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  Academic Words Level 4 - 1 - Words of the GroupNext    
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IELTS Academic Words Level 4 - 1

View all words of the list        
abbreviation
abolish
aboriginal
abound
abrasion
abridge
abundance
accelerate
acclaim
accommodation
accord
accumulate
accuser
acquaint
adept
adhere
adjacent
adjoin
administrate
adolescence
advent
adverse
aerial
aesthetic
affiliate
affirm
affix
afflict
aggregate
agitation
agreeable
airing
albeit
allege
alleviate
allocate
allot
alloy
alphabetical
ambiguity
ambiguous
amend
amid
amidst
amplify
analyse
analytical
ancestor
anecdote
annihilate
annuity
antagonism
antarctic
anthology
apologetic
apparatus
append
appliance
applicant
appraisal
appreciable
apprentice
approximate
apt
aquatic
arbitrary
archaic
ardent
arduous
armour
arouse
array
ascend
ascent
ascertain
ascribe
aspiration
aspire
assert
assorted
astound
attain
attribute
audible
augment
authoritative
automate
automation
autonomy
auxiliary
avail
avert
aviation
axis
badminton
baffle
bamboo
barometer
barricade
barter
bead
beautician
beneficial
berth
beset
bewilder
bibliography
bilateral
bilingual
bitumen
bloc
blot
blunder
boast
bookcase
bookkeeper
bookstall
boundary
boycott
brashness
brisk
browse
bulge
bungalow
buoyant
bureaucracy
burrow
bustle
calamity
calcium
calorie
canteen
caption
carcass
catalyst
caustic
censor
centenary
certify
characterize
chasm
chaste
chore
chronological
circulate
circumference
cite
clasp
classify
clockwise
cluster
coarse
coeducation
cognitive
coherent
coil
coincide
collaboration
collide
combustible
commemorate
commend
commodity
commonplace
commute
commuter
comparable
compel
compile
complement
compliance
compose
composite
compress
comprise
compulsory
compute
concerted
concise
concoct
concurrent
condense
condolence
confer
configuration
confine
conform
congestion
congruent
conscientious
consecutive
consequent
conservation
conservatory
conserve
consign
consist
consolidate
conspicuous
constituent
constitute
constrain
constrict
construct
contaminate
contemplate
contend
contention
continuity
contradict
contradiction
contrive
convene
converge
converse
conversely
correlate
correspond
correspondence
correspondent
corresponding
cosmopolitan
cosy
counterbalance
counterpart
crater
crease
criterion
crouch
culminate
cultivate
cumbersome
cumulative
curriculum
curtail
custodian
deadlock
dearth
decompose
decrease
decrepit
deduce
deduct
deem
default
defer
defiance
defile
deflate
deflect
defraud
deft
degrade
delectable
delegate
delirium
delude
deluge
demolish
denomination
denote
depict
deplete
depletion
deplore
depress
derelict
derive
descend
designate
desolate
destine
detach
detain
deter
detriment
detrimental
devastate
deviate
devise
devour
diagnose
diagram
dialect
diameter
differentiate
diffuse
dilapidated
dilate
diligent
dilute
diminish
din
dingy
diplomat
disarray
discard
discern
disclose
discord

Word and Definition List
abbreviation   Pronounce
n. [مخفف] shortening something by omitting parts of it
For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the 'abbrev.'
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abolish   Pronounce
v. [مٹاتا] cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
In a letter to the British government, the EU has demanded that Britain abolish laws protecting religious freedom rights regarding sexual orientation.
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aboriginal   Pronounce
a. [قبائلی] being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
Her studies of the primitive art forms of the aboriginal Indians were widely reported in scientific journals.
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abound   Pronounce
v. [کثرت] be full of; be plentiful
The rooms abound with screaming children.
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abrasion   Pronounce
n. [گھرشن] scratch; friction; the process of rubbing away the surface of something
Dust also is a significant cause of the abrasion of book papers and covers.
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abridge   Pronounce
v. [abridge] condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
Because the publishers felt the public wanted a shorter version of War and Peace, they proceeded to abridge the novel.
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abundance   Pronounce
n. [کثرت] great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
It is good for those who have in abundance to share with those who suffer from want.
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accelerate   Pronounce
v. [تیز] move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
Demand for Taiwanese goods likely will accelerate from the second quarter, as strong Asian demand offsets the effects of a U.S. slowdown.
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acclaim   Pronounce
v. [تعریف] applaud; announce with great approval
The NBC sportscasters will acclaim every American victory in the Olympics.
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accommodation   Pronounce
n. [رہائش] living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a need; convenience
When traveling, accommodation is a very important issue for most people.
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accord   Pronounce
n. [مخلوقات] settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
Although the accord is a small step forward, politicians worldwide have their work cut out for them.
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accumulate   Pronounce
v. [جمع] pile up; collect;  mount up; increase
The tendency of Capital to accumulate is a big threat to the free market.
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accuser   Pronounce
n. [] one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
I think the right to face your accuser is fundamental in that no one should be convicted on the evidence of an anonymous witness.
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acquaint   Pronounce
v. [ارجن] inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
Please acquaint the colleagues with your plans to move faster.
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adept   Pronounce
a. [ہنر] expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
Williams was known as an adept improviser who effortlessly switched between classical, jazz, and pop styles.
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adhere   Pronounce
v. [التزام] stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
That is why the claying is necessary; it makes the grain adhere to the earth; otherwise, it would float.
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adjacent   Pronounce
a. [متصل] adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
Philip's best friend Jason lived only four houses down the block, close but not immediately adjacent.
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adjoin   Pronounce
v. [adjoin] be next to; be contiguous to; border on
A breakfast-room would adjoin the drawing-room, I slipped in there.
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administrate   Pronounce
v. [administrate] administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
Remember that Democrats want to increase spending and create more laws, which creates more government to administrate and enforce.
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adolescence   Pronounce
n. [بالغ] state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity
The big issue in adolescence is that all kids strive for independence.
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advent   Pronounce
n. [آمد] coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
Reasoning by analogy, we can come to no other conclusion unless their advent is anticipated by the arrival of ready-made colonists from the more advanced earth, like ourselves.
