheitwethey
代词宾格meyouhimheritusthem
 

例句:

错误 Me and my parents ate dinner.

正确 My parents and I ate dinner.

错误 The tourists asked my friends and I for directions.

正确 The tourists asked my friends and me for directions.

错误 The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and I.

正确 The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and me.



5.2 who 和 whom 

who是一个关系代词,可以在句子中引导关联子句或独立子句。当这个代词是动词的主体时,使用who,当代词是动作的对象时,使用whom。

究竟是使用who或whom,并不取决于它指代的内容和上下文,而是由在自己子句中扮演什么角色决定。例如,在例1中,即使"people"是动词"benefit"的对象,在对"understand"而言,"who"是动词的主语。

例句:

错误 The essay points out that the reduction in taxes only benefits those people whom understand the tax code.

正确 The essay points out that the reduction in taxes only benefits those people who understand the tax code.

错误 Skydivers, who many people greatly admire, tend to be comfortable with risk-taking and in excellent physical shape.

正确 Skydivers, whom many people greatly admire, tend to be comfortable with risk-taking and in excellent physical shape.



5.3 代词的指代对象

如果有一个代词,很明显该代词表示某个名词。 如果不清楚一个代词是代表什么名词,或者如果一个代词没有指代对象,那么这个句子需要重写。常用的方式有两种:代词可以用一个名词替换,或者简化短语。

例如,在例1中,"this"可以指“Industrial Revolution”,“resistance group”,“mechanization”, 或“labor force”,所以需要添加一个名词。 同时,在例3中,没有"them"没有指代对象,所以这个句子必须被重写。

例句: 有问题的代词用黑体表示。

错误 During the Industrial Revolution in England, a resistance group sprang up to protest the mechanization of the labor force. Workers associated with this began to break and burn factory machinery to protest what they saw as unfair treatment.

正确 During the Industrial Revolution in England, a resistance group sprang up to protest the mechanization of the labor force. Workers associated with this faction began to break and burn factory machinery to protest what they saw as unfair treatment.

错误 The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so management sent them back to the main office.

正确 The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so management sent the files back to the main office.

错误 The amount of entertainment available is increasing steadily; soon there will be over 5000 shows for them to distribute to subscribers.

正确 The amount of entertainment available is increasing steadily; soon there will be over 5000 shows for distribution to subscribers.



5.4 代词的一致性

代词和它的指代对象必须保持一致性,包含人称(第一人称,第二人称,第三人称)和单复数等各个方面。这也意味着复数名词与复数代词相匹配,单数代词指向单数名词。

例句: 不匹配的代词和名词用黑体表示。

错误 If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, you have to know the rules of the game.

正确 If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, she has to know the rules of the game.

错误 Like its distant oceanic relatives whales, hippopotamuses can alter their density to sink or float in water.

正确 Like their distant oceanic relatives whales, hippopotamuses can alter their density to sink or float in water.

错误 After acquiring several new companies, the multinational corporation moved their headquarters to a state with more favorable tax loop holes.

正确 After acquiring several new companies, the multinational corporation moved its headquarters to a state with more favorable tax loop holes.



5.5 that 和 who

that和who都可以作为关系代词使用。(that还可以作为其它类型的代词使用。)当它们作为关系代词时,背后的基本概念很简单:who用于个人或人群,而that用于所有其他的事或物。

例句: 不匹配的代词和名词用黑体表示。

错误 Coaching can be difficult for people, that have a hard time planning strategy on the field.

正确 Coaching can be difficult for people who have a hard time planning strategy on the field.

错误 The scientific establishment who rejected Giordano Bruno’s theory that the earth revolves around the sun later had to acknowledge its mistake.

正确 The scientific establishment that rejected Giordano Bruno’s theory that the earth revolves around the sun later had to acknowledge its mistake.



5.6 不定代词

不定代词是指未知或未指定的人,地点或事物。 有些不定代词看起来好像指代了复数性质的人或物,但实质上是单数。这意味着它们使用单数形式的动词,而且任何引用它们的名词也必须是单数,而不能是复数。

与人相关的不定代词 everyone,everybody,someone,somebody,anyone,anybody,no one,nobody,each (of these),either (of these),neither (of these)

与地点相关的不定代词 everywhere,somewhere,anywhere,nowhere

与事物相关的不定代词 everything,something,anything,nothing,each (of these),either (of these),neither (of these)

例句: 不匹配的部分用黑体表示。

错误 On big budget movies, each of the actors have large, well-decorated trailers.

