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IELTS Academic Words Level 1 - 1: Print Flashcard

abandon
n. lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity; unbounded enthusiasm
abort
v. stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abortion
n. termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
absurd
a. preposterous; ridiculously incongruous or unreasonable; foolish
abuse
n. improper use or handling; misuse
academic
a. related to school; not practical or directly useful; relating to the scholarly organization; based on formal education
academy
n. school for special instruction; society of scholars, scientists, or artists
access
n. approach; entry; entrance
account
n. narrative or record of events; the reason given for a particular action or event
accountant
n. one who maintains and audits business accounts
accurate
a. capable of providing a correct reading or measurement; performing with care and precision
accuse
v. blame; say that someone has done something morally wrong, illegal, or unkind
accused
n. defendant or defendants in a criminal case; a person charged with an offense
acid
n. sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful
acknowledge
v. declare to be true or admit; express obligation, thanks
address
v. make a formal speech to; deal with or discuss; direct efforts or attention of
adjust
v. change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable
administration
n. management; supervision; people who are in charge of management; the activity of government for powers and duties
adopt
v. accept; take on; raise; take into one's family
adore
v. worship with profound reverence; pay divine honors to; regard with the utmost esteem and affection
adult
n. one who has attained maturity or legal age; fully grown
affect
v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon
affection
n. fondness; tender feeling toward another; fondness
afford
v. pay; provide; have the financial means for; bear the cost of
agency
n. a business that serves other businesses; an administrative unit of government
agenda
n. items of business at a meeting; list or program of things to be done or considered
aggressive
a. making assaults; unjustly attacking; combative; hostile; tending to spread quickly
agreement
n. state of agreeing; harmony of opinion, statement, action, or character
aid
n. person or thing that promotes or helps in something done; helper; assistant
air
v. be broadcast on television or radio
aisle
n. passageway between rows of seats, as in an auditorium or an airplane; the wing of a building
alarm
n. any sound or information intended to give notice of approaching danger
album
n. a list of names; a register for visitors; a blank book to insert autographs sketches, memorial writing, photographs
alien
a. dissimilar, inconsistent, or opposed in nature; very different place, society, or person
alliance
n. state of being allied; the act of allying or uniting; a union of interests between families, states, parties
ally
n. confederate; partner; collaborator
alone
a. solitary; by oneself, not with any other people  
alternative
n. one of two or more things, ideas, or courses of action that may be used; option or choice
amaze
v. astonish; affect with wonder
ambassador
n. authorized messenger or representative
ambulance
n. field hospital organized as to follow an army in its movements; a wagon for conveying the wounded to hospital
amount
n. total of two or more quantities; aggregate; sum
anniversary
a. annual; yearly; annual return of the day on which any notable event took place
annual
a. occurring or payable every year
anonymous
a. having no name; having an unknown or unacknowledged name
antique
n. any furniture old and valuable; out of fashion
anxiety
n. concern something  in a state of painful uneasiness;  state of restlessness and agitation
anyhow
ad. in any way or manner whatever; at any rate; in any event
apart
ad. separately, regarding space or company; in a state of separation as to place; aside
appeal
n. attraction; charm; attract; fascinate; challenge
appetite
n. instinctive physical desire, especially one for food or drink
apply
v. exert; put into service; avail oneself to;
appointment
n. act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement
appreciate
v. be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of
approach
n. a way of considering or doing something
appropriate
v. acquire; take possession of for one's own use; set apart for specific use
approval
n. official approbation; endorsement; an act of approving
area
n. a plane surface, as of the floor of a room; open space in a building; the enclosed space; extent; scope; range
argue
v. invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opinion, or measure; debate
arrogant
a. arising from feeling or assumption of one's superiority toward others
article
n. essay; editorial; individual thing or element of a class
ashamed
a. affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt
aside
