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500 IELTS Vocabulary (AWL,HK Univ.) 5

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radical: Read
/'rædɪk(ə)l/ a. Syn. drastic; extreme
drastic; extreme; arising from or going to a root or source; basic
President Correa has shown he is determined to follow a radical program of reforms to tackle poverty in Ecuador.

random: Read
/'rændəm/ a. Syn. haphazard; chance
without definite purpose, plan, or aim; having no specific pattern
He used to get super drunk in random places; I don't know where he is now.

range: Read
/reɪndʒ/ n. Syn. limit
limits within which something can be effective; variety of different things or activities
Medical workers on trial face criminal charges that range from professional recklessness to corruption, to illegal sale of donor blood.

ratio: Read
/'reɪʃɪoʊ/ n. Syn. rate; proportion
relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind; rate; proportion
Men outnumber women here in the ratio of three to one.

rational: Read
/'ræʃən(ə)l/ a. Syn. logical; reasonable
consistent with; based on; using reason
One strong proof of my wretchedly defective nature is, that even her expostulations, so mild, so rational, have not influence to cure me of my faults.

react: Read
/ri:'ækt/ v.
act against or in opposition to; show a response or a reaction
They react negatively to everything I say, because they don't trust me.

recover: Read
/rɪ'kʌvə(r)/ v. Syn. regain
get or find back; regain a former condition
He is very ill and unlikely to recover in this month.

refine: Read
/rɪ'faɪn/ v. Syn. purify
purify; make more precise; improve
They refine many valuable nutrients out of the foods in our modern diet.

regime: Read
/reɪ'ʒi:m/ n. Syn. government; administration
form of government; government in power; administration; prevailing social system or pattern
State Department officials insisted that, privately, the Yeltsin regime is still willing to cooperate in the search for peace.

region: Read
/'ri:dʒən/ n.
province; district; tract; neighborhood; the upper air; sky or heavens; inhabitants of a district
All in that region was fire and commotion.

register: Read
/'rɛdʒɪstə(r)/ v. Syn. record
give outward signs of; express; record in writing; enroll as a student
New students will have to register is tomorrow before getting their books.

regulate: Read
/'rɛgjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. direct
bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations; fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of
In contrast to Europe, the United States is considering a variety of laws which would regulate spam but essentially allow it unless an individual specifically opts out.

reinforce: Read
/ri:ɪn'fɔ:s/ v. Syn. strengthen; enhance
give more force or effectiveness to; strengthen; enhance
The laws will reinforce authority to turn boats away from Australia and impose prison sentences on the crews of boats which do cross the border.

reject: Read
/rɪ'dʒɛkt/ v. Syn. refuse; deny
turn down; refuse to accept; dismiss from consideration
He would reject the idea of starting a war.

relax: Read
/rɪ'læks/ v. Syn. free; loosen; calm
make less severe or strict; become less tense
Our new colleague should relax if he sees that we are a friendly group.

release: Read
/rɪ'li:s/ v. Syn. liberate; freedom
give off; liberate; grant freedom to; make something available
He wanted to release the list with the names of the prisoners before Monday.

relevant: Read
/'rɛlɪvənt/ a. Syn. pertinent
pertinent; having connection with matter at hand
The only way for a value brand like ours to remain relevant is to provide innovation that sets us apart.

reluctance: Read
/rɪ'lʌktəns/ n.
state of being reluctant; unwillingness; hesitancy in taking some action
The main reason for this reluctance is the threat of litigation for defamation.

rely: Read
/rɪ'laɪ/ v. Syn. trust; depend
rest with confidence; have confidence; depend
I rely implicitly on His power, and confide wholly in His goodness.

remove: Read
/rɪ'mu:v/ v.
move away from the position occupied; cause to change place; take away
The leaving of her mother will remove the last obstacle to their marriage.

require: Read
/rɪ'kwaɪə(r)/ v. Syn. demand; request
insist upon having; request and expect
We require our secretary to be on time, otherwise we have to cancel the event.

research: Read
/rɪ'sɜrtʃ/ v.
inquire into; attempt to find out in scientific manner
The students who research the history of English are all in this group.

