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IELTS Academic Words Level 1 - 1: Print One-sided Flashcard

abandon:
n. lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity; unbounded enthusiasm
abort:
v. stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abortion:
n. termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
absurd:
a. preposterous; ridiculously incongruous or unreasonable; foolish
abuse:
n. improper use or handling; misuse
academic:
a. related to school; not practical or directly useful; relating to the scholarly organization; based on formal education
academy:
n. school for special instruction; society of scholars, scientists, or artists
access:
n. approach; entry; entrance
account:
n. narrative or record of events; the reason given for a particular action or event
accountant:
n. one who maintains and audits business accounts
accurate:
a. capable of providing a correct reading or measurement; performing with care and precision
accuse:
v. blame; say that someone has done something morally wrong, illegal, or unkind
accused:
n. defendant or defendants in a criminal case; a person charged with an offense
acid:
n. sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful
acknowledge:
v. declare to be true or admit; express obligation, thanks
address:
v. make a formal speech to; deal with or discuss; direct efforts or attention of
adjust:
v. change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable
administration:
n. management; supervision; people who are in charge of management; the activity of government for powers and duties
adopt:
v. accept; take on; raise; take into one's family
adore:
v. worship with profound reverence; pay divine honors to; regard with the utmost esteem and affection
adult:
n. one who has attained maturity or legal age; fully grown
affect:
v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon
affection:
n. fondness; tender feeling toward another; fondness
afford:
v. pay; provide; have the financial means for; bear the cost of
agency:
n. a business that serves other businesses; an administrative unit of government
agenda:
n. items of business at a meeting; list or program of things to be done or considered
aggressive:
a. making assaults; unjustly attacking; combative; hostile; tending to spread quickly
agreement:
n. state of agreeing; harmony of opinion, statement, action, or character
aid:
n. person or thing that promotes or helps in something done; helper; assistant
air:
v. be broadcast on television or radio
aisle:
n. passageway between rows of seats, as in an auditorium or an airplane; the wing of a building
alarm:
n. any sound or information intended to give notice of approaching danger
album:
n. a list of names; a register for visitors; a blank book to insert autographs sketches, memorial writing, photographs
alien:
a. dissimilar, inconsistent, or opposed in nature; very different place, society, or person
alliance:
n. state of being allied; the act of allying or uniting; a union of interests between families, states, parties
ally:
n. confederate; partner; collaborator
alone:
a. solitary; by oneself, not with any other people  
alternative:
n. one of two or more things, ideas, or courses of action that may be used; option or choice
amaze:
v. astonish; affect with wonder
ambassador:
n. authorized messenger or representative
ambulance:
n. field hospital organized as to follow an army in its movements; a wagon for conveying the wounded to hospital
amount:
n. total of two or more quantities; aggregate; sum
anniversary:
a. annual; yearly; annual return of the day on which any notable event took place
annual:
a. occurring or payable every year
anonymous:
a. having no name; having an unknown or unacknowledged name
antique:
n. any furniture old and valuable; out of fashion
anxiety:
n. concern something  in a state of painful uneasiness;  state of restlessness and agitation
anyhow:
ad. in any way or manner whatever; at any rate; in any event
apart:
ad. separately, regarding space or company; in a state of separation as to place; aside
appeal:
n. attraction; charm; attract; fascinate; challenge
appetite:
n. instinctive physical desire, especially one for food or drink
apply:
v. exert; put into service; avail oneself to;
appointment:
n. act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement
appreciate:
v. be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of
approach:
n. a way of considering or doing something
appropriate:
v. acquire; take possession of for one's own use; set apart for specific use
approval:
n. official approbation; endorsement; an act of approving
area:
n. a plane surface, as of the floor of a room; open space in a building; the enclosed space; extent; scope; range
argue:
v. invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opinion, or measure; debate
arrogant:
a. arising from feeling or assumption of one's superiority toward others
article:
n. essay; editorial; individual thing or element of a class
ashamed:
a. affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt
aside:
ad. on, or to, one side; out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little distance from the rest
aspirin:
n. white crystalline compound drug to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation
assault:
n. a violent attack; an onslaught
assist:
v. give help or support to, especially as a subordinate
associate:
v. connect or join together; combine
assume:
v. suppose; presume; take on; bear
assure:
v. tell someone confidently that something is true; guarantee; convince
attack:
n. offensive move; expression of strong criticism; hostile comment
attempt:
n. the action of trying at something
attend:
v. be present at; go to; take care of; tend
attitude:
n. posture, action, or disposition of a figure or a statue
attorney:
n. lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy
attractive:
a. appealing; pleasing; inviting; tempting
auction:
n. public sale of property to the highest bidder
audience:
n. a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance
authority:
n. jurisdiction; power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge; government
available:
a. convenient for use or disposal; not busy, free; obtainable; accessible
avoid:
v. shield away from; prevent
aware:
a. knowing; having knowledge or cognizance
awful:
a. causing fear, dread, or terror; extremely bad or unpleasant; terrible
awkward:
a. difficult to handle or manage
bachelor:
n. unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges
backward:
a. directed to the back or rear; unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; undeveloped
bacon:
n. back and sides of a pig salted and smoked
badge:
n. a distinctive mark, token, or sign worn on the person
baggage:
n. trunks, bags, parcels, and suitcases in which one carries one's belongings while traveling; luggage
bait:
v. harass; tease; lure, entice, or entrap
bake:
v. prepare, as food, by cooking in dry heat, either in an oven or under coals, or on heated stone or metal
balance:
n. being in equilibrium; equilibrium; symmetry; stability
balcony:
n. platform projecting from the wall of a building
bald:
a. hairless; lacking a natural or usual covering
ballet:
n. a sort of theatrical representation by dancers
band:
n. orchestra; team; strip; ribbon; belt; unite; ally
bang:
n. a vigorous blow; a conspicuous success
banner:
n. flag; sign; a newspaper headline that runs across the full page
bar:
n. a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick
barbecue:
n. a rack to hold meat for cooking over hot charcoal usually out of doors
bare:
a. lacking the usual or appropriate covering or clothing
barely:
ad. just; only; hardly; scarcely
bargain:
n. agreement between parties concerning the sale of property
barn:
n. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals
barrel:
n. vessel; large cylindrical container
baseball:
n. game played with a bat and ball by two opposing teams of nine players; ball used in this game
basement:
n. cellar; a part of a building that is below the level of the first floor
battery:
n. beating or pounding; set of guns or heavy artillery; a dry cell that produces an electric current
bay:
n. an inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf; a small body of water set off from the main body
beam:
n. ray of light; a long piece of metal or wood; long piece fixed or movable in structure, machine, or tool
bear:
v. support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support
bearing:
n. carrying another part; patient endurance; suffering without complaint; the act of producing or giving birth
beat:
v. whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly
beaten:
a. formed or made thin by hammering; totally worn-out; exhausted
behalf:
n. represent;  advantage, benefit, the interest of someone
behave:
v. perform; conduct oneself in a proper way
belly:
n. part of the human body which extends downward from breast to thighs, and contains bowels; womb
beloved:
a. greatly loved; dear to the heart
bend:
v. strain or move out of a straight line; curve; turn toward some certain point
benefit:
n. advantage; something that aids or promotes well-being; welfare; gain
bent:
a. determined to do or have
bet:
n. stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; amount or object risked in a wager
betray:
v. be unfaithful; reveal unconsciously or unwillingly
bid:
v. make an offer of; propose; offer in words; declare, as a wish, a greeting, a threat, or defiance
bite:
v. pierce the skin with teeth; seize with the teeth; sting with a stinger; eat into; have a sharp taste
bitter:
a. harsh or corrosive in tone; painful; acrid; acrimonious
bizarre:
a. fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
blame:
v. condemn; rebuke; find fault with; censure
blank:
a. of white or pale color; without color; empty; void
blast:
n. explode; burst; gale; a powerful gust of wind or air
bleed:
v. emit blood; lose blood; withdraw blood from the body
bless:
v. make or pronounce holy; consecrate; make happy
block:
v. hinder; obstruct;  indicate broadly without great detail; sketch
blonde:
a. of a fair color; light-colored; as, blond hair; a blond complexion.