正确 On big budget movies, each of the actors has a large, well-decorated trailer.

错误 Every one of the experts invited to speak at the conference were unable to make it.

正确 Every one of the experts invited to speak at the conference was unable to make it.

错误 Anyone thinking about becoming writers must be excellent readers.

正确 Anyone thinking about becoming a writer must be an excellent reader.

错误 Either of these desks would be great surfaces to work on.

正确 Either of these desks would be a great surface to work on.



5.7 容易与代词混淆的问题

代词的不同形式,以及在使用时与be的缩写经常引起混淆,但它们是必须记住的东西。下面是一个小结。

its belonging to it

it's it is

their belonging to them

they're they are

there  in/on that place;existing somewhere

your belonging to you

you're you are

whose belonging to whom

who's who is

例句: 错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Your just like all the other Americans visiting England who think that cricket is closely related to baseball.

正确 You’re just like all the other Americans visiting England who think that cricket is closely related to baseball.

错误 Having several books to return to the library, Maria checks they’re due dates to make sure she won’t have to pay fines.

正确 Having several books to return to the library, Maria checks their due dates to make sure she won’t have to pay fines.

错误 Dismayed that no one agreed with his argument, the city councilman asked, “Whose with me on this?”

正确 Dismayed that no one agreed with his argument, the city councilman asked, “Who’s with me on this?”



6 动词
我们都知道词法英语语法的基础,提到名词,动词,形容词,大家感到这不是什么高深的学问。但是,在SAT写作和语言测试中,它们可能会成为你的麻烦,轻则让你减分,甚至会毁掉的整个考试。词法的内容很多,其中动词是关键,很多语法内容都与动词有关。SAT复习要从最简单的规则开始,如确保在每个句子中,动词与主语在单复数,时态,语态上保持匹配和一致,这中间包含大量的工作。

就SAT的试题形式看,动词有两个主要问题:动词时态和主谓语一致性。

6.1 动词时态

一共有九种基本的动词时态,每个时间段有三种。下面以"sing"为例列出全部时态,助动词"have", "be", 和 "do"在构成时态上起了重要作用。

现在时态
  • 一般现在时: They sing.
  • 现在进行时: They are singing.
  • 现在完成时: They have sung.
过去时态
  • 一般过去时: They sang.
  • 过去进行时: They were singing.
  • 过去完成时: They had sung.
将来时态
  • 一般将来时: They will sing.
  • 将来进行时: Continuous: They will be singing.
  • 将来完成时: They will have sung.
一般来说,在单个句子中,同一时间段内应保持动词时态一致,特别是句子描述在同一时间段内发生的事情。如果一个句子包含按时间顺序的变化,则动词时态应该随时间上的转移变化。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 According to the cardiologist, since the patient’s arteries are dangerously clogged with cholesterol deposits, the medical team had to check for elevated blood pressure and other heart attack risks.

正确 According to the cardiologist, since the patient’s arteries are dangerously clogged with cholesterol deposits, the medical team has to check for elevated blood pressure and other heart attack risks.

错误 Even though office hours had been over for some time, the professor and her student are continuing their productive work on the research project.

正确 Even though office hours have been over for some time, the professor and her student are continuing their productive work on the research project.

错误 If the pace of technological advancements continues, in the future we ride self-driving cars.

正确 If the pace of technological advancements continues, in the future we will ride self-driving cars.



6.2 主谓语一致性

名词和动词都的一致性是所有英语考试的重点,在SAT中也不例外。除了代词,助动词,时态等的配合外,主语的单数复数问题是最具有挑战性的。例如,集合名词是单数,"swarm of bees flies" (一群蜜蜂飞),而不是"swarm of bees fly"(蜜蜂群飞)。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The writing in those paragraphs are absolutely horrible.

正确 The writing in those paragraphs is absolutely horrible.

错误 There was a doctor and a crew of nurses in the emergency room with me during my surgery.

