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TOEFL Vocabulary Level 1 - 1: Print One-sided Flashcard

abbreviation:
n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
abnormal:
a. unusual; not typical; not normal
abort:
v. stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abrasive:
a. rubbing away; tending to grind down
absence:
n. state of being absent; state of being away
absolutely:
ad. utterly; not viewed in relation to other things or factors  
abstract:
a. theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
accidental:
a. unexpected; happening by chance, unintentionally  
accompany:
v. travel with; be associated with
accomplished:
a. skilled; experienced; having many social graces; polished or refined
accounting:
n. a system that provides quantitative information about finances
acid:
n. sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful
acidic:
a. tasting sour like acid; being or containing an acid
actual:
a. true; real; being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current
acupuncture:
n. treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
adequate:
a. sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
adhere:
v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adhesive:
a. sticky; glutinous; tending to persist
adjunct:
n. something added on or attached generally nonessential or inferior
admit:
v. permit to enter; receive; provide the right or a means of entrance to
adventure:
n. something happens without design; chance; hazard; risk; danger
adventurous:
a. valiant; venturesome; inclined or willing to incur hazard or engage in adventures
adversity:
n. state of misfortune, hardship, or affliction; misfortune
advocate:
v. speak, plead, or argue in favor of; plead for; push for something
aerodynamics:
n. study of how objects move through the air or water
affected:
a. speaking or behaving in an artificial way; emotionally stirred or moved; infected or attacked
affective:
a. sentimental; emotional; emotionally charged
aggravate:
v. worsen; make worse or more troublesome
aggregation:
n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole
ailment:
n. sickness;a slight but often persistent illness 
aircraft:
n. a vehicle that can fly, such as an airplane, helicopter, balloon
alert:
n. the warning serves; alarm; condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action
alike:
a. similar; in the same manner or to the same degree
allegation:
n. suggestion without proof that someone has done something wrong
alliteration:
n. repetition of a beginning sound in poetry
alone:
a. solitary; by oneself, not with any other people  
alteration:
n. a passage from one form or state to another; change
alternation:
n. successive change from one thing or state to another and back again
aluminum:
n. silvery ductile metallic element
amazement:
n. wonder; state of extreme surprise or wonder; astonishment
ambivalence:
n. state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes, such as love and hate
amenable:
a. responsive to advise or suggestion; responsible to a higher authority; willing to comply with; agreeable
analogy:
n. the similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
analysis:
n. study; investigation; the process of breaking down a substance into its constituent parts
anecdote:
n. a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
anesthetic:
n. a substance that causes loss of sensation; producing temporary loss or impairment of feeling
angular:
a. sharp-cornered; consisting of an angle or angles; stiff in manner
annually:
ad. yearly; each year; returning every year; year by year
anthem:
n. song of praise or patriotism; the song of devotion or loyalty
anthropology:
n. social science that studies origins and social relationships of human beings
anticipation:
n. something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence
antiquated:
a. too old to be fashionable, suitable, or useful; obsolete; aged
antiquity:
n. ancient times, especially the times preceding the Middle Ages; extreme oldness
antiseptic:
n. a substance that prevents infection; a substance that restricts the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
appointment:
n. act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement
apprentice:
n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approval:
n. official approbation; endorsement; an act of approving
approve:
v. ratify; consider right or good; think or speak favorably of
aquamarine:
a. of bluish-green color; of pale blue to light greenish-blue
aquarium:
n. tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals
arboreal:
a. tree-dwelling; treelike; living in trees
archaeology:
n. study of artifacts and relics of early humankind
architect:
n. one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures
arithmetic:
n. theory of numerical calculations
armor:
n. shield; defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arms:
n. weapons considered collectively; official symbols of a family
array:
v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
arsenal:
n. storage place for military equipment; a stock of weapons
