100 Phrases with Meaning and Sentence

One hundred common phrases with meaning and sentence in academic reading; we select these phrases from the latest English media, with special meanings in contexts.
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 100 Common Phrases in Academic Reading
underserve  Speak
v.
supply with insufficient services, especially social and health services
Two such issues that particularly intrigue her are internet access and privacy for underserved populations. MIT News
time-honored  Speak
a.
respected or valued because it has existed for a long time
The people engaged in a lively colloquy with Chomsky in line with time-honored linguistics department tradition. MIT News
root out  Speak
v.
eradicate, eliminate
They utilized a systematic method to root out signs of topology in all known crystalline structures, also known as inorganic solid-state materials. MIT News
shelf-life  Speak
n.
the period during which a material may be stored and remain suitable for use
We will see mRNA vaccines with improved stability and shelf-life; it is also possible to rapidly create a new vaccine for an emergent pathogen. MIT News
bulk production  Speak
n.
the final product being produced based on the mass order requirements
Conventional vaccine relies on bulk production using mammalian cells, while mRNA vaccines turn into the final product only once inside a patient’s cells. MIT News
account for  Speak
v.
to give a reason or explanation for something
Costly signaling is just one thing we do that seems irrational on the surface but has a deeper logic behind it - a logic accounted for by the field of game theory. MIT News
ethical dimensions  Speak
n.
the competency throughout the curriculum so that students will identify ethical principles in the analysis of social and political problems
More than 500 students enrolled in the spring term grappled with these ethical dimensions alongside their efforts to learn new computing techniques. MIT News
ladder polymer  Speak
n.
a polymer, as DNA, consisting of double-stranded chains linked by hydrogen bonds
They are referred to as ladder polymers because they are formed from double strands connected by rung-like bonds, and these linkages provide a high degree of rigidity. MIT News
lay bare  Speak
v.
reveal or explain; point out frankly, bring into open
In 2020, when the Covid-19 pandemic laid bare additional discrepancies in resource equity around the world, his goal did not waiver. MIT News
storyline  Speak
n.
the plot of a novel, play, movie, or other narrative forms; the series of events that happen in it
He has realized the importance of making data accessible and discovered the power of framing data to control a storyline. MIT News
power grid  Speak
n.
a network of electrical transmission lines connecting generating stations to a wide area
Because the machine-learning model does not require annotated data on power grid anomalies for training, it would be easier to apply in real-world situations. MIT News
hearken back  Speak
v.
bring to mind something in the past
I just like the idea of railroads. It’s a very nostalgic, romantic idea, especially in the U.S. It hearkens back to going out West, the adventure. MIT News
swim meet  Speak
n.
a large gathering of athletes for a swimming competition
Rosado tells the story of when she clocked her best time yet at a swim meet. MIT News
give rise to  Speak
v.
to cause something
Even in classical physics, this gives rise to intriguing pattern formation, like clouds wrapping around the Earth in beautiful spiral motions. MIT News
rare earth  Speak
n.
any of a group of similar oxides of metals occurring together in widely distributed but relatively scarce minerals
The findings offer one way to alleviate a growing demand for minor metals like cobalt, lithium, and rare earth elements that are used in clean energy products like electric cars. MIT News
lay out  Speak
v.
to arrange; to plan in detail
A team led by MIT researchers lays out the scientific plan and rationale for a suite of scrappy missions set to hunt for signs of life in the atmosphere. MIT News
hands-on  Speak
a.
involving direct involvement or intervention
After working hands-on with local communities in Delaware while also learning the tangible, human impact of policymaking, he knew he made the right choice. MIT News
jump-start  Speak
v.
to start or restart something rapidly or forcefully
Scientists are now trying to find ways to help treat patients by jump-starting those lackluster T cells. MIT News
close-knit  Speak
a.
united or bound together by strong relationships and common interests
He grew up in a close-knit family in Broward County, where he found comfort in the routine of Sunday church services, playing outside with friends, and cookouts on the weekends. MIT News
stare at  Speak
v.
gaze or gawk at someone or something in an intense, prolonged, or steadfast manner
If you look at these images, you’re basically staring at this epic desert landscape; it’s the most forlorn place you could ever visit. MIT News
domino effect  Speak
n.
the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events
This made it possible for oxygen to eventually accumulate in the atmosphere, setting off a domino effect of diversification and shaping the uniquely habitable planet. MIT News
lab value  Speak
n.
data or data range used to determine a patient's overall health and well-being
The system automatically displays a diabetes card containing medications, lab values, and snippets from past records that are relevant to the treatment. MIT News
come down to  Speak
v.
be dependent on a specified factor
It really came down to which one would revolutionize the way that we make superconducting magnets, and which one was easier to build. MIT News
on track  Speak
a.
acting or thinking in a way that is likely to achieve what is required
The collaboration is on track to build the world's first fusion device that can create and confine a plasma that produces more energy than it consumes. MIT News
engage with  Speak
v.