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adverse   Pronounce
a. [برعکس] in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
The recession had a highly adverse effect on his father's investment portfolio: he lost so much money that he could no longer afford the house.
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aerial   Pronounce
a. [ہوائی] of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
But in aerial combat, the possibility of mechanical failure paled beside the dangers of enemy fire.
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aesthetic   Pronounce
a. [جمالیاتی] elegant or tasteful; of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste
Kenneth Cole, the American designer, known for his modern, urban aesthetic, is hawking $35 T-shirts.
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affiliate   Pronounce
v. [الحاق] associate; cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another
Our Affiliate programs empower our associates to earn commissions and receive ticket discounts.
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affirm   Pronounce
v. [وانی] state something as true; assert; confirm
Briggs calmly took a paper from his pocket and read out in a sort of official voice: 'I affirm and can prove that on the 20th of October.'
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affix   Pronounce
v. [دور لاحقہ] fasten; append; add on; secure to something
First, the registrar had to add her signature to the license; then, she had to affix her official seal.
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afflict   Pronounce
v. [دامن] cause pain, suffering, or distress
Restless legs syndrome is thought to afflict millions, though there's an argument about just how many.
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aggregate   Pronounce
v. [اجماع] gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
Before the Wall Street scandals, dealers managed to aggregate great wealth in short periods of time.
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agitation   Pronounce
n. [تحریک] anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
The result of all this agitation is an unsettlement that paralyzes business.
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agreeable   Pronounce
a. [قابل قبول] ready to consent or submit; acceptable
They will have a great deal of money, and you will have none: it is your place to be humble and to try to make yourself agreeable to them.
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airing   Pronounce
a. [airing] exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or television broadcast
The Mass will begin airing at 8 am EST; and will be re-aired at midnight EST.
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albeit   Pronounce
ad. [تاہم] even though; although; notwithstanding
This question bothers me, albeit from a different perspective.
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allege   Pronounce
v. [کا الزام] state without proof; assert to be true
If what Justice Department prosecutors allege is true, the five guards should have to answer for what happened on Sept. 16, 2007.
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alleviate   Pronounce
v. [خاتمے] provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
This should alleviate the pain; if it does not, we shall have to use stronger drugs.
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allocate   Pronounce
v. [مختص] assign; distribute according to plan
Even though the Red Cross did allocate a large sum to relieve the sufferers of the disaster, many people perished.
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allot   Pronounce
v. [آونٹیت] parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot
Who will she allot the easy jobs to?
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alloy   Pronounce
v. [مصر] combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
Our concern for Dwight Gooden, who injured his pitching arm in the game,  will alloy our delight at the Yankees' victory.
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alphabetical   Pronounce
a. [حروف تہجی] arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
The books are listed in alphabetical order and are as follows.
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ambiguity   Pronounce
n. [ابہام] state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
This ambiguity is also becoming part of US policy toward Israel; we all have to guess the next step.
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ambiguous   Pronounce
a. [مبہم] unclear or doubtful in meaning
His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take.
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amend   Pronounce
v. [ترمیم] change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
Would McCain amend executive orders to ensure that communications between persons outside government and White House staff are disclosed to the public?
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amid   Pronounce
ad. [درمیان] in the middle of; among; surrounded by
He and other leaders are more optimistic than eight years ago when Easley began his term amid a recession.
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amidst   Pronounce
ad. [رقم] amid; in the middle of; among
He found that a traveler's life includes much pain amidst its enjoyments.
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amplify   Pronounce
v. [تفریح] broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase
Charlie Brown tried to amplify his remarks, but jeers from the audience drowned him out.
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analyse   Pronounce
v. [amplify تجزیہ] resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for examination of each separately
Don't spend all day calling agents about fees - pick three in your locality and analyse which is the best one.
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analytical   Pronounce
a. [تجزیاتی] of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
He totally lacks the analytical, logical, thoughtful intelligence needed by a leader, much less a President.
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ancestor   Pronounce
n. [پرکھا] forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
He said it was a very old name in that neighborhood, that the house's ancestor was wealthy.
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anecdote   Pronounce
n. [اپاھیان] a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
Of all the millions who are moved by this historic occasion, my anecdote is and would be far less remarkable while I am amongst these.
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annihilate   Pronounce
v. [نیست و نابود] destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
The enemy, in its revenge, tried to annihilate the entire population.
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annuity   Pronounce
n. [وارشیکی] annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed sum in each year
The annuity he set up with the insurance company supplements his social security benefits to live very comfortably without working.
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antagonism   Pronounce
n. [عداوت] active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
Barry showed his antagonism toward his new stepmother by ignoring her whenever she tried talking to him.
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antarctic   Pronounce
a. [جنوبی] opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or the region near it
The scientist has spent six months in the solitudes of the antarctic.
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anthology   Pronounce
n. [anthology] book of literary selections by various authors
The late Isaac Asimov compiled this anthology of science fiction.
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apologetic   Pronounce
a. [معذرت خواہانہ] offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal justification or defense
As they went by, one of their leaders shouted out to me in apologetic explanation.
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apparatus   Pronounce
n. [اپریٹس] a group of parts that work together to perform a given function; appliance, or device for a particular purpose
When the apparatus is at work, this gas becomes luminous, giving out a white and continuous light.
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append   Pronounce
v. [فائلیں] attach; add as supplement or appendix
When you append a bibliography to a text, you have just created supplementary material.
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appliance   Pronounce
n. [آلات] durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
It has served North Americans with small appliance needs for many years.
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applicant   Pronounce
n. [درخواست گزار] candidate; a person who formally requests something, especially a job
If the applicant doesn't pass the first time, he can try again and again.
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appraisal   Pronounce
n. [تشخیص] assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
An auto damage appraisal firm offering assessments for insurance and private purposes throughout the province.
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appreciable   Pronounce
a. [تحسین] large enough to be noticed or to affect; perceptible
Her office had no appreciable impact on improving global perceptions of the United States and made things worse in some situations.
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apprentice   Pronounce
n. [شکشو] works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
One of the greatest opportunities for the out-of-school unemployed youth will always be found in apprentice programs.
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approximate   Pronounce
v. [اندازا] come near or nearer to something or someone in space, time, quality, or amount
The conclusions of yours both approximate the truth.