artery:
n. one of the vessels or tubes which carry either venous or arterial blood from the heart; major transit corridor
articulate:
v. speak clearly and distinctly; utter a speech sound; be jointed; make clear or effective
ascent:
n. upward slope or grade; movement upward
assignment:
n. a task that was given to students; job; distribution; appointment
association:
n. connection, whether of persons or things; a union of persons in a company or society for some particular purpose
assorted:
a. varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
assortment:
n. variety; collection containing a variety of sorts of things
assume:
v. suppose; presume; take on; bear
assumption:
n. something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of
assure:
v. tell someone confidently that something is true; guarantee; convince
astonish:
v. surprise someone very much; shock
astute:
a. wise or keen; shrewd; with sharp intelligence
asymmetrical:
a. unbalanced; uneven;  having parts on either side or half that do not match  
athlete:
n. a sportsman; one who contended for a prize in public games
atomization:
n. act of reducing to atoms, or very minute particles
atrophy:
n. wasting away; decrease in size; reduction in the functionality of an organ caused by disease
attempt:
n. the action of trying at something
audience:
n. a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance
aurora:
n. a natural appearance of coloured light in the sky, that is usually seen nearest the Arctic or Antarctic
autonomous:
a. self-governing; not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent
avenue:
n. way or opening for entrance or exit place; passage by which a place may be reached; broad street
average:
a. typical; mean; achieve or reach on average
averse:
a. reluctant; disinclined; turned away or backward; unwilling
aviator:
n. someone who operates an aircraft
avoid:
v. shield away from; prevent
axis:
n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
bachelor:
n. unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges
backbone:
n. support; mainstay; vertebrate spine or spinal column
balloonist:
n. someone who flies a balloon
bankruptcy:
n. state of being unable to pay your debts
bar:
n. a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick
barb:
n. sharp projection from fishhook; openly cutting remark
bark:
n. a sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog
barrel:
n. vessel; large cylindrical container
barrenness:
n. property of not supporting life, no children, or unable to have children; defect of emotion, sensibility, or fervency
barter:
v. trade goods or services without the exchange of money
bean:
n. various edible seeds; small oval or roundish seed, berry, nut, or lump
bear:
v. support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support
beat:
v. whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly
behalf:
n. represent;  advantage, benefit, the interest of someone
below:
ad. under, or lower in place; beneath not so high; inferior to in rank; unworthy of
besiege:
v. surround with armed forces; harass with requests
bilateral:
a. two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
billion:
n. the number that is represented as a one followed by 9 zeros
biologist:
n. a scientist who studies living organisms
bitterness:
n. sharp and bitter manner
blink:
v. shut eyes briefly; wink
blizzard:
n. a severe snowstorm with strong winds  
blossom:
n. reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts
boast:
v. show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
bolster:
v. support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion
boredom:
n. tedium; dullness; state of being a bore, or the tendency to become tiresome and uninteresting
boring:
a. uninteresting and tiresome; dull
boulder:
n. a rounded rock lying on the surface of ground or embedded in soil
bound:
n. tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump
bowl:
v. throw or roll a ball; move quickly and smoothly, especially by rolling
braid:
v. weave; interweave three or more strands
breathe:
v. respire; inhale and exhale air
breathtaking:
a. very surprising or shocking
briny:
a. salty; any huge body of saltwater
broaden:
v. widen; grow broad or broader
bud:
n. one that is not yet fully developed; sprout
buggy:
n. small, lightweight carriage; drawn by a single horse
bulb:
n. the rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
bundle:
v. tie, wrap, or gather together; hurry; hasten; dress oneself warmly
burrow:
n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
cab:
n. taxi; a one-horse vehicle for public hire
cabal:
n. a small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
cabin:
n. a small room on a ship or boat where people sleep
cadence:
n. rhythmic rise and fall of words or sounds; beat
calculator:
n. a small machine that is used for mathematical calculations
cancel:
v. revoke; call off; omit or delete
candid:
a. straightforward; frank; free from prejudice; impartial
carat:
n. unit of weight for precious stones; a measure of fineness of gold
career:
