IELTS Writing: Coherence and Cohesion

 By Mary Dapin

IELTS Writing: Coherence and Cohesion Words

In general, IELTS writing vocabulary should be a part of IELTS vocabulary. But, considering that the formats of academic task 1 (a report to describe chart or table) and task 2 (a 250 words 4/5 paragraphs essay), some short but useful word and phrase lists are deserved to study in advance.

For example, words to link sentences and paragraphs are critical in coherence and cohesion, they will polish your writing after short preparation.

IELTS Writing Task 2 will ask you to finish an essay of more than 250 words. You only have 40 minutes to do this assignment, a short essay, 300 words around, and 4 or 5 paragraphs.

To express your core argument and present supporting points accurately, you need words and phrases to link sentences and paragraphs together, and finally, to organize your ideas as a fluent essay. Words and phrases in this section help you to do it.
  Words and Phrases to Link Sentences   
1. Reason and Result
Because
E.g. It is important to remember that some people might not have a choice of jobs because they did not have the chance of a good education or because they have a large family to support.
Because of
E.g. Of course, there are appliances which in their basic format have improved our lifestyle simply because of the labour they save.
Due to
E.g. An increasing concern for many governments around the world is the declining health of their citizens due to a poor diet.
Due to the fact that
Owing to
E.g. Athletes are people who are held at a lofty place in the society owing to their popularity and wealth.
Owing to the fact that

Accordingly
E.g. Rewarding people according to qualifications has long been used as a yardstick for paying people, but it is not a consistently good measure.
As a consequence
As a result
E.g. As a result, a sense of cultural identity can be reinforced – even rekindled and restored where it has already been lost.
As an effect
Consequently
E.g. Candidates with a confident attitude and others with knowledge of the subject being tested consequently have the possibility of attaining a similar grade.
Eventually
For this reason
E.g. A decision not to immunise will have widespread repercussions for the whole of society and for this reason, I do not believe that individuals have the right to stand aside.
Thereby
E.g. To start with, it is the globalization that impelled many corporate to become international groups, thereby making a contribution to the local technology and employment.
Therefore
E.g. Nobody can deny that there are certain professionals like nurses, doctors and teachers who are essential to the fabric of society, and who should therefore be rewarded accordingly.
This means that
2. Example and Addition
As an evidence
As follows
For example
E.g. For example, if sufficient sky trains and underground train systems were built and effectively maintained in our major cities, then traffic on the roads would be dramatically reduced.
For instance
E.g. This would apply to somebody who wants to be a car mechanic, or a fashion designer, for instance, who would not necessary gain anything from going to university.
In other words
E.g. In other words, truculent people may fight in virtual reality instead of evincing their combative spirit in real world.
In this case
Including
E.g. The workers, who work for contractions; including the architect, engineer and labour, should know the safety rules and codes and also should protest when they believe that a rule might have been violated and ignored.
Namely
Such as
E.g. Playing sports also teaches valuable life lessons such as teamwork, discipline, goal setting, and the realities of dealing with success and failure.

Above all
Apart from
E.g. We must also remember that apart from harming the individual, smoking represents a huge cost to society.
As well as
E.g. This will promote further technological advances as well as provide a possible means of escape should earth become uninhabitable in future.
Besides
Furthermore
E.g. Furthermore, it is believed by some that animals do not feel pain or loss as humans do, so if we have to kill animals for food or other uses, then this is morally acceptable.
In addition, Additionally, An additional
Moreover
E.g. Moreover, once in the country, students often find it less problematic to use the services of an immigration agent, to whom they surrender their passports and pay sometimes phenomenal sums of money.
3. Contrast and Comparison
Although, Even though
Conversely
Despite, Ddespite the fact that
However
E.g. However, they could manage with less money and have a better life by taking a job they enjoy or by working fewer hours.
In comparison
E.g. In comparison with studious and prepared candidates, it is obvious that the latter would perform better.
In contrast
In spite of, In spite of the fact that
Instead
E.g. The labours should never assent to work in a position which is harmful and risky for them, the engineers should maintain the strict rules instead of blindly following the construction owners order and the local authority should time to time monitor the constructions to avoid the hazards.
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
On the contrary
E.g. On the contrary, I am strongly convinced that advertisements are extremely beneficial to society in several ways.
On the other hand
E.g. On the other hand, some other people hold a different attitude, argue that the internet has many weaknesses.
Unlike
E.g. While it is undeniable that private car use is one of the main causes of the increase in traffic and pollution, higher fuel costs are unlikely to limit the number of drivers for long.
Whereas
E.g. Some people believe that animals should be treated in the same way humans are and have similar rights, whereas others think that it is more important to use them as we desire for food and medical research.