ad. on, or to, one side; out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little distance from the rest
aspirin
n. white crystalline compound drug to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation
assault
n. a violent attack; an onslaught
assist
v. give help or support to, especially as a subordinate
associate
v. connect or join together; combine
assume
v. suppose; presume; take on; bear
assure
v. tell someone confidently that something is true; guarantee; convince
attack
n. offensive move; expression of strong criticism; hostile comment
attempt
n. the action of trying at something
attend
v. be present at; go to; take care of; tend
attitude
n. posture, action, or disposition of a figure or a statue
attorney
n. lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy
attractive
a. appealing; pleasing; inviting; tempting
auction
n. public sale of property to the highest bidder
audience
n. a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance
authority
n. jurisdiction; power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge; government
available
a. convenient for use or disposal; not busy, free; obtainable; accessible
avoid
v. shield away from; prevent
aware
a. knowing; having knowledge or cognizance
awful
a. causing fear, dread, or terror; extremely bad or unpleasant; terrible
awkward
a. difficult to handle or manage
bachelor
n. unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges
backward
a. directed to the back or rear; unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; undeveloped
bacon
n. back and sides of a pig salted and smoked
badge
n. a distinctive mark, token, or sign worn on the person
baggage
n. trunks, bags, parcels, and suitcases in which one carries one's belongings while traveling; luggage
bait
v. harass; tease; lure, entice, or entrap
bake
v. prepare, as food, by cooking in dry heat, either in an oven or under coals, or on heated stone or metal
balance
n. being in equilibrium; equilibrium; symmetry; stability
balcony
n. platform projecting from the wall of a building
bald
a. hairless; lacking a natural or usual covering
ballet
n. a sort of theatrical representation by dancers
band
n. orchestra; team; strip; ribbon; belt; unite; ally
bang
n. a vigorous blow; a conspicuous success
banner
n. flag; sign; a newspaper headline that runs across the full page
bar
n. a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick
barbecue
n. a rack to hold meat for cooking over hot charcoal usually out of doors
bare
a. lacking the usual or appropriate covering or clothing
barely
ad. just; only; hardly; scarcely
bargain
n. agreement between parties concerning the sale of property
barn
n. an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals
barrel
n. vessel; large cylindrical container
baseball
n. game played with a bat and ball by two opposing teams of nine players; ball used in this game
basement
n. cellar; a part of a building that is below the level of the first floor
battery
n. beating or pounding; set of guns or heavy artillery; a dry cell that produces an electric current
bay
n. an inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf; a small body of water set off from the main body
beam
n. ray of light; a long piece of metal or wood; long piece fixed or movable in structure, machine, or tool
bear
v. support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support
bearing
n. carrying another part; patient endurance; suffering without complaint; the act of producing or giving birth
beat
v. whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly
beaten
a. formed or made thin by hammering; totally worn-out; exhausted
behalf
n. represent;  advantage, benefit, the interest of someone
behave
v. perform; conduct oneself in a proper way
belly
n. part of the human body which extends downward from breast to thighs, and contains bowels; womb
beloved
a. greatly loved; dear to the heart
bend
v. strain or move out of a straight line; curve; turn toward some certain point
benefit
n. advantage; something that aids or promotes well-being; welfare; gain
bent
a. determined to do or have
bet
n. stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; amount or object risked in a wager
betray
v. be unfaithful; reveal unconsciously or unwillingly
bid
v. make an offer of; propose; offer in words; declare, as a wish, a greeting, a threat, or defiance
bite
v. pierce the skin with teeth; seize with the teeth; sting with a stinger; eat into; have a sharp taste
bitter
a. harsh or corrosive in tone; painful; acrid; acrimonious
bizarre
a. fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
blame
v. condemn; rebuke; find fault with; censure
blank
a. of white or pale color; without color; empty; void
blast
n. explode; burst; gale; a powerful gust of wind or air
bleed
v. emit blood; lose blood; withdraw blood from the body
bless
v. make or pronounce holy; consecrate; make happy
block
v. hinder; obstruct;  indicate broadly without great detail; sketch
blonde
a. of a fair color; light-colored; as, blond hair; a blond complexion.
