100 Phrases with Meaning and Sentence

100 common phrases with meaning and sentence in academic reading; these phrases are selected from latest English media, with uncommon meanings in contexts.

 100 Common Phrases in Academic Reading
jet lag  Speak
tiredness by a person after a long flight across several time zones
One of the perks of business travel is frequent-flyer points; a trip may end with a large dose of jet lag, but at least some points will be earned, which can be redeemed for benefits worth 1.5 cents for each.
work ethic  Speak
the principle that hard work is intrinsically virtuous or worthy of reward
Executives should stop equating the work ethic with the long working hours, work should not be frantic, a relaxed ethos in the office might work better in the long run.
weapon-wielding  Speak
holding weapon in hands and ready to use it
Matilda's ability to escape into other worlds is also a key aspect of the novel, which is at its heart an ode to literature: through books, Matilda can flee oafish relatives and weapon-wielding teachers.
crown prince  Speak
a male heir to a throne
Last year Saudi Arabia’s powerful crown prince pulverised Awamiyah, a rebellious town; Saudi forces shelled its 400-year-old neighbourhoods and erected siege walls to trap some 200 gunmen.
well-to-do  Speak
wealthy; prosperous
Well-to-do people praise Prince Muhammad for ridding Awamiyah of a slum infested by gun-toting criminals, which appealed to landless peasants in Eastern Province.
lump with  Speak
put someone or something in the same group or category as some other person or thing
The revival of Ponte is lumped in with the gentrification taking place in parts of inner-city Johannesburg, where hipsters gather at a market on Sundays to coo over minimalist lampshades.
in chaos  Speak
overturned, inverted
Although the signs of decline may not yet be evident on the pitch, Latin American football is in chaos, with financial and administrative problems that make the Europeans' troubles seem trifling.
national side  Speak
national team, sports team that is the representative of the whole nation rather than a school or club
Even the celebrated national side is now routinely barracked when it plays at home, so that it has taken to staging its games in provincial towns, where it can hope for a warmer reception than in Rio.
hold on  Speak
stop, keep, persist, grasp
For him, winning titles is just a weapon to make money; lest this sound a little bloodless to the fans, Mr Zohar explains that he aims to get Flamengo back to the point where it can hold on to its best players.
up sticks  Speak
take all the things that you own and go and live in a different place
Many startups are branching out into new places and those who stay have broader horizons: put more money outside Bay Area; but Peter, a high-profile venture capitalist, is among those upping sticks.
akin to  Speak
very similar to something
Despite their mechanical complexity and the need for piloting skills akin to riding a unicycle, a helicopter’s idiosyncrasies can quickly be forgiven.
put out  Speak
extinguish, stamp out, exterminate, wipe out
Civilian roles are just as vital, from rescuing people stranded on mountains, from putting out wildfires to carrying people and presidents to and from places where there are no runways.
stand a chance  Speak
have a prospect of success or survival
Nor would most hovering drones stand a chance in the intense storms and blizzards that helicopters sometimes have to fly into.
weigh down  Speak
make someone heavy and unable to move easily
By tilting the rotors forward, Bell’s V-280 can nip along at 520kph and has a range of almost 1,500km, even when weighed down by four crew and 14 fully-kitted combat troops.
concentrate mind  Speak
make one think very clearly
They need no persuading of the dangers of adventurism, which has been concentrating minds in the alliance since 2014 when President Putin annexed Crimea and fomented war in eastern Ukraine.
big name  Speak
a person who is famous in a certain sphere
Hard-working even by the standards of big name chief executives, he claimed that his customary garb of a crumpled black sweater saved him wasting time choosing a suit.
beat down  Speak
radiate intense heat and brightness, of the sun
The sun beats down on a queue of punters outside the Espace pachinko parlour in central Tokyo; inside is an air-conditioned oasis.
slice through  Speak
cut through something with slicing motions
The moment of death had obsessed him from childhood, when he had acquired that slight crouch, protecting his neck from the shining blade of the guillotine that might slice through.
turn away  Speak
move or cause to move in a different direction
In middle age he could not turn away from Goya’s depictions of bayonetings; in old age he watched without flinching as Islamist terrorists crudely sawed off the heads of victims.
crypto-currency  Speak
a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency
They are easily confused with the many startups that have recently launched new crypto currencies via an initial coin offering (ICO), a much hyped form of crowdfunding.
rule out  Speak
eliminate or exclude something from consideration
He does not rule out a sudden breakthrough that might cut the Gordian knot and make such ledgers more scalable.
count towards  Speak
be part of what is needed to complete or achieve something
It advocated closing a loophole which means that money spent on hiring staff does not count towards a campaign’s spending limits.
high margin  Speak
giving a high level of profit compared to the amount of money spent on doing them
Many e-bikes are powered by gear -the highest margin component- from Bosch, a German conglomerate, which only started tinkering with the technology in 2009.
start off  Speak
begin working, operating, or dealing with something
This starts off as a thick gel, but then hardens into a solid matrix that binds the aggregates together.
foul-up  Speak
a mistake resulting in confusion
Global public-health authorities vowed to learn from previous catastrophic foul-up; a fresh outbreak of Ebola will reveal whether they have done so.
high-profile  Speak
attracting much attention or publicity
This year, following the fall of one of the festival's most high-profile regulars, Harvey Weinstein, the event’s ingrained sexism was scrutinised and criticised more intently than ever.