n. profession or occupation; individual's work and life roles over their lifespan
cargo:
n. freight carried by ship, an aircraft, or another vehicle
caricature:
n. a representation that is deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect
cater:
v. supply what is needed or desired; provide food professionally for a special occasion
cause:
n. something produces a result; the basis for an action or response; a reason
cease:
v. stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue
ceremonial:
n. ritual; ceremony or rite
chafe:
v. wear away or irritate by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; annoy; vex
chalk:
n. soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish-white color, used as a drawing implement
championship:
n. status of being a champion; position or title of a winner
characteristic:
n. a feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait
chat:
n. talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation
check:
v. stop motion; curb or restrain
checkup:
n. thorough physical examination
chili:
n. very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency
choppy:
a. having many small waves; rough with small waves
chronology:
n. time sequence; an arrangement of events in time
cipher:
n. secret code; an Arabic numeral or figure; a number
circle:
n. round; something shaped like such a ring; a group of people sharing an interest, activity, or achievement
circular:
a. round; shaped like or nearly like a circle
circulation:
n. spread or transmission of something to a wider group or area
circumstance:
n. situation; condition; detail accompanying or surrounding an event
citizenship:
n. status of a citizen with rights and duties
clam:
n. soft edible body of such as mollusk
clause:
n. sentence; phrase; distinct article, stipulation, or provision in a document
clay:
n. very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired
climate:
n. weather condition; atmosphere; environment
cling:
v. hold fast or adhere to something; stick together and resist separation; remain emotionally
clip:
n. a small section of filmed or filed material
coach:
n. tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers
coalescence:
n. union of diverse things into one body or form or group; growing together of parts
coarse:
a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
coffeepot:
n. tall pot in which coffee is brewed
cohesion:
n. a tendency to keep together
coin:
n. small piece of metal, usually flat and circular, authorized by a government for use as money
coincidence:
n. two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
collaborate:
v. work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
collaboration:
n. act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
collusion:
n. a secret agreement for any illegal purpose; conspiracy
colonize:
v. migrate to and settle in; plant
combine:
v. blend; fuse; merge
commerce:
n. trade; business; intellectual exchange or social interaction
committee:
n. special group delegated to consider some matter
community:
n. society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
commuter:
n. someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
compact:
n. small and economical car; small cosmetics case
comparable:
a. similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
comparative:
a. relative; based on, or involving comparison
compensation:
n. something given or received as payment as for a service or loss or injury
compensatory:
a. serving to compensate or as compensation; making amends; repaying
competition:
n. struggle; rivalry; an act of competing as for a profit prize
complement:
n. something that completes or makes up a whole or brings to perfection
complementary:
a. serving to fill out or to complete; supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks
complicated:
a. difficult to analyze or understand
comply:
v. yield assent; accord; agree, or acquiesce; adapt one's self; fulfill; accomplish
compose:
v. write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
comprehend:
v. take in the meaning, nature, or importance of; grasp
comprehensible:
a. understandable; readily comprehended or understood; intelligible
comprehensive:
a. thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope
concept:
n. something formed in mind; thought or notion
concurrent:
a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
condiment:
n. seasoning; something used to give relish to food; something used to enhance the flavor of food, like salt or pepper
condition:
n. mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances
conductivity:
n. transmission of heat or electricity or sound
confinement:
n. state of being confined; restraint within limits; any restraint of liberty by force
confining:
a. restricting scope or freedom of action; crowded
confirm:
v. support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
conformity:
n. similarity in form or character; agreement
congratulation:
n. act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration
congruity:
n. relation or agreement between things; fitness; harmony; correspondence; consistency.