reside: Read
/rɪ'zaɪd/ v. Syn. dwell; live; inhabit
dwell; live in a place permanently or for an extended period
We reside officially in Iceland.

resolve: Read
/rɪ'zɒlv/ n. Syn. determination; resolution; decision
determination; formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote
Civic leaders say their resolve is as strong as it was when they rebuilt downtown.

resource: Read
/rɪ'sɔ:s/;/'ri:sɔ:rs/ n. Syn. materials; abilities
materials; abilities; available source
Still she went on growing, and, as a last resource, she put one arm out of the window, and one foot up the chimney.

respond: Read
/rɪ'spɒnd/ v. Syn. react; answer
show a reaction to something favorably or as hoped
Doctors hope his cancer to respond to the aggressive therapy.

restore: Read
/rɪ'stɔ:(r)/ v. Syn. reinstate; renovate; renew
give or bring back; return to its original condition
He told BBC News that they will restore it using 200-year-old techniques and all their old tools.

restrain: Read
/rɪ'streɪn/ v. Syn. inhibit; stop; repress
keep under control; hold back ; place limits on
No one had leisure to watch or restrain them.

restrict: Read
/rɪ'strɪkt/ v. Syn. limit; inhibit; confine
keep or confine within limits
This will give recommendation on the best way to advance, but not restrict thing.

retain: Read
/rɪ'teɪn/ v. Syn. keep; employ
keep; maintain possession of; hire by payment of a fee; keep in mind; remember
I read over 100 books a year, and what I retain is usually the general storyline and my impression of the characters.

reveal: Read
/rɪ'vi:l/ v. Syn. expose; uncover
make known; disclose or show
"The secret of your birth! Do you mean to say - " "Gentlemen," says the young man, very solemn, "I will reveal it to you, for I feel I may have confidence in you."

revenue: Read
/'rɛvənju:/;/'rɛvənu:/ n. Syn. income; reward
money which returns from an investment; annual income; reward
The government's revenue is made up chiefly of the money we pay in taxes.

reverse: Read
/rɪ'vɜrs/ v. Syn. back; rear
overturn; turn inside out or upside down; turning in the opposite direction
The Commission has now launched a high-level diplomatic offensive to reverse the ban.

revise: Read
/rɪ'vaɪz/ v. Syn. amend; change
amend; change
Later, he would revise his position and said the reason why he couldn't meet the delegates was to do with security concerns.

revolution: Read
/rɛvə'lu:ʃ(ə)n/ n.
act of revolving; motion of body round a fixed point or line; rotation; total or radical change; fundamental change in political organization
The invention of aircraft caused a revolution in our ways of travelling.

rigid: Read
/'rɪdʒɪd/ a. Syn. stiff; strict
stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending; not flexible
Without integration, we are stuck in rigid, inflexible states and to face chaotic feeling or thought.

role: Read
/roʊl/ n. Syn. part; function
normal activity of a person in particular social setting; part played by a performer
Amrozi naively admitted his role in the attack, they said, but the law needs more than confessions, it needs evidence.

route: Read
/ru:t/ n. Syn. way
way for travel or transportation
The pipeline would cross on route from Iran, earning the Pakistani government millions of dollars in transit fees.

scenario: Read
/sɪ'nɑrrɪoʊ/ n. Syn. screenplay; circumstance
screenplay; outline or model of an expected sequence of events
The scenario is the same throughout the West countries, all of whose governments are responding to the collapse in similar ways.

schedule: Read
/'ʃɛdju:l/;/'skɛdʒʊl/ n. Syn. timetable; agenda
plan for an activity or event; arrange
Now, after the failure of Cancun, there's a much bigger question mark over concluding the new deal on schedule.

scheme: Read
/ski:m/ n. Syn. design; plan
elaborate and systematic plan of action; chart or outline of a system or object
As well as the baby bonus scheme, Prime Minister says his government is to encourage more immigration as a way of bringing in more talent.

scope: Read
/skoʊp/ n. Syn. range; extent; bound
range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound
This group was within the scope of an investigation.

section: Read
/'sɛkʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. part; district; segment
one of several parts; pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object
The mob ran out of control along a 5 kilometer section of the main highway to Delhi, smashing fences, looting food and beating up shopkeepers.