board
n. a committee having supervisory powers; a flat piece of material designed for a special purpose
boarding
n. wooden boards collectively; act of entering a ship; supplying with meals and lodgings for pay
bold
a. brave; daring; intrepid; impudent
bolt
v. dash or dart off; move or jump suddenly
bond
n. link; connection; uniting force or tie; binding agreement; duty
bonus
n. an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation
boom
n. bonanza; prosperity; prosper; expand; flourish
booth
n. house or shed built for temporary occupation; covered stall or temporary structure
border
n. outer part or edge of anything, as of a garment, a garden; margin; verge; brink; boundary
bore
v. drill; make a hole in or through, with or as if with a drill
bother
v. annoy; trouble; make agitated or nervous; fluster
bounce
v. jolt; rebound after having struck an object or a surface
bound
n. tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump
boutique
n. small shop within a large department store or supermarket
brand
n. a burning piece of wood; mark made by burning with a hot iron; distinctive mark upon in any way
break
n. opportunity to do something; pause or interval, as from work; a sudden change
breakdown
n. process of failing to function or continue; a sudden collapse in physical or mental health; summary of itemized data
breeze
n. light current of air; gentle wind; progress swiftly and effortlessly
bribe
n. something serving to influence or persuade; reward or gift to prevent judgment
brief
a. short in time, duration, length, or extent; concise
briefcase
n. portable, often flat case with a handle, used for carrying papers or books
brilliant
a. full of light; shining; bright; sharp and clear in tone
brutal
a. like a brute; savage; cruel; inhuman; merciless
bubble
n. foam; dome-shaped covering made of transparent glass or plastic; fantastic or impracticable idea or belief
buck
v. move quickly and violently; jump vertically; strive with determination
bucket
n. vessel for drawing up water from a well; a vessel for hoisting and conveying coal, ore, grain
bud
n. one that is not yet fully developed; sprout
budget
n. estimate; a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose
bug
n. general name applied to various insects
bull
n. male of any species of cattle; large, strong, and aggressive person; optimist regarding business conditions
bully
n. noisy, blustering fellow; one who is threatening and quarrelsome; insolent, tyrannical fellow
bump
n. impact as from a collision; lump on the body caused by a blow
bunch
n. clump; cluster; gathering
bush
n. place abounding in trees or shrubs; the wild forest
business
n. rightful concern or responsibility; occupation, work, or trade-in which a person is engaged; commercial enterprise
bust
n. the occasion for excessive eating or drinking; complete failure; sculpture of the head and shoulders of a person
buzz
n. confusion of activity and gossip; the sound of rapid vibration
cabin
n. a small room on a ship or boat where people sleep
cabinet
n. group of persons appointed by a head of state or a prime minister; hut; cottage; small house; small room; a closet
cable
n. solid thick rope made of twisted steel or metal wire
cafe
n. coffee house; restaurant where coffee and liquors are served
cafeteria
n. a restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier
calendar
n. the orderly arrangement as years, months, weeks, and days; a table showing months, weeks, and days
campaign
n. battle; a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end
campus
n. the field where the buildings of a university are situated
cancel
v. revoke; call off; omit or delete
candidate
n. a person who is considered for something; a person who is nominated for an office, prize, or honor
capable
a. having the ability required for a specific task
capacity
n. mental or physical ability; ability to accommodate
cape
n. piece or point of land, extending beyond the adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; sleeveless outer garment
capital
n. wealth in the form of money or property; assets available for use; a city that is the official seat of government
capture
n. act of seizing by force, or getting possession of by superior power; thing taken by force, surprise, or stratagem
carrot
n. the root of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually spindle-shaped and of a reddish yellow color
carry
v. convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; hold or support while moving; bear
cart
n. common name for various kinds of vehicles; two-wheeled vehicle; light business wagon
carton
n. pasteboard for paper boxes; pasteboard box
cash
n. money paid at the time of purchase; money in the form of bills or coins; currency
cast
v. assign the roles of; choose at random
casual
a. informal; purposeless; occurring by chance
catch
v. capture or seize, especially after a chase; take by or as if by trapping; reach just in time
catching
a. act of seizing or taking hold of; captivating; alluring
catholic
a. broadly sympathetic; universal; related to Roman Catholic Church
cellar
n. room or rooms under a building, and usually below the surface of the ground
cemetery
n. place or ground set apart for the burial of the dead; graveyard
cereal
n. grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as a food
ceremony
n. a formal act or set of acts performed as prescribed by ritual or custom
certificate
n. the document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; document issued to a person completing a course
challenge
v. assert a right; raise a formal objection; take exception to
chamber
n. cell; compartment; room
champagne
n. light wine, of several kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France
champion
v. protect or fight for the first place
channel
n. passage for water or other fluids to flow through; bed of a stream or river; route of communication or access
chaos
n. disorder; condition or place of great disorder or confusion; disorderly mass
chapel
n. place of worship that is smaller than and subordinate to a church; service conducted in a chapel
chapter
n. division of a book or treatise; assembly of monks; bishop's council; organized branch of some society
charge
v. set or ask for a certain price; load to capacity; fill; instruct or urge authoritatively; command
charity
n. activity or gift that benefits the public at large
charm
n. power or quality of pleasing or delighting; attractiveness; item worn for its supposed magical benefit
chart