low-key  Speak
not elaborate, showy, or intensive
modest or restrained
Mr Kore-Eda is one of world cinema's most humane and skilful storytellers, and "Shoplifters" is another of his low-key, acutely observed, ultimately devastating studies of contemporary Japanese life.
count on  Speak
figure, estimate, calculate, forecast, reckon
In the past, companies with sloppy approaches have been able to count on their customers' lack of interest in cybersecurity which has dwindled over the years despite a succession of hacking scandals.
first go  Speak
doing or trying someting at first
Mr Vala decided that the party should indeed have the first go at proving a majority in the state assembly, despite the apparently insuperable arithmetic.
lock arms  Speak
join tightly with the arms on each side
The party locked arms with the third force, a regional outfit called the Janata Dal-Secular; the pairing of two parties thus claimed the right to replace the incumbent from them as chief minister.
swear someone in  Speak
administer an oath to someone who then officially begins in office
Little did he know when he was sworn in as chief minister of the Indian state of Karnataka on May 17th, but his tenure was destined to be brief.
run along  Speak
be in line with; form a line along
He unveiled a plan to rebuild southern Damascus, including areas that run along the camp's edge; some suggest relocating the Palestinians to distant scrubland.
drive out  Speak
cause or force someone or something to leave
The pursuit of purity involved vicious factional fights as real Marxists drove out renegades, revisionists and heretics.
doorstop book  Speak
a large, boring book, generally considered a classic
Publishers are producing a cascade of books on his life and thought, from doorstop book Das Kapital, to slim pamphlet Communist Manifesto.
tamp down  Speak
reduce the amount, level, size, or importance of something
The government wants to promote faiths that it views as indigenous, including Buddhism and Taoism, and to tamp down on those seen as foreign and money-grubbing.
open air  Speak
a free or unenclosed space outdoors
When the occupants of Snow Panda House were first allowed to play in the open air in mid-February, they bounded out and rolled in the white stuff.
clock in  Speak
begin work, especially by punching a time clock
Factory workers have long clocked in and out; but AI makes ubiquitous surveillance worthwhile, because every bit of data is potentially valuable.
self-contained  Speak
complete, or having all that is needed, in itself
Literally Buddha Place, Boudhanath is a village nestled within the sprawling Nepalese city; even though it's now a part of Kathmandu, it retains the self-contained cosiness of a village.
chalk up  Speak
draw or write;
rise in the value or level of something
For a long time, I bought into this anti-circle bias; and while I often strayed from the straight and narrow, I always chalked up my circuitous path to personal shortcomings.
short program  Speak
usually the first of two phases in figure skating competitions
Gabriella Papadakis's sparkling green outfit came undone in the back while she and partner were performing their short program.
screen out  Speak
remove from a group that is being examined
The surveys will be used to divide publications into buckets to screen out likely peddlers of misinformation; it's also betting on the notoriously fickle news judgment of the masses.
tuck in  Speak
push, fold so as to hide them;
eat food heartily
Families tuck in to hearty meals of sausages and rye bread, and men play cards over glasses of locally brewed beer.
result in  Speak
cause something to happen
Scientists knew that photons striking a plant’s leaves triggered a cascade that ultimately resulted in sugar production, but no one knew exactly how that worked.
well-studied  Speak
proceeding or resulting from careful study; carefully designed or contrived
The outrage echoed that of 2015 when a Minnesota dentist killed a well-studied lion nicknamed Cecil after he was lured out of a protected Zimbabwe park.
carpet bomb  Speak
bomb an area intensively
Muons are produced when cosmic rays - high-speed atom fragments that hurtle through space - smash into the atmosphere; they carpet bomb Earth at a rate of 10,000 per square meter per minute.
snap election  Speak
an election called earlier than expected
Abe's long-held dream to change the pacifist constitution got a big boost today as conservative coalition won a crucial 2/3 majority in a snap election.
bear down on  Speak
move quickly towards someone in a determined and threatening way
One of the most destructive gusts in the northeastern Atlantic bore down on Ireland, unleashing strong winds and rain that killed at least three people.
screw up  Speak
completely mismanage or mishandle a situation
It's a bizarre concept that Alaskan volcanoes were screwing up the Nile watershed, causing the flow of one of the world’s mightiest rivers to slow.
bump up  Speak
increase the amount or size of something
This was on their backburner and not likely to get fixed anytime soon, and we were hoping to get some additional leverage to make them bump up the priority on their end.
scoop up  Speak
lift out, take up
The footage appears to show security personnel restrain a visibly upset boy while they carefully cut the belt from the youth's torso in Kirkuk. Once the belt has been removed, the boy is scooped up and taken away.
mega-event  Speak
a unique event time nature, which is related to the specific place where it took place, such as the Olympic Game
Such mega-events have undergirded determination in government and the public alike to move on longstanding issues of housing and infrastructure; a flood of public-works projects have accelerated a profound reshaping of Rio de Janeiro, often in ways that reanimate bitterness over racial and class divisions.
stand by  Speak
wait in expectation of some event; make ready
Well, look whats happen again. What are these useless political hacks who have stood by with one attack after another costing the lives of hundreds of innocent Europeans got to say now to the victims and their families of tonight's latest atrocity?
coming-of-age  Speak
related to a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult
Anyone who’s turned the pages of King’s epic coming-of-age horror thriller knows this bloodthirsty funster isn’t your average psycho in greasepaint.
fall into line  Speak
conform with others or with accepted behavior.
If only they were as adamant with completing school, getting employment and becoming a productive member of society rather than settling for living in terrible areas and falling into line with the stereotype.