At the same time
E.g. At the same time, their strong achievements bring honour and attention, not only to themselves, but also to their teams, schools, cities or countries.
Compare
E.g. Now compare the candidates who have written fluently and at length with candidates who have managed only a few lines, and it becomes considerably more difficult to assess whether attitude is as important as knowledge.
Correspondingly
Equally
E.g. Equally, a patient opposed to conventional medicine may have an accident and be saved by the effective treatment of conventional emergency services.
In the same way
E.g. Some people believe that animals should be treated in the same way humans are and have similar rights, whereas others think that it is more important to use them as we desire for food and medical research.
Just as
E.g. Once a child goes to school, they are entering a wider community where teachers and peers will have just as much influence as their parents do at home.
Just like
Like the previous point
Likewise
Same as
Similar to
Similarly
E.g. Similarly, those patients who choose alternative treatments over traditional medicine may find themselves disillusioned.
4. Emphasis and Generalising
Admittedly
After all
Clearly
E.g. To sum up, it is clear that main causes of obesity are unhealthy eating and not enough physical activities.
Especially
E.g. Young people especially, view many athletes as role models and want to emulate the way these stars dress, act and live their lives.
Generally
E.g. In addition, tour guides know things about a certain place that are not generally mentioned in books or brochures.
Importantly
E.g. It is important to remember that some people might not have a choice of jobs because they did not have the chance of a good education or because they have a large family to support.
In fact
E.g. Yet if they follow such programs, they may in fact notice improvements in their condition, in spite of their scepticism.
Indeed
E.g. There may indeed be good arguments for allowing certain posts to remain predominantly male or female.
Mainly
E.g. It could also be argued that certain jobs requiring a great deal of physical strength, coal mining or logging, for example, should continue to be done mainly by men.
Naturally
E.g. In addition, an increasing number of appliances are for purposes that were not previously considered necessities, but through marketing techniques, manipulative advertising and human nature we are now keen to acquire them.
Obviously
E.g. In comparison with studious and prepared candidates, it is obvious that the latter would perform better.
Of course
E.g. Of course, there are appliances which in their basic format have improved our lifestyle simply because of the labour they save.
Particularly, In particular
Surely
E.g. While I believe it is true that a lack of social and emotional learning contributes to the problem, other factors are surely involved: economic factors, for example.
Undoubtedly
E.g. In conclusion, while we undoubtedly face serious problems on our own planet, it is imperative that we continue to explore space.

As a rule
For the most part
Generally
E.g. In addition, tour guides know things about a certain place that are not generally mentioned in books or brochures.
In general
E.g. Instead, they reflect the public popularity of sport in general and level of public support that successful stars can generate.
In most cases
On the whole
Usually
E.g. Yet, professionals in the fields above usually struggle to get by, despite their meaningful and critical contribution to the world.
5. Sequence and Summarising
Firstly, Secondly, Finally
Further, Furthermore
Lastly
E.g. The first computers were built sixty years ago and it is the last thirty years or so that their influences has affected our everyday life.
The first point is
The following
The former, The latter

All in all
As can be seen
As described
Finally
E.g. Finally, it has also been proven that humans can get all the nutrients and vitamins that they need from green vegetables and fruit.
Given the above
In a nutshell
In a word
In brief
In conclusion
E.g. In conclusion, the Government does not have the necessary scope to monitor each & every construction in a country and the house owners must know the safety procedures, standards and rules to make sure the safety.
In short
E.g. In short, it is possible and in many cases, desirable, to make the effort to preserve minority languages.
In summary
It can be concluded that
Overall
E.g. Overall, therefore, what is needed in a test situation is a balance between the two, in which the information gleaned from studying is balanced with a positive and organised approach to the test itself.
That is to say
To conclude
E.g. We can thus be led to conclude that professional athletes can be very good role models for children, as long as they focus on the positive aspects of playing sports.
To put it simply
To repeat in short
To sum up
E.g. To sum up, although some people argue killing animals for research and food is ethical, I would argue there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that this is not the case, and, therefore, steps must be taken to improve the rights of animals.
To summarise
Ultimately
E.g. Whoever controls the media also has ultimate control over what is published or broadcasted and what is omitted.
6. Time and Space
All of a sudden
As long as
E.g. We can thus be led to conclude that professional athletes can be very good role models for children, as long as they focus on the positive aspects of playing sports.
As soon as
E.g. Therefore, something should be done as soon as possible to protect people from negative effects of the internet.
At the present time
At the same time
E.g. At the same time, their strong achievements bring honour and attention, not only to themselves, but also to their teams, schools, cities or countries.
At this instant
From time to time
In a moment
In due time
In the first place
In the meantime
Sooner or later
To begin with
E.g. To begin with, many people have ambitions to become a qualified professional, and there is no doubt that becoming a doctor o lawyer, for example, is only possible with a degree.
Up to the present time
Without delay

Adjacent to
Here and there
In front of
In the background
In the center of
In the distance
In the foreground
In the middle
On this side
Opposite to
To the left
To the right
7. Other Transition
Alternatively
E.g. Similarly, those patients who choose alternative treatments over traditional medicine may find themselves disillusioned.
Although
E.g. Although the ideal situation may be to have an enjoyable job that also provides a good salary, this is not always possible.
As far as
as for
E.g. However, I believe they would continue to thrive by providing alternatives to modern ways of life, and innovative ideas for modern technologies.
Even though
If not
In other words
E.g. In other words, truculent people may fight in virtual reality instead of evincing their combative spirit in real world.
In that case
It follows that
On the other hand
E.g. On the other hand, some other people hold a different attitude, argue that the internet has many weaknesses.
Otherwise
The alternative is
This implies that
Though
E.g. The universities will not be able to reverse this trend, though they should always look out for the most qualified candidates.
With reference to
With regard to