sector: Read
/'sɛktə(r)/ n. Syn. segment
particular aspect of life or activity; body of people who form part of society or economy
He was helpless in an important sector of his life.

secure: Read
/sɪ'kjʊə(r)/ v. Syn. anchor; defend; confident
free from fear, care, or anxiety; not have reason to doubt
The troops secure the area before the civilians are allowed to return.

seek: Read
/si:k/ v.
make an effort to; try to get; try to discover
I always seek to do good in the world.

select: Read
/sɪ'lɛkt/ a.
taken from a number by preference; picked out as more valuable or excellent than others; of special value or excellence
This is a very select area; you have to be rich to live here.

sequence: Read
/'si:kwəns/ n.
serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
Scientists unveiled the genome sequence of rice - a tool of great potential use to researchers trying to develop new strains of rice with higher yields.

series: Read
/'sɪəri:z, 'sɪərɪz/ n.
a number of things or events standing or succeeding in order; sequence
There are a series of books for dogs; I just read one regarding to my puppy.

shift: Read
/ʃɪft/ n. Syn. change; turn
moving from one setting or context to another; moving very slightly
Twenty-one developing nations have come together to say, that they believe the meeting will be doomed unless there's a radical shift by the rich nations.

significant: Read
/sɪg'nɪfəkənt/ a. Syn. noteworthy; important
fairly large; important in effect or meaning
This kind of planning presents the government with a significant problem.

similar: Read
/'sɪmɪlə(r)/ a.
nearly corresponding; somewhat like; having a general likeness
In return, it wants the US to make similar moves, as to cut tariffs and increase quotas for EU goods.

simulate: Read
/'sɪmjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. feign; imitate
make a pretence of; reproduce someone's behavior or looks
He tried to simulate insanity in order to avoid punishment for his crime.

site: Read
/saɪt/ n.
physical position in relation to the surroundings; position; location
When someone asks me where to look for help, your site is always on the list - so thanks.

sole: Read
/soʊl/ n. Syn. bottom
bottom; underside of foot or shoe or boot; bottom surface of a plow
The back of the sole is attached to the shoe by a semi-circle of nails driven from the outside.

somewhat: Read
/'sʌmwɒt/;/-hwɒt/ ad. Syn. slightly
to some extent or degree; rather; a bit; slightly
There is a Caribbean feel to the song and that type of energy and enthusiasm to the song that makes it somewhat mystifying.

source: Read
/sɔ:s/ n.
point of origin, such as spring, of stream or river; one that causes, creates, or initiates
Walters was not expecting an application from this source for the next ten years.

specific: Read
/spɪ'sɪfɪk/ a. Syn. particular; definite
stated explicitly or in detail; definite
FBI officials stressed that they were aware of no specific plot to attack any other aircraft.

specify: Read
/'spɛsɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. detail; designate
detail; designate
He didn't specify what crimes he was referring to, but said if proof was found, the police would ask for charges to be brought.

sphere: Read
/sfɪə(r)/ n. Syn. ball; globe
ball; globe; a particular aspect of life or activity
I feel more inclination to put you in the way of keeping yourself, and shall endeavor to do so; but observe, my sphere is narrow.

stable: Read
/'steɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. fixed; steadfast; constant
not easily moved or disturbed
Keeping insulin stable is important all day long, so avoiding all sugar and anything that breaks down quickly into glucose in the body is the goal.

statistic: Read
/stə'tɪstɪk/ n.
mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data
The Census Bureau maintains this site, linking to each state's main statistic site.

status: Read
/'steɪtəs/ n. Syn. standing; state
position relative to others; standing
He never troubled himself about his status.

straightforward: Read
/streɪt'fɔ:wəd/ a.
proceeding in a straight course or manner; not deviating; honest; frank.
But a simple and straightforward apology would have been better.

strategy: Read
/'strætɪdʒɪ/ n.
elaborate and systematic plan; plan of action intended to accomplish a specific goal
The centre will carry out research and develop a strategy to fight the spread of the disease.

stress: Read
/strɛs/ n. Syn. emphasis
put special emphasis on; utter with an accent; state of extreme difficulty, pressure, or strain
He presided over the economy during the period of its greatest stress and danger.