正确 There were a doctor and a crew of nurses in the emergency room with me during my surgery.

错误 Mr. Peterson is trying to do yard work, but a swarm of bees keep distracting him.

正确 Mr. Peterson is trying to do yard work, but a swarm of bees keeps distracting him.



7 合符逻辑的比较
逻辑和语法看起来是不同的东西。但是有时语法规则其实体现的是逻辑方面的要求,例如,在比较两个对象时,你需要遵守两个规则。其一,你只可以比较相似的东西,其二,你不应该比较某个个体与其类别中的所有东西。类似的知识在SAT写作和语言测试中常常成为考点。

发现不合逻辑的比较的一个窍门是,当一个句子通过使用比较词来比较属于某人或其他某物的某个句子时,逻辑往往会发生错误。你必须确保两边的两个东西在同一个类别,且是可比较的。

例如,可以比较苹果和橘子,因为它们都是水果。但是,如果Stanley和Cora都有苹果,你不能说:

I like Stanley's apples better than Cora.

正确的说法是:

I like Stanley's apples better than Cora's apples.

或简单地:

I like Stanley's apples better than Cora's.

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Some regulators believe that new drugs should have to go through an even more rigorous testing process than patients who prefer the one currently in place.

正确 Some regulators believe that new drugs should have to go through an even more rigorous testing process than the one currently in place, which patients prefer.

错误 Charles Dickens's epic novels, which are almost universally admired by readers and critics alike, are more sweeping than Jane Austen, who writes novels of manners.

正确 Charles Dickens's epic novels, which are almost universally admired by readers and critics alike, are more sweeping than Jane Austen's novels of manners.

错误 For astronauts, the moon is easier to get to than any space object.

正确 For astronauts, the moon is easier to get to than any other space object.



8 简洁和重复
在实际交流中,有时候重要的话要说两次,甚至三次,强调某个核心观点,或者提供更清楚的解释。然而,在SAT考试中,要尽可能简洁准确,避免重复和啰嗦。为了挤压出句子中的多余成分,可以尝试以下三种方式:
  • 简化修饰过多的短语
  • 找出重复冗余的表述
  • 将两个简单的句子合并


8.1 过度重复的短语

SAT深信莎士比亚的精神:“简洁是机智的灵魂”,如果你能用较少的话说同样的事,那会体现出你的高明。

有人认为,一个句子使用复杂的词组或多单词短语替换一个意义相同的单词,该句子听起来更正式或更具学术性。但事实并非如此,至少在SAT中, 通常一个单词更好。有时一句话中会夹杂一些单词,他们可能没有任何目的,也不需要用其它字代替,而应该直接删除。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Thinking in a manner more general, we can say that good schools enable people to learn more.

正确 Generally, we can say that good schools enable people to learn more.

错误 The company may not be awarded the contract because it lacks production facilities, making it a worse choice from a theoretical way of speaking.

正确 The company may not be awarded the contract because it lacks production facilities, making it a worse choice theoretically.

错误 Although hesitant to challenge herself at first, the student decided to enroll in three AP courses, two honors courses, and an intensive art course on top of that.

正确 Although hesitant to challenge herself at first, the student decided to enroll in three AP courses, two honors courses, and an intensive art course.

错误 When the audience stood to applaud the speaker, it was clear that her words had had a marvelous, even stupendous, effect on the crowd.

正确 When the audience stood to applaud the speaker, it was clear that her words had had a marvelous effect on the crowd.



8.2 冗余

如果一个句子表达相同的信息两次或多次,必定有冗余的成分,应该保留必要和准确的描述,并删除其它重复冗余的内容。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The stock market may repeat its drop and rise pattern again, warns the financial forecast.

正确 The stock market may repeat its drop and rise pattern, warns the financial forecast.

错误 Soon a relative calm period followed quickly after the brunt of the cyclone had passed.

正确 A relative calm period followed quickly after the brunt of the cyclone had passed.

错误 Management was surprised to see a biannual uptick in sales twice each year.

正确 Management was surprised to see a biannual uptick in sales.