n. graph; diagram;  map showing coastlines, water depths, or other information of use to navigators
chase
v. pursue to kill or take; hunt; follow as if to catch
chat
n. talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation
check
v. stop motion; curb or restrain
cheer
n. the lightness of spirits or mood; source of joy or happiness; festive food and drink; refreshment
cherish
v. harbor; treasure; treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear
chew
v. bite and grind with the teeth
chief
a. highest in office or rank; principal; head
chill
a. cool; freeze; a feeling of cold
chin
n. the central forward portion of the lower jaw; bottom of the face
chip
v. cut small pieces from; diminish or reduce to shape; break or crack
choir
n. band or organized company of singers, especially in church service
choke
v. breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion; reduce the air supply
circuit
n. electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
circus
n. public entertainment of performances by acrobats, clowns, and trained animals
civil
a. having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite
civilian
a. of or relating to non-military life
claim
n. demand for something as rightful or due
classic
n. work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; creation of the highest excellence
clearance
n. act of clearing; space cleared; permission to proceed or trust
click
v. make a slight, sharp noise by gentle striking; tick
client
n. someone who pays to get goods or services
clinic
n. healthcare facility for outpatient care
clip
n. a small section of filmed or filed material
closet
n. a small room or apartment; room for privacy
clue
n. a ball of thread or cord; thread; something guides or directs anything of a doubtful or intricate nature
coach
n. tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers
cocaine
n. drug extracted from coca leaves as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure, that can become addictive
code
n. body of law; system of rules or regulations relating to one subject; system of symbols, letters, or words
coin
v. make pieces of money from metal; invent or fabricate
coincidence
n. two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
column
n. pillar; cylindrical or polygonal support for roof; anything resembling, in form or position; upright body or mass
combat
v. struggle as with an opposing force; fight with
combine
v. blend; fuse; merge
comedy
n. light and humorous drama with a happy ending
comic
a. arousing or provoking laughter; ridiculous; amusing; humorous
comment
v. express an opinion; remark
commercial
a. money-making; involved in work that is intended for the mass market
commission
n. fee for services; a group of people appointed to find out about something; authorize
commit
v. do something that cannot be changed; cause to be admitted
commitment
n. pledge, undertaking; an act of binding yourself  to a course of action
committee
n. special group delegated to consider some matter
communicate
v. send information about; make known; impart; reveal clearly
communication
n. the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information
community
n. society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
company
n. team; guard team; group of persons; business enterprise
compare
v. examine and note the similarities or differences of
competition
n. struggle; rivalry; an act of competing as for a profit prize
competitive
a. of or pertaining to competition; producing competition; showing a fighting disposition
complex
a. complicated in structure; a whole structure, as a building, made up of interconnected or related structures
complicated
a. difficult to analyze or understand
compliment
n. praise; commendation; say something to someone that expresses praise
compromise
v. adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of
concentrate
v. bring to or direct toward a common center; unite more closely; gather into one body
concept
n. something formed in mind; thought or notion
concern
n. interest in any person or thing; regard; solicitude; anxiety
concrete
n. solid mass; covering with cement; hard, strong construction material consisting of sand, conglomerate, and gravel
condition
n. mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances
conduct
v. direct the course of; manage or control; lead or guide
confess
v. acknowledge; admit that you have done something wrong
confidence
n. feeling secure or certain about something
confident
a. assured; having or marked by assurance
confidential
a. treated with confidence; trusted in; trustworthy; secret
confirm
v. support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
conflict
n. fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events
confront
v. be face to face with; oppose in hostility or competition; deal with
confusion
n. a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order
congress
n. meeting of elected or appointed representatives
conscience
n. motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles; source of moral or ethical judgment
conscious
a. awake, thinking, and knowing what is happening around you; alert
conspiracy
n. plot; intrigue; agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act
constant
a. invariable; repeating; continually occurring; persistent
constitution
n. law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; the act of forming something
consult
v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
consumer
n. people who buy goods or services
contact
v. get in touch with; reach
contempt
n. state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
content
n. volume; something contained; material, including text and images
contest
v. contend for; call in question; oppose; dispute
contract
v. constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate
contrary
a. relation of direct opposition; very opposed in nature or character or purpose
convention
n. social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
convict
v. find or declare guilty
conviction
n. the judgment that someone is guilty of a crime; strongly held belief
convince
v. overpower; force to yield assent to truth; satisfy by proof; prove guilty
cooperate
v. work or act together toward a common end or purpose
core
n. basic, center,  or most important part; the essence
corner
n. position at which two lines, surfaces, or edges meet and form an angle
corporate
a. united or combined into one body; collective; belonging to a corporation or incorporated body