structure: Read
/'strʌktʃə(r)/ n.
complex construction or entity; complex composition of knowledge
Sociologists have studied the changing structure of the family.

style: Read
/staɪl/ n.
particular kind; a way of expressing something
All the reporters were expected to adopt the style of this newspaper.

submit: Read
/səb'mɪt/ v. Syn. defer; yield
refer for judgment or consideration; hand in; present
What I submit is a dialogue that respects the humanity of both parties.

subordinate: Read
/sə'bɔ:dɪnət/;/-dənət/ a. Syn. inferior; submissive
occupying lower rank; inferior; submissive
Bishop Proudie's wife expected all the subordinate clergy to behave with great deference to the wife of their superior.

subsequent: Read
/'sʌbsɪkwənt/ a. Syn. following
following in time or order; succeeding; later
In subsequent days, other polls showed that the margin hadn't narrowed all that much.

subsidy: Read
/'sʌbsɪdɪ/ n. Syn. financing
direct financial aid by government
Without this subsidy, American ship operators would not be able to compete in world markets.

substitute: Read
/'sʌbstɪtju:t/;/-tu:t/ v. Syn. exchange; replace
exchange; put in the place of another
Low and middle income countries are suffering from the condition, as they substitute fiber intake for a much higher consumption of saturated fats and sugar.

successor: Read
/sək'sɛsə(r)/ n.
one who or that which succeeds or follows; one who takes the place which another has left
The real-estate investment trust said the search for a successor is already underway, and will include both internal and external candidates.

sufficient: Read
/sə'fɪʃ(ə)nt/ a. Syn. adequate; enough
adequate; enough; being as much as is needed
Then the scanty supply of food was distressing: with the keen appetites of growing children, we had scarcely sufficient to keep alive a delicate invalid.

sum: Read
/sʌm/ n.
mount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added together; amount
Individual accomplishments are important, but the sum is always greater in value than the individual parts.

summary: Read
/'sʌmərɪ/ n.
brief statement that presents the main points
He gave a summary of the conclusions.

supplement: Read
/'sʌplɪmənt/ v. Syn. add; complement
add as something seems insufficient; complement; extension; addition
A food supplement is a preparation intended to supply nutrients, which are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a person's diet.

survey: Read
/sə'veɪ/ n. Syn. poll; review
poll; detailed critical inspection
A Bank of Israel survey has now shown that the number of families living below the poverty line in Israel tripled between 1988 and 2001.

survive: Read
/sə'vaɪv/ v. Syn. endure; tolerate; outlive
continue to live; endure or last
In 1998, he was lucky to survive when his balloon plummeted into the sea.

suspend: Read
/sə'spɛnd/ v. Syn. hang; append
hang freely; postpone; delay
As the warning of earthquake, a number of train and subway lines had to suspend services.

sustain: Read
/sə'steɪn/ v. Syn. support; nourish; maintain
admit as valid; keep in existence; lengthen or extend in duration or space
How can a country like Spain sustain the millions of migrants who were losing their jobs in 2009 and provide them with the same welfare state Spaniards can access in times of economic crisis?

symbol: Read
/'sɪmb(ə)l/ n. Syn. sign; signal
sign; something visible to represent something else invisible
Often the destruction takes place in public, as a visible symbol of peace replacing war.

tape: Read
/teɪp/ n.
long thin piece of cloth or paper; measuring instrument for length by narrow strip
The carpenter should have used his tape measure the room before any other jobs.

target: Read
/'tɑrgɪt/ n.
reference point to shoot at; goal intended to be attained
The iPhone 5 is an obvious target for Apple fans to pursue.

task: Read
/tɑrsk/;/tæsk/ v. Syn. undertake; labor
labor or study imposed by another; undertake; labor
I wished that she would always be so pleasant, and never push me about, or task me unreasonably.

team: Read
/ti:m/ n. Syn. gang
a number of persons associated together in any work; a flock of wild ducks
Volleyball is a team game, how about beach volleyball?

technical: Read
/'tɛknɪk(ə)l/ a.
having special skill or knowledge; according to principle; formal rather than practical; relating to technique
The ASX yesterday halted trading for four hours after detecting a technical issue.