8.3 合并单句

有时,为了写作简洁,必须将简单或相关的句子合并成一个单句。在新句子中,原来句子的顺序并不重要,关键是逻辑和语义上的连接。

正确合并单句的讲究较多,在SAT考试中,可以重点关注以下三点:
  • 如果两个句子中涉及相同的人,地方,事物或概念,可以通过这个重复的名词将一个句子变成另一个句子的关联子句。
  • 如果两个句子有时间顺序上的关系,可以使用"before","after",或"following"之类的介词将其中的一个变成另一个句子的关联子句。
  • 如果一个句子定义了另一个句子,可以将它们组合成一个单句。
例句:

两个单句 The voting rate has not decreased among uneducated citizens. Uneducated voters continue to vote for better schools.

一个单句 The voting rate does has not decreased among uneducated citizens, who continue to vote for better schools.

两个单句 Young musicians are encouraged to perfect their techniques and skills through their conservatory training. After this, they can start their careers in smaller, local orchestras.

一个单句 After perfecting their techniques and skills through their conservatory training, young musicians can start their careers in smaller, local orchestras.

两个单句 The conclusion scientists came to is the idea that instead of being made up of particles, matter is actually made out of one-dimensional objects called strings. This is string theory.

一个单句 The conclusion scientists came to is string theory, the idea that instead of being made up of particles, matter is actually made out of one-dimensional objects called strings.



9 成语和标准英语
SAT考查对常用英语用法的了解,成语和短语是其中的主要内容之一。

成语有两个特点,一是单词之间的搭配固定,二是词义与构成单词的直接含义未必关联。例如:
  • raining cats and dogs:下着倾盆大雨
  • stumble on:绊倒
  • keep at bay:牵制,保持
与成语和短语相关,容易混淆的单词和词组,如同音异义词,介词搭配等也是常见的考试内容。

 9.1 动词短语

动词短语是SAT考试中常见的一种短语,由动词+介词组成。考题的要点是你是否知道哪个是正确的介词。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The show was followed on an encore.

正确 The show was followed by an encore.

错误 She is responsible of returning her library books.

正确 She is responsible for returning her library books.

错误 One should refrain for texting while driving.

正确 One should refrain from texting while driving.



9.2 介词短语

与动词短语类似,但不涉及动词,介词短语由一组单词构成,结尾是特定的介词。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The translucent sculpture used light as a means through connecting viewers standing across from each other.

正确 The translucent sculpture used light as a means of connecting viewers standing across from each other.

错误 In accordance to these findings, future research will focus on analyzing the effect of facial expressions on mirror neurons.

正确 In accordance with these findings, future research will focus on analyzing the effect of facial expressions on mirror neurons.



9.3 容易混淆的单词

英语中有很多的声音听起来相似,但意思是非常不同的单词,在SAT考试中要特别留心。例如:
  • Accept: v. 接受
  • Except: prop. 除外
  • Affect: v. 影响
  • Effect: n. 结果; v. 导致
  • Beside: prop. 旁边
  • Besides: prop. 另外
  • Complement: v. 补充
  • Compliment: v. 赞扬
  • Eminent: a. 杰出
  • Imminent: a. 即将来临
  • Precede: v. 优于,先于
  • Proceed: v. 继续
  • Sight: n. 视力, 场景
  • Site: n. 地点,位置
  • Cite: v. 引用
例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Despite hours of work, the web administration team was unable to restore the sight after the denial of service attack.

正确 Despite hours of work, the web administration team was unable to restore the site after the denial of service attack.

错误 The presidential candidate used rhetorical flourishes to great affect in his speech, receiving a standing ovation.

正确 The presidential candidate used rhetorical flourishes to great effect in his speech, receiving a standing ovation.



9.4 语言规范

在学习和工作中,或出版或发表文章时,通常要使用正式的英文,这意味着避免俚语和听起来太随意的单词和短语,尽量使用规范的英语。在SAT考试中,也反映了对语言规范的要求。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 A bunch of guys doing experiments was able to synthesize a lithium-ion battery smaller than a grain of sand.

正确 A team of researchers was able to synthesize a lithium-ion battery smaller than a grain of sand.

错误 At London’s Westminster Abbey in 1559, Elizabeth Tudor, the 25-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, got to become Queen Elizabeth I.

正确 At London’s Westminster Abbey in 1559, Elizabeth Tudor, the 25-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, was crowned Queen Elizabeth I.