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apt   Pronounce
a. [مناسب] likely; precisely suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
The England coach, Bobby Robson, described it as a miracle, which following 'the Hand-of-God' goal seems supremely apt.
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aquatic   Pronounce
a. [آبی] consisting of, relating to, or being in the water
Paul enjoyed aquatic sports such as scuba diving and snorkeling.
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arbitrary   Pronounce
a. [صوابدیدی] randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
He threw an arbitrary assortment of clothes into his suitcase and headed off, not caring where he went.
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archaic   Pronounce
a. [قدیمی] no longer current or applicable; antiquated
'Methinks,' 'thee,' and 'thou' are archaic words that are no longer part of our normal vocabulary.
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ardent   Pronounce
a. [اتساہی] displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
Her fellow demonstrators were busily making posters and handing out flyers, inspired by her ardent enthusiasm for the cause.
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arduous   Pronounce
a. [پرمشقت] demanding great effort or labor; difficult
Her arduous efforts had sapped her energy.
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armour   Pronounce
n. [کوچ] defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
He girded himself with armour for the battle.
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arouse   Pronounce
v. [زگانا] excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
He suddenly seemed to arouse himself: the conviction of the reality seized him.
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array   Pronounce
v. [سرنی] set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
He requested to array the whole regiment on the parade ground.
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ascend   Pronounce
v. [چڑھ] move up or climb something; mount
Boys ascend through the skylight onto the roof.
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ascent   Pronounce
n. [آروہن] upward slope or grade; movement upward
An unforgettable 2-hour ascent follows a 30-minute hike up to the base of the ferrate up the cliff.
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ascertain   Pronounce
v. [جاننے] find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
Please ascertain her present address.
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ascribe   Pronounce
v. [باندھتے] inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
Other people ascribe his exclusion from the canon to an unsubtle form of racism.
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aspiration   Pronounce
n. [تمنا] ambition; something that you hope to achieve
The basic aspiration is that culture should serve as a rallying point for nation-building - in practice, neither the finances nor the security conditions seem very favorable.
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aspire   Pronounce
v. [بار بار آرزو کریں] seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
If you aspire to a career in professional sports, please enroll in a graduate program in sports management.
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assert   Pronounce
v. [آسان اور خوشگوار بنا] declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
If you quit acting like a wimp and assert yourself a bit more, you'd improve your chances of getting a date.
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assorted   Pronounce
a. [assorted] varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
Watching the large and varied bird population or following assorted trails on horseback.
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astound   Pronounce
v. [چکت] affect with wonder; surprise; shock
The past events dovetail into those of the present, with parallels that surprise, astound, shock and delight.
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attain   Pronounce
v. [پانے] achieve or accomplish; gain
The scarecrow sought to attain one goal: he wished to obtain a brain.
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attribute   Pronounce
n. [خصوصیت] essential quality; reputation; honor
His outstanding attribute was his kindness.
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audible   Pronounce
a. [شروی] perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
He turned his head slightly, his lips moving in a phrase audible only to the Caverna.
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augment   Pronounce
v. [بڑھانے] make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
Armies augment their forces by calling up reinforcements.
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authoritative   Pronounce
a. [مستند] weighting authority; peremptory and dictatorial
Impressed by the young researcher's well-documented presentation, we accepted her analysis of the experiment as authoritative.
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automate   Pronounce
v. [خودکار] replace or enhance human labor with machines
The other reason to automate is to get people out of dangerous circumstances.
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automation   Pronounce
n. [آٹومیشن] the use of machines and computers that can operate without needing human control
As small business proprietors, most doctors have had little incentive to invest in automation efforts.
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autonomy   Pronounce
n. [خود مختاری] independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination
The study also called for the three thousand Rapa Nui people of Easter Island to be given greater autonomy.
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auxiliary   Pronounce
a. [حمل سے متعلق معاون] helper, additional or subsidiary
To prepare for the emergency, they built an auxiliary power station.
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avail   Pronounce
v. [کار آمد] turn to the advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
When his power ceases to avail, that is when a stronger than he appears upon the scene.
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avert   Pronounce
v. [ٹال] prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
She had to avert her eyes from the dead cat on the highway.
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aviation   Pronounce
n. [ہوا بازی] art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics
A group of British and French civil aviation experts meeting in Paris had failed to develop new proposals to improve Concorde's security.
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axis   Pronounce
n. [محور] the center around which something rotates; pivot
Then Tehran was bracketed, along with its old enemy Iraq, and North Korea, in President Bush's evil axis.
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badminton   Pronounce
n. [بیڈمنٹن] game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs.
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baffle   Pronounce
v. [چکرا] frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
The new code will baffle the enemy agents.
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bamboo   Pronounce
n. [بانس] plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries
Many farmers' fields are irrigated by water brought from a river or lake through bamboo pipes.
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barometer   Pronounce
n. [بیرومیٹر] an instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
So far, our country's barometer is National Bookstore's and Powerbooks' bestsellers list.
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barricade   Pronounce
n. [روک والی آڑ] hastily put together defensive barrier; obstacle
Marius and his fellow students hurriedly improvised a rough barricade to block police access to the students' quarter.
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barter   Pronounce
v. [عوض] trade goods or services without the exchange of money
Trashbank is an online site where you can barter, buy, sell, trade, or swap your items or services.
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bead   Pronounce
n. [منکی] small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood that is pierced for stringing
They started riding towards the store; then up gets one of the boys, draws a steady bead over the wood-rank.
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beautician   Pronounce
n. [ہرا بیوٹیشن] one skilled in giving cosmetic treatments; one who does hair styling, manicures, and other beauty treatments
I now prefer to call a beautician home rather than visit a salon and uncover my head in public.
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beneficial   Pronounce
a. [منافع] helpful; tending to promote physical well-being
Tiny Tim's cheerful good nature had a beneficial influence on Scrooge's charitable disposition.
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berth   Pronounce
n. [برت] space for the ship to dock or anchor; allotted place; the place to sleep or stay; appointment or job
They might not have to give cats a wide berth for the rest of their lives.
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beset   Pronounce
v. [گھیرے] attack from all sides; trouble persistently; hem in
Many vexing problems beset the American public school system.