technique: Read
/tɛk'ni:k/ n.
practical method or art applied to some particular task; skillfulness
He displayed a flawless technique in the competition.

technology: Read
/tɛk'nɒlədʒɪ/ n.
application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives
Without a doubt, they say the use of electronic records and other advances in technology is dramatically improving patient care.

temporary: Read
/'tɛmpərərɪ/;/-pərɛrɪ/ a. Syn. impermanent
not permanent; not lasting
The Administration says the tariffs were meant to be a temporary measure designed to give the American steel industry time to reorganize.

tense: Read
/tɛns/ a. Syn. strained; taut; tight
stretch or force to the limit; tight
The northern city of Kano, which has a history of sectarian violence is especially tense, but has remained peaceful.

terminate: Read
/'tɜrmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. stop; end
stop; bring to an end or halt
The attack would terminate the relatively peaceful period after cold war.

text: Read
/tɛkst/ n.
written words; book prepared for use in schools or colleges
A controversial new edition of a Japanese history text book has been chosen by a public school board for use in its schools.

theme: Read
/θi:m/ n. Syn. subject; motif; topic
subject of conversation or discussion; topic; essay
His letters were always on the theme of love.

theory: Read
/'θɪərɪ/ n.
doctrine or scheme of things; general or abstract principles of any science
The other main theory is that stress during birth somehow leads to left-handedness.

thereby: Read
/ðɛə'baɪ/ ad. Syn. thus; accordingly; consequently
thus; accordingly; by that means; because of that
They hunger and thirst no more; all their wants are supplied, and all the uneasiness caused thereby is removed.

thesis: Read
/'θi:sɪs/ n. Syn. paper; dissertation
paper; dissertation; an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
A good thesis makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts.

topic: Read
/'tɒpɪk/ n.
subject of a speech, essay, thesis, discussion, or conversation
It was a very sensitive topic to discuss, may I have chance to change it?

trace: Read
/treɪs/ v. Syn. imprint; residues
follow, discover; make a mark or lines on a surface
The first problem is who is responsible for the material: the original author, who may be impossible to trace, or the Internet service provider.

tradition: Read
/trə'dɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. heritage
thought or behavior followed from generation to generation; heritage
The state of Massachusetts has always been famous for its history, and especially rich in tradition is the region around Boston.

transfer: Read
/træns'fɜr(r), trɑr-/ n. Syn. shift; distract; divert
shifting; conveyance or removal of something from one place, person, or thing to another
They are also looking into allegations of the illegal transfer of shares that enabled the Chung family to retain management control.

transform: Read
/træns'fɔ:m, trɑr-/ v. Syn. change; convert
change in outward structure or looks; convert
He wants to transform into a monster.

transit: Read
/'trænsɪt, 'trɑr-/ n.
act of passing; passage through or over; line or route of passage
The transit was damaged by flood; we were blocked at a remote mountain village.

transmit: Read
/trænz'mɪt, trɑr-/ v. Syn. forward; convey
forward; send from one person or place to another
They transmit his secret to the whole town.

transport: Read
/træns'pɔ:t, trɑr-/ v. Syn. convey
carry from one place to another; carry away; deport
What I was trying to transport is the oil that is in demand particularly.

trend: Read
/trɛnd/ n. Syn. tendency
popular taste; general direction in which something tends to move
Only late last year, Air Canada seemed to be contradicting the downward trend affecting US-based airlines by posting profits.

trigger: Read
/'trɪgə(r)/ v. Syn. initiate; start
cause something happen; set off
Please skip the remarks that will trigger bitter debates again.

ultimate: Read
/'ʌltɪmət/ a. Syn. final; fundamental; extreme
final; being the last or concluding; fundamental; elemental; extreme
As the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, the Supreme Court occupies a central place in our scheme of government.

undergo: Read
/ʌndə'goʊ/ v. Syn. experience; suffer
experience; suffer; pass through
In February, a court ruled that Mr. Doe should undergo a DNA test.

underlie: Read
/ʌndə'laɪ/ v.
be located under or below; be the support or basis of; account for
In turn, some of these ideas also underlie the Risch algorithm, which is used in Mathematics for indefinite integration.