10 连词和连词副词
连词和连词副词是构成复合句的关键,是解释复合句中两个句子如何相互关联的单词,这里的关联是指因果,比较,程度,或逻辑等。

10.1 因果关联

有一些连词专用于解释因果关系,强调一件事情因为另一件事情发生。例如:
  • Because: 因为
  • Therefore,hence: 所以,因此
  • For example,for instance: 例如
  • Whereby: 由此
  • Consequently: 接下来(的后果),因此
例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Recent advances in medicine include a new MRI technique for detecting heart damage in chemotherapy patients. However, doctors will be able to see heart defects earlier and more effectively.

正确 Recent advances in medicine include a new MRI technique for detecting heart damage in chemotherapy patients. Consequently, doctors will be able to see heart defects earlier and more effectively.

错误 Not only have archaeologists in Britain unearthed several well-preserved Bronze Age dwellings, we are getting new insight into domestic life 3000 years ago.

正确 Because archaeologists in Britain have unearthed several well-preserved Bronze Age dwellings, we are getting new insight into domestic life 3000 years ago.

错误 Foreshadowing, a literary technique when an author hints at what will happen later in the text, is a useful tool for setting the right atmosphere.

正确 Foreshadowing, a literary technique whereby an author hints at what will happen later in the text, is a useful tool for setting the right atmosphere.



10.2 对照,转折,和让步

有一些连词用于解释对照,转折,和让步关系,解释一件事情即使因为大有因由或常识使然,也可能转向相反的方向。例如:
  • However: 与刚才所说的矛盾
  • On the one hand, on the other hand: 一方面,另一方面
  • But: 尽管刚才说过,这里是相反的信息
  • Nevertheless: 尽管刚刚说过
  • Aside from: 除了,下面的例子是正在讨论的例外
  • While,whereas: 与之相反或与之相比
  • Though,although: 虽然
例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The pianist had not had nearly enough time to study and practice the sonata, and she played it flawlessly.

正确 The pianist had not had nearly enough time to study and practice the sonata, but she played it flawlessly.

错误 Just as crayons are a medium generally reserved for young children, professional artists have used them to great effect.

正确 Though crayons are a medium generally reserved for young children, professional artists have used them to great effect.



10.3 类比与强调

这一类的连词和连接副词用于相同或类似的对象,有些也用于强调两者中的一个观点。例如:
  • Moreover: 此外,额外的可能更有说服力或重要的事情
  • Just as: 正如,如同
  • Likewise: 同样地
  • Not only/but also: 不仅/如此
例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Investing money is one way to plan for the future. Hence, another good long-term planning option is to take advantage of a retirement savings account.

正确 Investing money is one way to plan for your future. Likewise, another good long-term planning option is to take advantage of a retirement savings account.

错误 Dressing to attract attention can affect the way people perceive you. Nevertheless, it can be inappropriate depending on the context.

正确 Dressing to attract attention can affect the way people perceive you. Moreover, it can be inappropriate depending on the context.

11 标点符号
英文中有许多标点符号规则,但幸运的是,SAT并没有要求所有这些规则,其试题侧重于几种特定类型的标点符号。

11.1 逗号与修饰成分

句子中的修饰成分可以是单词,词组,短语,甚至子句。是否用逗号将修饰成分从句子中分隔开来,取决于修饰成分是否是句子的必要部分。如果句子需要修饰成分才能有意义,那么修饰成分是“限制性的”,不能用逗号分隔;如果可以轻松取出修饰成分而不会丢失句子的含义,那么修饰成分是“非限制性的”,应该用逗号分开。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 US President, Barack Obama, will meet with his counterparts from the European countries for the multinational summit.

正确 US President Barack Obama will meet with his counterparts from the European countries for the multinational summit.

错误 The daisy, a perennial plant, sometimes known as bruisewort, grows low to the ground.

正确 The daisy, a perennial plant sometimes known as bruisewort, grows low to the ground.

错误 Started on a whim by an eccentric resident; the project to clean up the abandoned lot soon became a popular neighborhood pastime.

正确 Started on a whim by an eccentric resident, the project to clean up the abandoned lot soon became a popular neighborhood pastime.