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bewilder   Pronounce
v. [bewilder] lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes
You bewilder us by the city traffic; none of us can back hotel independently.
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bibliography   Pronounce
n. [کتابیات] list of works of a specific author or publisher; list of writings relating to a given subject
Plus, a narrative bibliography is included to discuss the professional literature and topics covered in the book.
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bilateral   Pronounce
a. [دوطرفہ] two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
In general, China does not consider them as refugees but economic migrants and has repatriated those caught on its territory under a bilateral treaty with North Korea.
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bilingual   Pronounce
n. [دولسانی] using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency
The diagram illustrates how the aid of theories provided by monolingual studies was used to investigate reading development in bilingual settings.
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bitumen   Pronounce
n. [bitumen] mineral pitch; black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame
In what you might call a giant washing machine, agitation and heat begin to separate the bitumen from the sand.
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bloc   Pronounce
n. [بلاک] a group of nations, parties, or persons united for common action
Today the Jewish bloc is interested primarily in Palestine and will continue to be an uncertain quantity right up to election time.
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blot   Pronounce
n. [نابود] spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; a weak point or failing
A memory without blot or contamination must be an exquisite treasure: is it not?
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blunder   Pronounce
n. [غلطی] serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
The criminal's fatal blunder led to his capture.
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boast   Pronounce
v. [گھمنڈ] show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
Many of the sports facilities are already in place, and the city can boast one of the most compact proposals running alongside the Moscow river.
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bookcase   Pronounce
n. [کتابوں کی الماری] case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors
They bought a bookcase to put the books and notebooks on.
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bookkeeper   Pronounce
n. [bookkeeper] one who keeps accounts; one who has charge of keeping books and accounts in an office
Eric earned his bread and butter as a bookkeeper but added a little jam by working with a dance band on weekends.
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bookstall   Pronounce
n. [bookstall] stall where books are sold, as on the street; table with enclosed sides, for displaying books for sale
Even the tiny bookstall at Sheffield railway station had a full set of the Lensman novels.
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boundary   Pronounce
n. [سرحد] dividing line; border; frontier
Planning drawings sometimes show a boundary line, though there is no legal requirement for it.
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boycott   Pronounce
v. [بائیکاٹ] refrain from buying or using
Cesar Chavez called for consumers to boycott grapes to put pressure on grape growers to stop using pesticides that harmed the farm workers' health.
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brashness   Pronounce
n. [brashness] characteristic of being brash; the trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
The brashness is gone; there seems to be more patient, as long as it's not about his other love - horse racing.
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brisk   Pronounce
a. [تیز] marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner
'Come in!' Called a brisk, familiar voice as Ronny knocked lightly on the almost closed door.
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browse   Pronounce
v. [براؤز] graze; skim or glance at casually
'How now, brown cow, browsing in the green, green grass.' I remember lines of verse that I came across while I browsed through the bookstore's poetry section.
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bulge   Pronounce
v. [بلک] cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
When the inserted balloon is filled with water, they bulge out in a variety of shapes.
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bungalow   Pronounce
n. [بنگالی] small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
Every summer, we rent a bungalow on Cape Cod for our vacation home.
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buoyant   Pronounce
a. [buoyant] able to float; cheerful and optimistic
When the boat capsized, her buoyant life jacket kept Jody afloat.
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bureaucracy   Pronounce
n. [بیوروکریسی] over-regulated administrative system
The Internal Revenue Service is the ultimate bureaucracy; taxpayers wasted so much paper filling out IRS forms to comply with the Paper-work Reduction Act.
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burrow   Pronounce
n. [بل] tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
They will return to breed in the fall, and the male will reclaim his burrow, waiting to reconnect with his mate.
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bustle   Pronounce
v. [ہلچل] move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
David and the children bustle about the house getting in each other's way as they try to pack for the camping trip.
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calamity   Pronounce
n. [سدا] the event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; disaster; misery
As news of the calamity spread, offers of relief poured into the stricken community.
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calcium   Pronounce
n. [کیلشیم] silvery, moderately hard metallic element
We need some calcium every day; it is an essential element for bone health.
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calorie   Pronounce
n. [کیلوری] unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree
It's quite likely that a reduction in calorie intake yields a reduction in metabolic rates.
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canteen   Pronounce
n. [کینوس] a vessel used by soldiers for carrying water or other drinks; snack bar or small cafeteria
Collins filled his canteen from the water barrel and dug out a box of shells for the shotgun.
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caption   Pronounce
n. [عنوان] title; chapter heading; text under illustration
We got a caption error in The Far Side cartoons shown yesterday.
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carcass   Pronounce
n. [کنکال] the dead body of an animal, especially one slaughtered and dressed for food
Hunters must check the animals in at stations while the carcass is still fresh.
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catalyst   Pronounce
n. [اتپریرک] an agent which brings about chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged
Many chemical reactions cannot take place without the presence of a catalyst.
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caustic   Pronounce
a. [کاسٹک] capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action
The critic's caustic remarks angered the hapless actors who were the subjects of his sarcasm.
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censor   Pronounce
n. [سینسر] overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or sensitive content
Soldiers dislike having their mail read by a censor but understand the need for this precaution.
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centenary   Pronounce
a. [صدی] relating to a 100-year period; occurring once every 100 years
The bridge, restored for its centenary, is a worthy contribution to future tourism in Durango state.
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certify   Pronounce
v. [سرٹیفکیٹ] give certain information to; assure; make certain
That section that requires to certify is the search will not involve 'the premises, information, material, or property of a United States person.'
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characterize   Pronounce
v. [خصوصیات] distinguish; be characteristic of; be a distinctive trait or mark of
Clarity and reasonableness in this essay again characterize Chris's writing.
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chasm   Pronounce
n. [کھائی] deep opening in the earth surface
They could not see the bottom of the chasm.
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chaste   Pronounce
a. [عفت و عصمت] morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
However, if he remarried or did not remain chaste, the money would pass to her mother.
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chore   Pronounce
n. [chore] a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
This chore duty is an extension of the laundry duty.
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chronological   Pronounce
a. [کالانکرمک] arranged in order of time of occurrence
A public library has sponsored guide to cover letter writing, chronological samples, and resume templates.