connoisseur:
n. specialist; a person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts
consecutive:
a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
consequence:
n. result; relation of a result to its cause; logical conclusion or inference
consequent:
a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
conservative:
a. favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change
conserve:
v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
considerably:
ad. substantially; significantly; to a degree worth considering
considerate:
a. thoughtful; marked by consideration or reflection; deliberate
consistent:
a. agreeing with itself; coherent; regular
constrain:
v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
constraint:
n. something that restricts or confines within prescribed bounds
consult:
v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
container:
n. any object that can be used to hold things
contaminate:
v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
content:
n. volume; something contained; material, including text and images
contented:
a. satisfied or showing satisfaction with things as they are
contiguous:
a. sharing an edge or boundary; touching; neighboring
continuum:
n. sequence; succession; continuous extent, succession, or whole
contrast:
v. set in opposition to show or emphasize differences; show differences when compared
convenience:
n. state of being suitable
convention:
n. social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
convert:
n. change something into another form; transform
cooperate:
v. work or act together toward a common end or purpose
corn:
n. plants, such as wheat, maize, oats, and barley, that can be used to produce flour
cosmopolitan:
a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
counseling:
n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
couple:
n. a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another
craft:
n. something made by people; vessel
crash:
n. smash; collision; falling down or in pieces with a loud noise of breaking parts
crayon:
n. stick of colored wax or chalk, used for drawing
creek:
n. a small stream, often a shallow tributary to a river; brook
crippling:
a. causing someone to be physically disabled, especially unable to walk; causing severe damage or problems
critical:
a. urgently needed; absolutely necessary; essential; acute; crucial; decisive
critique:
n. critical review or commentary, especially one dealing with works of art or literature
crossbones:
n. two crossed bones used as a symbol of danger or death
crossbreeding:
n. reproduction by parents of different races
crossing:
n. traveling across; place at which roads, lines, or tracks intersect; intersection
crumple:
v. fall apart; fold or collapse; crush together or press into wrinkles
crush:
v. press between opposing bodies so as to break or injure; extract or obtain by pressing or squeezing
cube:
n. three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular sides; cubicle, used for work or study
curiosity:
n. desire to know or learn
current:
n. stream; flow; up-to-date; present
cushion:
n. soft pillow or pad usually used for sitting, reclining, or kneeling
custom:
n. tradition; practice followed by people of a particular group or region
customarily:
ad. usually; under normal circumstances, normally
cyclone:
n. violent rotating windstorm
dart:
v. move suddenly and rapidly
dawn:
n. time each morning at which daylight first begins; beginning; start
dawning:
n. first light of day; first advent or appearance
dearth:
n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
debris:
n. remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up
decadent:
a. self-indulgent; moral decay
decent:
a. suitable; modest.; honorable; meeting accepted standards
declare:
v. state clearly; make known formally or officially
decline:
n. change toward something smaller or lower; gradual falling off from a better state
defend:
v. make or keep safe from danger, attack, or harm
deference:
n. willingness to carry out the wishes of others; great respect
deferential:
a. showing deference; being respectful and considerate
deficiency:
n. scarcity; lack or shortage, especially of something essential to health
definitely:
ad. clearly; without question and beyond doubt
dehydrate:
v. remove water from; dry out; lose water or bodily fluids
dehydrated:
a. suffering from excessive loss of water
deign:
v. condescend to give or grant; esteem worthy; consider worth notice
delegate:
n. a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
demobilize:
v. retire from military service
demonstrate:
v. show clearly and deliberately; manifest; confirm; prove
denote:
v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
dense:
a. thick; crowded closely together; compact
density:
n. thickness; the quantity of something per unit measure, especially per unit length, area, or volume
depart:
v. take off; leave; set out
dependable:
a. reliable; worthy of being depended on; trustworthy
dependence:
n. reliance; lack of independence or self-sufficiency
dependent:
a. relying on or requiring the aid of another for support
depict:
v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
deposit:
n. money given as a guarantee or security
depressed:
a. sad; gloomy; low in spirits; dejected
derivative:
a. unoriginal; derived from another source
desalination:
n. removal of salt; a process of removing salt from seawater to make drinking water
deserted:
a. remote from civilization; left desolate or empty; abandoned
desirable:
a. worthwhile; worth doing or achieving; advisable
desolate:
a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
desperately:
ad. with great urgency; seriously; severely
despoiler:
n. someone who takes spoils or plunder; one who despoils or strips by force; a plunderer
destination:
n. ultimate goal; the place to which one is going or directed
deterrent:
n. something that discourages; tending to deter
devastate:
v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
device:
n. technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more relatively simple tasks
diagonal:
n. a straight line connecting any two vertices of a polygon that are not adjacent