get involved with other people and their ideas in order to understand them
Her research has taken her across the country to attend impactful conferences and allowed her to engage with prominent experts in the realm of resilience. MIT News
come a long way  Speak
v.
make significant progress
For the more than 5 million people in the world who have undergone an upper-limb amputation, prosthetics have come a long way. MIT News
viral load  Speak
n.
a measurement of the amount of a virus in an organism, typically in the bloodstream
The finding that the Delta variant resulted in similar viral loads was a pivotal discovery leading to CDC's updated mask recommendation. CNN
genetic blueprint  Speak
n.
a gene map, or a genome map
This giant catalog of information contains genetic blueprints drawn from virus samples studied at the lab in Wuhan. CNN
go off  Speak
v.
leave a place and go somewhere else
We can’t lose energy when thinking of diversity and inclusion because it would mean going off this already long timeline toward parity. MIT News
give way to  Speak
v.
be replaced by something, especially because it is better, cheaper, easier
Like large and centralized computers gave way to the PCs of today, a new generation of relatively tiny reactors, designed for autonomous plug-and-play operation is on the horizon. MIT News
miss out on  Speak
v.
lose the chance or opportunity to do or experience something
He went on to pursue a physics degree at a university, where he savored the academic experience he felt he had missed out on while serving in the Navy. MIT News
real-time  Speak
n.
the actual time during which a process or event occurs
With this analytic power, the fibers someday could sense and alert people in real-time to health changes like a respiratory decline or an irregular heartbeat. MIT News
sow discord  Speak
v.
say and do things that cause distrust among one another
The spread of disinformation via social media has the power to change elections, strengthen conspiracy theories, and sow discord. MIT News
dive into  Speak
v.
examine something in great detail in a short space of time
A new program is underway to dive into the cognitive aspects of influence operations and how individual attitudes and behaviors are affected by fake news. MIT News
well-established  Speak
a.
firmly established, especially because of a long existence
The study uses a series of datasets about mask usage and public attitudes, along with well-established empirical indices of collectivism. MIT News
per-capita  Speak
a.
per unit of population, by or for each person
The researchers controlled for a large set of other factors that might influence mask-wearing, including political affiliations across the public, per-capita income, age, and gender. MIT News
well-off  Speak
a.
being in good condition or favorable circumstances
There are moral debates about whether society has too much wealth tied up in stocks as opposed to other kinds of assets, and workers might spend more relative to well-off investors. MIT News
tease out  Speak
v.
try to get information or understand a meaning that is hidden or not clear
This requires the ability to disentangle sounds produced by different events or objects, and the ability to tease out the effects of the environment. MIT News
lean into  Speak
v.
pursue some task or activity with great effort
In many ways, Kendall Square has been a microcosm for those responses, which has leaned into issues around inclusion, striven to support struggling businesses. MIT News
scale up  Speak
v.
increase the size, amount, or importance of something, usually an organization or process
The MIT spin-out uses a continuous manufacturing approach that allows it to scale up printer production with demand. MIT News
down the road  Speak
ad.
in the future
This knowledge we’re developing can apply to so many applications down the road, like in water harvesting, and I feel like we're getting the edge over the other competitors. MIT News
go-to  Speak
a.
regularly or repeatedly chosen
Despite years of hype, virtual reality headsets have yet to topple TV or computer screens as the go-to devices for video viewing. MIT News
go into  Speak
v.
start doing a particular type of work
People were accepting of the idea of having a robot do a nasal swab, which suggests that potential engineering efforts could go into thinking about building the systems. MIT News
come up with  Speak
v.
produce something, especially when pressured or challenge
A team has come up with a system that can detect the chemical and microbial content of an air sample with even greater sensitivity than a dog's nose. MIT News
herd immunity  Speak
n.
a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that can occur when a high percentage of people has become immune to it
The data support the hypothesis that the virus originated in mainland Southeast Asia; this suggests that the populations there may be benefiting from a level of herd immunity. Postmedia
weave a story  Speak
v.
invent a complicated story
The government has sought to control the narrative and deflect blame for the pandemic’s origins, which has weaved a story of triumph against the virus. Washington Times
wind up  Speak
v.
come to be in a particular situation or condition, especially a bad one
Leon winds up hiding in one of the secret rooms, surviving along with other children, waiting, hoping against hope that his mother will be released from prison. Washington Times
hope against hope  Speak
v.
hope very strongly that something will happen, although you know it is not likely
Leon winds up hiding in one of the secret rooms, surviving along with other children, waiting, hoping against hope that his mother will be released from prison. Washington Times
in a bid  Speak
ad.
in an attempt
With a highly transmissible new variant of the virus surging across Britain, Johnson is rushing out vaccines faster than the country’s neighbors in a bid to stem the pandemic. Reuters
baby bust  Speak
n.
a temporary marked decrease in the birth rate
It all works out to fewer New Year’s babies; the baby bust could mean some 320,000 children who statistically would have likely been born in 2021 but won't because of the pandemic. Washington Times