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circulate   Pronounce
v. [گردش] move through space, circuit, or system, returning to the starting point
The doctor shows me how blood to circulate in my veins in pictures.
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circumference   Pronounce
n. [فریم] the boundary line of a circle,  figure, area, or object
The earth has a circumference of approximately 24900 miles.
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cite   Pronounce
v. [واوین] quote; adduce as an instance
She could cite passages in the Bible from memory.
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clasp   Pronounce
n. [ہک] fastening device; firm grip
When the clasp on Judy's bracelet broke, Fred repaired it, bending the hook back into shape.
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classify   Pronounce
v. [درجہ بندی] declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or categories
The US government agency responsible to classify viruses, the Centre for Disease Control, says it was in the process of deciding whether to change the strain's classification.
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clockwise   Pronounce
ad. [دکشنتاورت] in the direction that the hands of a clock move
Please move clockwise in a circle.
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cluster   Pronounce
n. [گروپ] group; bunch; group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely
The powerful earthquake, measuring 6.8 on the Richter Scale, struck a cluster of small villages and towns in Xinjiang's remote region.
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coarse   Pronounce
a. [موٹے] rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
Trade in coarse grains, dairy products, and beef is also the subject of special attention, looking towards freer and better managed trading arrangements.
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coeducation   Pronounce
n. [coeducation] system of education in which both men and women attend the same institution or classes
I now serve as president of Oberlin College, the first college in America to admit students of color and women to coeducation.
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cognitive   Pronounce
a. [سنجشتھاناتمک] knowing or perceiving; part of mental functions that deals with logic
Though Jack was emotionally immature, his cognitive development was admirable; he was very advanced intellectually.
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coherent   Pronounce
a. [سنسکت] adhesive; sticking together; capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
If the EU is to form any coherent common foreign policy, it needs France and Britain singing from the same song sheet.
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coil   Pronounce
n. [کنڈلی] a series of connected spirals or concentric rings formed by gathering or winding; spiral pipe or series of spiral pipes
A divergent bundle of electrons passing through the coil is focused to a point.
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coincide   Pronounce
v. [موافق] occur at the same time as; correspond
To coincide with World AIDS Day, the World Health Organization and UN AIDS are launching a campaign to treat three million HIV sufferers by 2005.
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collaboration   Pronounce
n. [تعاون] act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
This is something that I can see as a potential long-term relationship rather than a short-term collaboration.
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collide   Pronounce
v. [آپس میں ٹکرا] bump; hit something violently
Two small planes collide over Florida Everglades and crash into a swamp, no survivors.
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combustible   Pronounce
a. [آتش] capable of igniting and burning; easily aroused or excited
After the recent fires in private homes, the fire commissioner ordered that all combustible materials be kept in safe containers.
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commemorate   Pronounce
v. [منانے] serve as a memorial to; honor the memory of with a ceremony
The story of Fairchild that Mr. Moore was helping to commemorate is well-known in Silicon Valley.
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commend   Pronounce
v. [تعریف] commit, entrust, or give in charge for care or preservation; recommend as worthy of confidence or regard
I will commend the child to her sister's care.
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commodity   Pronounce
n. [جنس] goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit
While some world stock and commodity markets show signs of calming down, China is usually an exception.
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commonplace   Pronounce
a. [عام] ordinary; having no remarkable features
We think the key to making this stuff more commonplace is keeping it affordable for everyone.
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commute   Pronounce
v. [چاپ commute] obtain or bargain for exemption or substitution; regularly travel from a place of residence to another place
In exchange for cooperating with detectives on another case, he criminally tried to commute his charges.
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commuter   Pronounce
n. [مسافروں] someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
Vancouver is increasingly becoming a commuter city.
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comparable   Pronounce
a. [موازنہ] similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
People whose jobs are comparable in difficulty should receive similar pay.
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compel   Pronounce
v. [مجبور] force; coerce; necessitate or pressure by force
Why, Jane, what would you have? I fear you will compel me to go through a private marriage ceremony.
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compile   Pronounce
v. [تالیف] put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
We planned to compile a list of the words most frequently used on these examinations.
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complement   Pronounce
v. [اضافی] complete; consummate; make perfect
The waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese.
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compliance   Pronounce
n. [عمل] readiness to yield; happy friendly agreement
Bullheaded Bill was not noted for easy compliance with the demands of others.
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compose   Pronounce
v. [تحریر] write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
As you begin to compose, improvise on that melody and see where it naturally wants to take you.
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composite   Pronounce
a. [جامع] made up of distinct parts or elements; compounded
The Living area is a rectangular space, eighty percent enclosed by retractable glass walls and single-span composite timber beams supporting the sub-roof ceiling.
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compress   Pronounce
v. [دبا] close; squeeze or press together; contract
She has to compress the package under her arm.
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comprise   Pronounce
v. [شامل ہیں] include; consist of; be composed of
If the District of Columbia were to be granted statehood, the United States of America would comprise fifty-one states, not just fifty.
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compulsory   Pronounce
a. [لازمی] mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
In 2004 Britain introduced a compulsory citizenship ceremony which required new citizens to take a broader oath promising to respect Britain's rights, freedoms, and laws.
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compute   Pronounce
v. [شمارندہ] reckon; make a mathematical calculation
He failed to compute the interest, so his bank balance was not accurate.
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concerted   Pronounce
a. [سگھن] planned or accomplished together; combined
All the Girl Scouts made a concerted effort to raise funds for their annual outing.
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concise   Pronounce
a. [جامع] brief and compact; expressing much in few words
When you define a new word, be concise: the shorter the definition, the easier it is to remember.
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concoct   Pronounce
v. [چال چلیں گے.] digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition
It really does make you look rather stupid and like you're trying to concoct something where nothing exists.
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concurrent   Pronounce
a. [سمورتی] simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
The Winter War fought between Finland, and the Soviet Union was a concurrent war to World War II, and thus is covered in its own main article.
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condense   Pronounce
v. [گاڑھا] change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops; compress or concentrate
This showed that the more we condense air, the fitter we make it for purposes of combustion.
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condolence   Pronounce
n. [تعزیتی] expression of sympathy with another in sorrow or grief.
The FBI has seized a two-page, handwritten letter of condolence sent by Jacqueline Kennedy to the widow of Robert F. Kennedy shortly after he was assassinated in 1968.