board:
n. a committee having supervisory powers; a flat piece of material designed for a special purpose
boarding:
n. wooden boards collectively; act of entering a ship; supplying with meals and lodgings for pay
bold:
a. brave; daring; intrepid; impudent
bolt:
v. dash or dart off; move or jump suddenly
bond:
n. link; connection; uniting force or tie; binding agreement; duty
bonus:
n. an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation
boom:
n. bonanza; prosperity; prosper; expand; flourish
booth:
n. house or shed built for temporary occupation; covered stall or temporary structure
border:
n. outer part or edge of anything, as of a garment, a garden; margin; verge; brink; boundary
bore:
v. drill; make a hole in or through, with or as if with a drill
bother:
v. annoy; trouble; make agitated or nervous; fluster
bounce:
v. jolt; rebound after having struck an object or a surface
bound:
n. tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump
boutique:
n. small shop within a large department store or supermarket
brand:
n. a burning piece of wood; mark made by burning with a hot iron; distinctive mark upon in any way
break:
n. opportunity to do something; pause or interval, as from work; a sudden change
breakdown:
n. process of failing to function or continue; a sudden collapse in physical or mental health; summary of itemized data
breeze:
n. light current of air; gentle wind; progress swiftly and effortlessly
bribe:
n. something serving to influence or persuade; reward or gift to prevent judgment
brief:
a. short in time, duration, length, or extent; concise
briefcase:
n. portable, often flat case with a handle, used for carrying papers or books
brilliant:
a. full of light; shining; bright; sharp and clear in tone
brutal:
a. like a brute; savage; cruel; inhuman; merciless
bubble:
n. foam; dome-shaped covering made of transparent glass or plastic; fantastic or impracticable idea or belief
buck:
v. move quickly and violently; jump vertically; strive with determination
bucket:
n. vessel for drawing up water from a well; a vessel for hoisting and conveying coal, ore, grain
bud:
n. one that is not yet fully developed; sprout
budget:
n. estimate; a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose
bug:
n. general name applied to various insects
bull:
n. male of any species of cattle; large, strong, and aggressive person; optimist regarding business conditions
bully:
n. noisy, blustering fellow; one who is threatening and quarrelsome; insolent, tyrannical fellow
bump:
n. impact as from a collision; lump on the body caused by a blow
bunch:
n. clump; cluster; gathering
bush:
n. place abounding in trees or shrubs; the wild forest
business:
n. rightful concern or responsibility; occupation, work, or trade-in which a person is engaged; commercial enterprise
bust:
n. the occasion for excessive eating or drinking; complete failure; sculpture of the head and shoulders of a person
buzz:
n. confusion of activity and gossip; the sound of rapid vibration
cabin:
n. a small room on a ship or boat where people sleep
cabinet:
n. group of persons appointed by a head of state or a prime minister; hut; cottage; small house; small room; a closet
cable:
n. solid thick rope made of twisted steel or metal wire
cafe:
n. coffee house; restaurant where coffee and liquors are served
cafeteria:
n. a restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier
calendar:
n. the orderly arrangement as years, months, weeks, and days; a table showing months, weeks, and days
campaign:
n. battle; a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end
campus:
n. the field where the buildings of a university are situated
cancel:
v. revoke; call off; omit or delete
candidate:
n. a person who is considered for something; a person who is nominated for an office, prize, or honor
capable:
a. having the ability required for a specific task
capacity:
n. mental or physical ability; ability to accommodate
cape:
n. piece or point of land, extending beyond the adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; sleeveless outer garment
capital:
n. wealth in the form of money or property; assets available for use; a city that is the official seat of government
capture:
n. act of seizing by force, or getting possession of by superior power; thing taken by force, surprise, or stratagem
carrot:
n. the root of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually spindle-shaped and of a reddish yellow color
carry:
v. convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; hold or support while moving; bear
cart:
n. common name for various kinds of vehicles; two-wheeled vehicle; light business wagon
carton:
n. pasteboard for paper boxes; pasteboard box
cash:
n. money paid at the time of purchase; money in the form of bills or coins; currency
cast:
v. assign the roles of; choose at random
casual:
a. informal; purposeless; occurring by chance
catch:
v. capture or seize, especially after a chase; take by or as if by trapping; reach just in time
catching:
a. act of seizing or taking hold of; captivating; alluring
catholic:
a. broadly sympathetic; universal; related to Roman Catholic Church
cellar:
n. room or rooms under a building, and usually below the surface of the ground
cemetery:
n. place or ground set apart for the burial of the dead; graveyard
cereal:
n. grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as a food
ceremony:
n. a formal act or set of acts performed as prescribed by ritual or custom
certificate:
n. the document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; document issued to a person completing a course
challenge:
v. assert a right; raise a formal objection; take exception to
chamber:
n. cell; compartment; room
champagne:
n. light wine, of several kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France
champion:
v. protect or fight for the first place
channel:
n. passage for water or other fluids to flow through; bed of a stream or river; route of communication or access
chaos:
n. disorder; condition or place of great disorder or confusion; disorderly mass
chapel:
n. place of worship that is smaller than and subordinate to a church; service conducted in a chapel
chapter:
n. division of a book or treatise; assembly of monks; bishop's council; organized branch of some society
charge:
v. set or ask for a certain price; load to capacity; fill; instruct or urge authoritatively; command
charity:
n. activity or gift that benefits the public at large
charm:
n. power or quality of pleasing or delighting; attractiveness; item worn for its supposed magical benefit
chart:
n. graph; diagram;  map showing coastlines, water depths, or other information of use to navigators
chase:
v. pursue to kill or take; hunt; follow as if to catch
chat:
n. talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation
check:
v. stop motion; curb or restrain
cheer:
n. the lightness of spirits or mood; source of joy or happiness; festive food and drink; refreshment
cherish:
v. harbor; treasure; treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear
chew:
v. bite and grind with the teeth
chief:
a. highest in office or rank; principal; head
chill:
a. cool; freeze; a feeling of cold
chin:
n. the central forward portion of the lower jaw; bottom of the face
chip:
v. cut small pieces from; diminish or reduce to shape; break or crack
choir:
n. band or organized company of singers, especially in church service
choke:
v. breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion; reduce the air supply
circuit:
n. electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
circus:
n. public entertainment of performances by acrobats, clowns, and trained animals
civil:
a. having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite
civilian:
a. of or relating to non-military life
claim:
n. demand for something as rightful or due
classic:
n. work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; creation of the highest excellence
clearance:
n. act of clearing; space cleared; permission to proceed or trust
click:
v. make a slight, sharp noise by gentle striking; tick
client:
n. someone who pays to get goods or services
clinic:
n. healthcare facility for outpatient care
clip:
n. a small section of filmed or filed material
closet:
n. a small room or apartment; room for privacy
clue:
n. a ball of thread or cord; thread; something guides or directs anything of a doubtful or intricate nature
coach:
n. tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers
cocaine:
n. drug extracted from coca leaves as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure, that can become addictive
code:
n. body of law; system of rules or regulations relating to one subject; system of symbols, letters, or words
coin:
v. make pieces of money from metal; invent or fabricate
coincidence:
n. two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
column:
n. pillar; cylindrical or polygonal support for roof; anything resembling, in form or position; upright body or mass
combat:
v. struggle as with an opposing force; fight with
combine:
v. blend; fuse; merge
comedy:
n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending
comic:
a. arousing or provoking laughter; ridiculous; amusing; humorous
comment:
v. express an opinion; remark
commercial:
a. money-making; involved in work that is intended for the mass market
commission:
n. fee for services; a group of people appointed to find out about something; authorize
commit:
v. do something that cannot be changed; cause to be admitted
commitment:
n. pledge, undertaking; an act of binding yourself  to a course of action
committee:
n. special group delegated to consider some matter
communicate:
v. send information about; make known; impart; reveal clearly
communication:
n. the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information
community:
n. society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
company:
n. team; guard team; group of persons; business enterprise
compare:
v. examine and note the similarities or differences of
competition:
n. struggle; rivalry; an act of competing as for a profit prize
competitive:
a. of or pertaining to competition; producing competition; showing a fighting disposition
complex:
a. complicated in structure; a whole structure, as a building, made up of interconnected or related structures
complicated:
a. difficult to analyze or understand
compliment:
n. praise; commendation; say something to someone that expresses praise
compromise:
v. adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of
concentrate:
v. bring to or direct toward a common center; unite more closely; gather into one body
concept:
n. something formed in mind; thought or notion
concern:
n. interest in any person or thing; regard; solicitude; anxiety
concrete:
n. solid mass; covering with cement; hard, strong construction material consisting of sand, conglomerate, and gravel
condition:
n. mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances
conduct:
v. direct the course of; manage or control; lead or guide
confess:
v. acknowledge; admit that you have done something wrong
confidence:
n. feeling secure or certain about something
confident:
a. assured; having or marked by assurance
confidential:
a. treated with confidence; trusted in; trustworthy; secret
confirm:
v. support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
conflict:
n. fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events
confront:
v. be face to face with; oppose in hostility or competition; deal with
confusion:
n. a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order
congress:
n. meeting of elected or appointed representatives
conscience:
n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles; source of moral or ethical judgment
conscious:
a. awake, thinking, and knowing what is happening around you; alert
conspiracy:
n. plot; intrigue; agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act
constant:
a. invariable; repeating; continually occurring; persistent
constitution:
n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; the act of forming something
consult:
v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
consumer:
n. people who buy goods or services
contact:
v. get in touch with; reach
contempt:
n. state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
content:
n. volume; something contained; material, including text and images
contest:
v. contend for; call in question; oppose; dispute
contract:
v. constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate
contrary:
a. relation of direct opposition; very opposed in nature or character or purpose
convention:
n. social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
convict:
v. find or declare guilty
conviction:
n. the judgment that someone is guilty of a crime; strongly held belief
convince:
v. overpower; force to yield assent to truth; satisfy by proof; prove guilty
cooperate:
v. work or act together toward a common end or purpose
core:
n. basic, center,  or most important part; the essence
corner:
n. position at which two lines, surfaces, or edges meet and form an angle
corporate:
a. united or combined into one body; collective; belonging to a corporation or incorporated body