100 Phrases with Meaning and Sentence

One hundred common phrases with meaning and sentence in academic reading; we select these phrases from the latest English media, with special meanings in contexts.
 100 Common Phrases in Academic Reading
give rise to  Speak
v.
to cause something
Even in classical physics, this gives rise to intriguing pattern formation, like clouds wrapping around the Earth in beautiful spiral motions.
rare earth  Speak
n.
any of a group of similar oxides of metals occurring together in widely distributed but relatively scarce minerals
The findings offer one way to alleviate a growing demand for minor metals like cobalt, lithium, and rare earth elements that are used in clean energy products like electric cars.
lay out  Speak
v.
to arrange; to plan in detail
A team led by MIT researchers lays out the scientific plan and rationale for a suite of scrappy missions set to hunt for signs of life in the atmosphere.
hands-on  Speak
a.
involving direct involvement or intervention
After working hands-on with local communities in Delaware while also learning the tangible, human impact of policymaking, he knew he made the right choice.
jump-start  Speak
v.
to start or restart something rapidly or forcefully
Scientists are now trying to find ways to help treat patients by jump-starting those lackluster T cells.
close-knit  Speak
a.
united or bound together by strong relationships and common interests
He grew up in a close-knit family in Broward County, where he found comfort in the routine of Sunday church services, playing outside with friends, and cookouts on the weekends.
stare at  Speak
v.
gaze or gawk at someone or something in an intense, prolonged, or steadfast manner
If you look at these images, you’re basically staring at this epic desert landscape; it’s the most forlorn place you could ever visit.
domino effect  Speak
n.
the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events
This made it possible for oxygen to eventually accumulate in the atmosphere, setting off a domino effect of diversification and shaping the uniquely habitable planet.
lab value  Speak
n.
data or data range used to determine a patient's overall health and well-being
The system automatically displays a diabetes card containing medications, lab values, and snippets from past records that are relevant to the treatment.
come down to  Speak
v.
be dependent on a specified factor
It really came down to which one would revolutionize the way that we make superconducting magnets, and which one was easier to build.
on track  Speak
a.
acting or thinking in a way that is likely to achieve what is required
The collaboration is on track to build the world's first fusion device that can create and confine a plasma that produces more energy than it consumes.
engage with  Speak
v.
get involved with other people and their ideas in order to understand them
Her research has taken her across the country to attend impactful conferences and allowed her to engage with prominent experts in the realm of resilience.
come a long way  Speak
v.
make significant progress
For the more than 5 million people in the world who have undergone an upper-limb amputation, prosthetics have come a long way.
viral load  Speak
n.
a measurement of the amount of a virus in an organism, typically in the bloodstream
The finding that the Delta variant resulted in similar viral loads was a pivotal discovery leading to CDC's updated mask recommendation.
genetic blueprint  Speak
n.
a gene map, or a genome map
This giant catalog of information contains genetic blueprints drawn from virus samples studied at the lab in Wuhan.
go off  Speak
v.
leave a place and go somewhere else
We can’t lose energy when thinking of diversity and inclusion because it would mean going off this already long timeline toward parity.
give way to  Speak
v.
be replaced by something, especially because it is better, cheaper, easier
Like large and centralized computers gave way to the PCs of today, a new generation of relatively tiny reactors, designed for autonomous plug-and-play operation is on the horizon.
miss out on  Speak
v.
lose the chance or opportunity to do or experience something
He went on to pursue a physics degree at a university, where he savored the academic experience he felt he had missed out on while serving in the Navy.
real-time  Speak
n.
the actual time during which a process or event occurs
With this analytic power, the fibers someday could sense and alert people in real-time to health changes like a respiratory decline or an irregular heartbeat.
sow discord  Speak
v.
say and do things that cause distrust among one another
The spread of disinformation via social media has the power to change elections, strengthen conspiracy theories, and sow discord.
dive into  Speak
v.
examine something in great detail in a short space of time
A new program is underway to dive into the cognitive aspects of influence operations and how individual attitudes and behaviors are affected by fake news.
well-established  Speak
a.
firmly established, especially because of a long existence
The study uses a series of datasets about mask usage and public attitudes, along with well-established empirical indices of collectivism.
per-capita  Speak
a.
per unit of population, by or for each person
The researchers controlled for a large set of other factors that might influence mask-wearing, including political affiliations across the public, per-capita income, age, and gender.
well-off  Speak
a.
being in good condition or favorable circumstances
There are moral debates about whether society has too much wealth tied up in stocks as opposed to other kinds of assets, and workers might spend more relative to well-off investors.
tease out  Speak
v.
try to get information or understand a meaning that is hidden or not clear
This requires the ability to disentangle sounds produced by different events or objects, and the ability to tease out the effects of the environment.
lean into  Speak
v.
pursue some task or activity with great effort
In many ways, Kendall Square has been a microcosm for those responses, which has leaned into issues around inclusion, striven to support struggling businesses.
scale up  Speak
v.
increase the size, amount, or importance of something, usually an organization or process
The MIT spin-out uses a continuous manufacturing approach that allows it to scale up printer production with demand.
down the road  Speak
ad.
in the future
This knowledge we’re developing can apply to so many applications down the road, like in water harvesting, and I feel like we're getting the edge over the other competitors.
go-to  Speak
a.
regularly or repeatedly chosen
Despite years of hype, virtual reality headsets have yet to topple TV or computer screens as the go-to devices for video viewing.
go into  Speak
v.
start doing a particular type of work
People were accepting of the idea of having a robot do a nasal swab, which suggests that potential engineering efforts could go into thinking about building the systems.
come up with  Speak
v.
produce something, especially when pressured or challenge
A team has come up with a system that can detect the chemical and microbial content of an air sample with even greater sensitivity than a dog's nose.
herd immunity  Speak
n.
a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that can occur when a high percentage of people has become immune to it
The data support the hypothesis that the virus originated in mainland Southeast Asia; this suggests that the populations there may be benefiting from a level of herd immunity.
weave a story  Speak
v.
invent a complicated story
The government has sought to control the narrative and deflect blame for the pandemic’s origins, which has weaved a story of triumph against the virus.
wind up  Speak
v.
come to be in a particular situation or condition, especially a bad one
Leon winds up hiding in one of the secret rooms, surviving along with other children, waiting, hoping against hope that his mother will be released from prison.
hope against hope  Speak
v.
hope very strongly that something will happen, although you know it is not likely
Leon winds up hiding in one of the secret rooms, surviving along with other children, waiting, hoping against hope that his mother will be released from prison.
in a bid  Speak
ad.
in an attempt
With a highly transmissible new variant of the virus surging across Britain, Johnson is rushing out vaccines faster than the country’s neighbors in a bid to stem the pandemic.
baby bust  Speak
n.
a temporary marked decrease in the birth rate
It all works out to fewer New Year’s babies; the baby bust could mean some 320,000 children who statistically would have likely been born in 2021 but won't because of the pandemic.