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confer   Pronounce
v. [احسان] bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
I need some time to confer with my lawyer.
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configuration   Pronounce
n. [ترتیب] arrangement of parts or elements; outline
The outcome depends on the configuration of influences at the time.
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confine   Pronounce
v. [محدود] restrict in movement; circumscribe
You may take the maniac with you to England; confine her with due attendance and precautions at Thornfield.
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conform   Pronounce
v. [مطابق] comply with; follow; fit; meet
Why, in defiance of every precept and principle of this house, does she conform to the world so openly?
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congestion   Pronounce
n. [بھیڑ] act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass
International contractors started tunneling under this city of fifteen million to help relieve horrendous congestion.
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congruent   Pronounce
a. [متماثل] possessing congruity; suitable; agreeing; corresponding
I would have definitely given the film more marks were it something more congruent with my tastes.
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conscientious   Pronounce
a. [ئماندار] diligent; responsible; reliable
He made me feel what severe punishment a good yet stern, conscientious yet implacable man can inflict on one who has offended him.
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consecutive   Pronounce
a. [مسلسل] following one after another without interruption; sequential
The consecutive file saving method also created some problems.
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consequent   Pronounce
a. [نتیجے] resulting; following as a logical conclusion
His retirement and consequent spare time enabled him to travel more.
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conservation   Pronounce
n. [تحفظ] preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect
According to new research, rapid and large-scale natural habitats have already affected biodiversity in the area, and urgent conservation efforts are now needed.
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conservatory   Pronounce
n. [conservatory] greenhouse; school of music or dramatic art
Even though he was not conservatory trained, his passion for music took him to the point where eventually he was considered one of the best guitar accompanists in Cuba.
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conserve   Pronounce
v. [محفوظ] retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
One way to conserve is to make cars more efficient.
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consign   Pronounce
v. [سپرد] give, transfer, or deliver formally, as if by signing over into the possession of another
Perhaps it would be better to consign it to a place where others may not so readily gain access to it.
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consist   Pronounce
v. [مشتمل] be made up or composed; be comprised or contained in
A sudden renewed interest in action movies from the early nineties whose titles consist of three words, one of which is usually either 'kill,' 'law' or 'justice.'
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consolidate   Pronounce
v. [مضبوط] make solid; unite or press together into a compact mass; harden or make dense and firm
He bribes his leader to consolidate his position.
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conspicuous   Pronounce
a. [مخصوص] noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious
The next morning, Miss Scatcherd wrote in conspicuous characters on a piece of pasteboard the word 'Slattern.'
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constituent   Pronounce
n. [پیچیدہ اتحادی] component or part; citizen, voter
A machine will not function properly if any constituent of it is defective.
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constitute   Pronounce
v. [تشکیل] make up; form something
She went to the open door, stood in it, and looked out among the tomato vines that would constitute the garden.
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constrain   Pronounce
v. [مجبور] restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
His idea is to constrain commercial banks' lending.
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constrict   Pronounce
v. [] restrict; shrink; make smaller or narrower by binding or squeezing
Freezing temperatures also constrict peripheral blood vessels, further stressing the heart.
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construct   Pronounce
v. [تعمیر] form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
After all, perhaps there were different ways to construct machines that would have different properties.
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contaminate   Pronounce
v. [غور و فکر کریں] make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
Compact fluorescent light bulbs contaminate the environment with 30000 pounds of mercury each year.
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contemplate   Pronounce
v. [غور و فکر کریں] look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
He used to contemplate the problem from all sides.
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contend   Pronounce
v. [خراب جھگڑا کریں] strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
John has to contend with great difficulties in coming IELTS test.
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contention   Pronounce
n. [فساد] competing as for any profit or prize
The teams were in fierce contention for first place.
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continuity   Pronounce
n. [تسلسل] property of a continuous and connected period of time
I think you need to hire someone to maintain continuity on your blog if you intend to have any longevity.
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contradict   Pronounce
v. [تناقض] confront; state the opposite of what someone has said
Now act as you please: write and contradict my assertion--expose my falsehood as soon as you like.
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contradiction   Pronounce
n. [تضاد] the assertion of contrary; denial of the truth of a statement; opposition, whether by argument or conduct
A contradiction is the signal of defeat with formal logic, but in the evolution of real knowledge, it marks the first step in progress toward a victory.
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contrive   Pronounce
v. [contrive] form by an exercise of ingenuity; invent or design
Can you contrive to escape here early?
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convene   Pronounce
v. [گیلا کرنا] cause to come together formally
Six days' public notice must be given when announcing the meeting schedules, meaning the earliest the board can next convene is July 24.
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converge   Pronounce
v. [تقارب] approach; tend to meet; come together
African-American men from all over the United States will converge on Washington to participate in the historic Million Men march.
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converse   Pronounce
v. [گفتگو] chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
Eva is all ears while Lulu and Lola converse.
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conversely   Pronounce
ad. [برعکس] in a converse manner; with change of order or relation; reciprocally.
Economies don't get in trouble overnight and, conversely, don't improve overnight.
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correlate   Pronounce
v. [correlate] relate; associate; bring into a mutual relation
I cannot correlate these two pieces of information.
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correspond   Pronounce
v. [خط و کتابت] be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
My Russian pen pal and I correspond for several years.
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correspondence   Pronounce
n. [خط و کتابت] similarity or analogy; communication by the exchange of letters
For a long time, he had been in correspondence with the chief banks in Shanghai and Macao.
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correspondent   Pronounce
a. [متصل نمائندے] one who communicates information, especially, by letter or telegram to newspaper or periodical
Our correspondent of Hong Kong compiled the information below.
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corresponding   Pronounce
a. [مقابلے] accompanying; analogous or equivalent in character, form, or function; comparable
She pointed to a wide arch corresponding to the window and hung like it with a Tyrian-dyed curtain, now looped up.
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cosmopolitan   Pronounce
a. [میٹرو] sophisticated; of worldwide scope
Her years in the capitol had transformed her into a cosmopolitan young woman highly aware of international affairs.
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cosy   Pronounce
n. [آرامدہ] padded or knitted covering placed especially over a teapot to keep the tea hot; cozy
A teapot under a cosy is stewing, not brewing, the tea.