错误 This last part of the minuet should be played with steadily increasing volume, or crescendo; until the final chord.

正确 This last part of the minuet should be played with steadily increasing volume, or crescendo, until the final chord.



11.2 使用破折号

破折号就像括号一样,从句子中分隔出解释性的成分,它对整个句子的表述并不重要,分出之后,对句子的含义没有实质性的影响,有时是一个连接松散的解释或补充,有时是一系列例子。

通常,破折号成对使用,其中可以包含逗号,将破折号中的内容从句子中整体删除不会影响原句的基本含义。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The hairstylist picked up the scissors – the kind that usually sit in the jar of blue liquid, and started to snip bits of hair off his client’s head.

正确 The hairstylist picked up the scissors – the kind that usually sit in the jar of blue liquid – and started to snip bits of hair off his client’s head.

错误 The best hotel concierges have many skills: knowledge of foreign customs, the ability to speak several languages, and a charming manner, that put even the most diffident guests at ease.

正确 The best hotel concierges have many skills – knowledge of foreign customs, the ability to speak several languages, and a charming manner – that put even the most diffident guests at ease.

错误 After readers found the errors, all 243 of them – the publishing company was forced to issue a reprint of the book.

正确 After readers found the errors – all 243 of them – the publishing company was forced to issue a reprint of the book.



11.3 Such as 与逗号

Such as通常会引入一系列例子,以支持前面提及的观点。 正确的方法是在"Such as"之前放一个逗号,在第一个示例对象之前没有逗号。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 Teachers give out a variety of homework assignments, such as, worksheets, hands-on projects, and online quizzes.

正确 Teachers give out a variety of homework assignments, such as worksheets, hands-on projects, and online quizzes.

错误 The antique book shop also sold other paper ephemera such as, maps and newspapers.

正确 The antique book shop also sold other paper ephemera, such as maps and newspapers.



11.4 列表格式

一个列表是一系列人,物,想法,对象,动作,或条件的集合,在句子中扮演相同的角色,通常用逗号分隔。列表中对象的标点规则:
  • 对象一般用逗号分隔,最后一个列表项目对象之前加上"and"或"or"
  • 如果其中一个列表对象中有一个逗号,则所有列表对象都应以分号分隔
例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The market stall sold ripe apples, dark red cherries; and sometimes even apricots.

正确 The market stall sold ripe apples, dark red cherries, and sometimes even apricots.

错误 The class focused on programming languages, algorithms and documentation.

正确 The class focused on programming languages, algorithms, and documentation.



11.5 冒号的用法

冒号有两种不同的用法。其一是引到一个列表,在该列表之后,语句结束,例如,

Here is my list of acceptable pets: dogs, cats, gerbils, and fish.

其二是引到一个解释,定义,或转述的例子,例如,

My search for the perfect pet came down to man's best friend: a dog.

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 It’s easy to explain why many 12th graders start taking school less seriously toward the end of the year; senioritis.

正确 It’s easy to explain why many 12th graders start taking school less seriously toward the end of the year: senioritis.

错误 The more I cook at home, the more kitchen techniques I learn, knife skills, mise en place, and cooking several dishes simultaneously.

正确 The more I cook at home, the more kitchen techniques I learn: knife skills, mise en place, and cooking several dishes simultaneously.



11.6 分号的用法

分号有两个基本功能。其一是罗列列表中的项目对象,只要某个项目对象本身含有逗号,列表就需要用分号隔开,如11.4所述。其二是在不用连接词的情况下纠正句子的连接错误,如3.2所述。

例句: 可能错误的部分用黑体表示。

错误 The State Department completed three assignments: diplomatic talks, led by an expert in arms control, a bilateral meeting, chaired by an assistant director, and a state visit.

正确 The State Department completed three assignments: diplomatic talks, led by an expert in arms control; a bilateral meeting, chaired by an assistant director; and a state visit.

错误 The architect worked on the model all night, he was bleary-eyed during the presentation.

正确 The architect worked on the model all night; he was bleary-eyed during the presentation.

我们简单罗列了一些在写作和语言测试的相关文件和官方样题中常见的语法要点,抛砖引玉,为复习SAT语法提供参考和启发,为你通过SAT考试助一臂之力。