undertake: Read
/ʌndə'teɪk/ v. Syn. embark; assume
take on; embark on; assume
Can we expect mini robots to undertake major tasks?

uniform: Read
/'ju:nɪfɔ:m/ n.
consistent; standardized; clothing of a particular group
At issue is a demand that all imports are accompanied by uniform certificates authorised by the Commission and not the individual member states.

unify: Read
/'ju:nɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. integrate; unite
integrate; make into or become one unit
A proposal by Oracle could help unify emerging specifications for orchestrating Web services.

unique: Read
/jʊ'ni:k/ a. Syn. alone; single; sole
without an equal; being the only one of its kind
You have to face a problem unique to coastal areas.

utilise: Read
/ju:'tɪlaɪz/ v. Syn. utilize
make useful; find a practical use for; utilize
Development must be integrated and sustainable, that is to say utilise our resources to satisfy present needs without compromising the needs of future generations.

valid: Read
/'vælɪd/ a. Syn. sound; true
logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; well grounded
He said the large number of people surveyed and the lack of corrupting factors mean certain valid conclusions can be drawn from the results.

vary: Read
/'vɛərɪ/ v.
change aspect of; alter in form, appearance, substance, position; make different by a partial change; modify
I believe she was happy in her way: nothing would force her to vary its clockwork regularity.

vehicle: Read
/'vi:ɪk(ə)l/;/'vi:hɪkl/ n. Syn. automobile; instrument
automobile; means of conveying; medium
The vehicle was driven to an underground garage where, say police, the robbers transferred four strong boxes full of cash into a getaway car.

version: Read
/'vɜrʃ(ə)n/;/'vərʒn/ n. Syn. edition
written work in a new form; edition; interpretation of a particular viewpoint
He downloaded the latest version of the software from the Internet.

via: Read
/'vaɪə/ ad.
by the way of
He flew to Europe via the North Pole.

violate: Read
/'vaɪəleɪt/ v.
treat in a violent manner; abuse; do violence to; disturb; interrupt
I should be certain that whatever charter you might grant under coercion, your first act, when released, would be to violate its conditions.

virtual: Read
/'vɜrtjʊəl/ a.
existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact; existing in mind, especially as a product of imagination
Today, 100 bloggers are conducting a virtual protest to decry the large numbers of out-of-wedlock births in the black community.

visible: Read
/'vɪzɪb(ə)l/ a.
being often in public eye; obvious to the eye
The brightened comet in the constellation Virgo may even be visible to the naked eye, allowing members of the public around the world to join in this historic moment in astronomy.

vision: Read
/'vɪʒ(ə)n/ n. Syn. sight
ability to see; sight; vivid mental image
The Boeing vision for a growing aviation business seems to be one of a large number of direct, or 'point to point' flights.

visual: Read
/'vɪʒjʊəl/ a. Syn. visible; optical
seen or able to be seen by the eye; visible; optical
Thank you for the visual presentation; it helps very much.

volume: Read
/'vɒlju:m/;/-jəm/ n. Syn. capacity; bulk; amount
capacity; amount of space occupied by an object
The remains, much reduced in volume from the original, had been preserved in the silver box.

voluntary: Read
/'vɒləntərɪ/;/-tɛrɪ/ a. Syn. willing; unforced
done or undertaken of one's own free will; unforced
But can it be enforced? The answer technically is no - it's a voluntary agreement and there are no penalties for those who don't control wages.

welfare: Read
/'wɛlfɛə(r)/ n. Syn. benefit
benefit; something that aids health or happiness
Many receive government food rations, and about a quarter are living in welfare camps.

whereas: Read
/wɛər'æz/;/hwɛr'æz/ ad.
while on the contrary; while at the same time
Whereas we want a flat, they would rather live in a house.

whereby: Read
/wɛə'baɪ/ ad.
by which; by what; how
He devised a plan whereby he might escape.

widespread: Read
/'waɪdsprɛd, -'sprɛd/ a.
spread or scattered over a considerable extent; occurring or accepted widely
The most pure form of pay for performance, executive stock options, resulted in widespread cheating over a decade.