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counterbalance   Pronounce
v. [counterbalance] act as force or influence that balances, checks, or limits an opposite one
It is common in America to counterbalance a Democratic president with Republicans in the Congress and vice versa.
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counterpart   Pronounce
n. [ہم منصب] duplicate copy; one that closely resembles another
Robinson becomes the Bishop of New Hampshire only weeks after John, his counterpart, was forced to stand down for fear his election would divide the Church.
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crater   Pronounce
n. [crater] a bowl-shaped opening at the top of a volcano
At least one village about three kilometers from the crater has been covered in volcanic ash dusting.
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crease   Pronounce
n. [کریج] a line or long thin mark made by folding or doubling
He cut across the crease from the left side.
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criterion   Pronounce
n. [کسوٹی] standard of judging; any approved or established rule or test
Among the reasons for adding this as a criterion is an obvious point that Nobel wanted the Prize to have political effects.
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crouch   Pronounce
v. [crouch] bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey or in fear
They did not crouch under the oppression.
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culminate   Pronounce
v. [اختتام تک جاری] reach the highest or most decisive point;  rise to the summit
Wednesday's anniversary is to culminate in a recreation of the student march that started the Velvet Revolution.
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cultivate   Pronounce
v. [کاشت] improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote the growth of
I think probably the most popular habit we writers cultivate is having coffee to hand.
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cumbersome   Pronounce
a. [بوجھل] heavy; difficult to handle because of weight or bulk
He was burdened down with cumbersome parcels.
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cumulative   Pronounce
a. [سنچیی] increasing by successive addition
Vocabulary building is a cumulative process: as you go through your flashcards, you will add new words to your vocabulary, one by one.
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curriculum   Pronounce
n. [نصاب] the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college; course or program
While these arguments about evolution are in the UK, a minister says that Intelligent Design is not included in the national curriculum and should not be taught in schools.
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curtail   Pronounce
v. [سد] cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part
When Herb asked Diane for a date, she said she was really sorry she couldn't go out with him; her dad had ordered her to curtail her social life.
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custodian   Pronounce
n. [ابرکشک] a person who has responsibility for or looks after something; guardian
Every veteran has his or her own war, and each is the custodian of a unique story and memories.
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deadlock   Pronounce
n. [تعطل] standstill resulting from the opposition of two forces or factions; stalemate
Because negotiations had reached a deadlock, some of the delegates had begun to mutter about breaking off the talks.
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dearth   Pronounce
n. [کمی] scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
The dearth of skilled labor compelled employers to open trade schools.
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decompose   Pronounce
v. [گلنا] decay, or to cause something to decay
Unless the plastic is specially designed to decompose in the soil, such materials can last a very long time.
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decrease   Pronounce
v. [کمی] lessen; reduce; make a quantity smaller
Can I increase or decrease the sum insured under the council home contents insurance policy?
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decrepit   Pronounce
a. [نربل] weakened, worn out, or broken down by old age, illness, or hard use
The decrepit car blocked traffic on the highway.
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deduce   Pronounce
v. [نتیجہ نکالنا] lead forth; conclude by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
Our investors deduce from the figures that the report shows.
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deduct   Pronounce
v. [کٹوتی] lead forth or out; take away, separate, or remove, in numbering, estimating, or calculating; subtract
I will deduct tax from your salary.
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deem   Pronounce
v. [خیال] decide; judge; sentence; condemn
I am simply going to keep looking forward and do what I deem is right.
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default   Pronounce
n. [ڈیفالٹ] failure to act; an option that is selected automatically
When the visiting team failed to show up for the big game, they lost the game by default.
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defer   Pronounce
v. [ملتوی] delay till later; put off; hold back to a later time
I would again defer to responsible judgment when we're dealing with this kind of thing.
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defiance   Pronounce
n. [نافرمانی] refusal to yield; readiness to contend or resist
Now I feel by imperceptible signs, which I cannot yet interpret but will later, that his defiance is about to thaw.
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defile   Pronounce
v. [گندا] pollute; make dirty or spotty
The hoodlums defile the church with their scurrilous writing.
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deflate   Pronounce
v. [تردید کرنا] reduce from an inflated condition; release contained air or gas from
His goal must be to deflate the opposition, not to encourage it.
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deflect   Pronounce
v. [موڑنا] turn aside; draw someone's attention away from something
No one believed that his life was saved because his cigarette case could deflect the bullet.
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defraud   Pronounce
v. [مکر] deprive of some right, interest, or property, by a deceitful device
Are you saying that Socialism Welfare states don't defraud, mislead, and embezzle?
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deft   Pronounce
a. [قابل] quick and skillful; neat in action or performance
The deft waiter uncorked the champagne without spilling a drop.
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degrade   Pronounce
v. [نیچا] reduce level; lower grade of something
To reduce in worth or value: degrade a currency.
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delectable   Pronounce
a. [سہاونا] delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste
We thanked our host for a most delectable meal.
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delegate   Pronounce
n. [نمائندے] a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
Some religious groups are boycotting the event, but one delegate told the BBC that it was vital to work with the Americans to get Iraq up and running again.
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delirium   Pronounce
n. [دورہ] a mental disorder marked by confusion
In his delirium, the drunkard saw pink panthers and talking pigs.
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delude   Pronounce
v. [بہکانا] deceive mind or judgment of; lead from truth or into error; frustrate or disappoint
His mistress may delude herself into believing that he would leave his wife and marry her.
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deluge   Pronounce
n. [جھڑی] great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water
When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications.
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demolish   Pronounce
v. [گرا] raze; destroy; do away with completely; put an end to
Authorities plan to demolish many buildings left weakened by the quake, which is threatening to fall.
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denomination   Pronounce
n. [قیمت] class, society, or collection of individuals called by the same name; specifically, a religious sect
Every denomination is experiencing tension, and Southern Baptists are no exception.
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denote   Pronounce
v. [مطلع کرنا] indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
The word 'sex' is simply that—a word to denote whether a person is male or female.
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depict   Pronounce
v. [چترت] represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
Here, we can see how the author to depict Beatle John Lennon as a drug-crazed neurotic.
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deplete   Pronounce
v. [خالی کرنا] decrease fullness of; use up or empty out
We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order replacements.
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depletion   Pronounce
n. [رکتیکرن] act of emptying, reducing, or exhausting
Freshwater depletion is especially worrisome in Egypt, Libya, and several Persian Gulf states.
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deplore   Pronounce
v. [مذمت] feel or express strong disapproval of; condemn; express sorrow or grief over; regret
Although I deplore the vulgarity of your language, I defend your right to express yourself freely.
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depress   Pronounce
v. [جھکانا] lower in spirits; press down
There are hopes that this could help to revive the internet and technology sector, which has shown to depress since the dot-com crash of 2000.
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derelict   Pronounce
a. [متروک] left and abandoned; negligent in performing a duty
As a former South Chicago community organizer, the President knows all about schools in derelict areas.
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derive   Pronounce
v. [اخذ] obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
For I knew Diana and Mary would derive more pleasure from seeing the old homely tables than from the spectacle of the smartest innovations again.
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descend   Pronounce
v. [اترتے] move downward and lower; come from; be connected by a relationship of blood
You could see a rough path descend like a steep stair into the plain.
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designate   Pronounce
v. [نامزد] indicate or specify; point out; assign a name or title to
I did not designate Mr. Irons as my representative, and as far as I know, he acted on his own initiative and spoke for himself.
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desolate   Pronounce
a. [تنہا] unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
The sounds of Nature are detailed with great delicacy in this appeal, and we see that the Alps are referred to as desolate regions.
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destine   Pronounce
v. [مقرر] intend or choose someone or something for a particular purpose or end  
Since last October, the eight elephants, which were to destine for zoos in Sydney and Melbourne, have been in quarantine in Thailand.
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detach   Pronounce
v. [تخریبی] part; separate or disunite; disengage
He tried to detach the link from the chain.
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detain   Pronounce
v. [الگ] keep back or from; withhold; restrain from proceeding; stay or stop; delay
The power to detain people without filing criminal charges against them is dictatorial.
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deter   Pronounce
v. [جاسوس] keep from; stop; prevent or discourage from acting
He hopes a charge would not deter people from enjoying this great invention.
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detriment   Pronounce
n. [نقصان] harm; damage; injury; something that causes damage, harm, or loss
Any short-term detriment will be overwhelmed by the long-term utility of a station at Woolwich.
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detrimental   Pronounce
a. [قدح] causing damage or harm; injurious
The acceptance of a financial contributions from a well-known racist ultimately proved detrimental to his campaign, for he lost the backing of early grassroots supporters.
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devastate   Pronounce
v. [ویران] ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
She says the disease can devastate Sudan, as HIV spreads quickly among the nation's youth.
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deviate   Pronounce
v. [نمودار] turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
Richard did not deviate from his daily routine: every day, he set off for work at eight o'clock, had his sack lunch at 12:15, and headed home at the stroke of five.
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devise   Pronounce
v. [نبند] form, plan, or arrange in mind; transmit or give by will
How clever he must be to devise such a devious plan!.
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devour   Pronounce
v. [کھا] consume; eat greedily; destroy completely
He seemed to devour me with his flaming glance: physically, I felt, at the moment, powerless as stubble exposed to the draught and glow of a furnace.
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diagnose   Pronounce
v. [تشخیص] analyze; examine; identify the cause of something
How to diagnose a sick fish by their behavioral changes and what you can do to cure the illness.
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diagram   Pronounce
n. [تصویر] graph; chart; figure or drawing made to illustrate a statement; plan
The pie diagram shows the level of spending on health in Japan.
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dialect   Pronounce
n. [زبان] vocabulary that is for a specific group of people
The immigrants spoke an odd dialect of English.
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diameter   Pronounce
n. [قطر] length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference
The recommendations on dish diameter are based on the use of a perfectly shaped parabolic dish.
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differentiate   Pronounce
v. [فرق] set apart; distinguish; perceive or show the difference in or between
You can differentiate car parts using different color markers; maybe you use one color for the left side and another for the right.
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diffuse   Pronounce
v. [وسرت] spread out widely; scatter freely; pour out and cause to spread freely
Hamilton wished to concentrate power; Jefferson to diffuse power.
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dilapidated   Pronounce
a. [جیرن] in disrepair, run-down; of very poor quality or condition
Rather than get discouraged, the architect saw great potential in the dilapidated house.
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dilate   Pronounce
v. [digress] make wider or larger; cause to expand; enlarge; widen
I just had an eye exam, and that eye drops that dilate your eyes make things fuzzy!
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diligent   Pronounce
a. [میہنتی] assiduous; industrious; hard-working
It gratified all the vicious vanity in him, so instead of winning him, it only set him up the more and made him the more diligent to avoid betraying what he knew.
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dilute   Pronounce
v. [پتلا] weaken; make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
A couple of years back, you very loudly opposed the creation of '60 MINUTES 2'; I think it might dilute the brand you helped build up.
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diminish   Pronounce
v. [کم] dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
The only way to diminish mistakes is to bring competitors into the game.
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din   Pronounce
n. [الدین] loud, confused, harsh noise; loud, continuous, rattling, or clanging sound
They were unable to sleep because of the din coming from the bar.
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dingy   Pronounce
a. [گندی] darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored
The only observation I have is the colors are a bit too gloomy and dingy.
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diplomat   Pronounce
n. [سفارت کار] one who is in charge to deal with others, like an ambassador, who is appointed to represent a government
The diplomat solved the international problem by negotiating.
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disarray   Pronounce
v. [گڑبڑ] throw into disorder; break the array of.
Then the NASDAQ crash of 2000 left the US equity markets in disarray for more than a year.
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discard   Pronounce
v. [مسترد] throw out something from one's hand; get rid of
Right now, what we discard is an inherent part of what we consume.
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discern   Pronounce
v. [discern] detect; perceive, recognize, or understand something that is not clear
I discern in the course of the morning that Thornfield Hall was a changed place.
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disclose   Pronounce
v. [افشاء] unclose; open; remove a cover or envelope from; lay open or expose to view
I have no intention to disclose their names for security reasons.
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discord   Pronounce
n. [کلہ] conflict; lack of agreement among persons, groups, or things
Watching Tweedledum battle Tweedledee, Alice wondered what had caused this pointless discord.
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