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TOEFL Vocabulary Level 1 - 1

View all words of the list        
abbreviation
abnormal
abort
abrasive
absence
absolutely
abstract
accidental
accompany
accomplished
accounting
acid
acidic
actual
acupuncture
adequate
adhere
adhesive
adjunct
admit
adventure
adventurous
adversity
advocate
aerodynamics
affected
affective
aggravate
aggregation
ailment
aircraft
alert
alike
allegation
alliteration
alone
alteration
alternation
aluminum
amazement
ambivalence
amenable
analogy
analysis
anecdote
anesthetic
angular
annually
anthem
anthropology
anticipation
antiquated
antiquity
antiseptic
appointment
apprentice
approval
approve
aquamarine
aquarium
arboreal
archaeology
architect
arithmetic
armor
arms
array
arsenal
artery
articulate
ascent
assignment
association
assorted
assortment
assume
assumption
assure
astonish
astute
asymmetrical
athlete
atomization
atrophy
attempt
audience
aurora
autonomous
avenue
average
averse
aviator
avoid
axis
bachelor
backbone
balloonist
bankruptcy
bar
barb
bark
barrel
barrenness
barter
bean
bear
beat
behalf
below
besiege
bilateral
billion
biologist
bitterness
blink
blizzard
blossom
boast
bolster
boredom
boring
boulder
bound
bowl
braid
breathe
breathtaking
briny
broaden
bud
buggy
bulb
bundle
burrow
cab
cabal
cabin
cadence
calculator
cancel
candid
carat
career
cargo
caricature
cater
cause
cease
ceremonial
chafe
chalk
championship
characteristic
chat
check
checkup
chili
choppy
chronology
cipher
circle
circular
circulation
circumstance
citizenship
clam
clause
clay
climate
cling
clip
coach
coalescence
coarse
coffeepot
cohesion
coin
coincidence
collaborate
collaboration
collusion
colonize
combine
commerce
committee
community
commuter
compact
comparable
comparative
compensation
compensatory
competition
complement
complementary
complicated
comply
compose
comprehend
comprehensible
comprehensive
concept
concurrent
condiment
condition
conductivity
confinement
confining
confirm
conformity
congratulation
congruity
connoisseur
consecutive
consequence
consequent
conservative
conserve
considerably
considerate
consistent
constrain
constraint
consult
container
contaminate
content
contented
contiguous
continuum
contrast
convenience
convention
convert
cooperate
corn
cosmopolitan
counseling
couple
craft
crash
crayon
creek
crippling
critical
critique
crossbones
crossbreeding
crossing
crumple
crush
cube
curiosity
current
cushion
custom
customarily
cyclone
dart
dawn
dawning
dearth
debris
decadent
decent
declare
decline
defend
deference
deferential
deficiency
definitely
dehydrate
dehydrated
deign
delegate
demobilize
demonstrate
denote
dense
density
depart
dependable
dependence
dependent
depict
deposit
depressed
derivative
desalination
deserted
desirable
desolate
desperately
despoiler
destination
deterrent
devastate
device
diagonal

Word and Definition List
abbreviation   Pronounce
n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the 'abbrev.'
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abnormal   Pronounce
a. unusual; not typical; not normal
Fujitsu, Toshiba, HP, and Lenovo all insist that their designs are sufficiently different to Dell and Apple, that there is no abnormal risk of fire.
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abort   Pronounce
v. stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
However, most women say that the decision to abort is a difficult one.
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abrasive   Pronounce
a. rubbing away; tending to grind down
The ash can also cause long-term abrasive damage to planes that could lead to later disasters if not dealt with.
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absence   Pronounce
n. state of being absent; state of being away
The other guests had taken advantage of the Queen's absence and were resting in the shade.
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absolutely   Pronounce
ad. utterly; not viewed in relation to other things or factors  
For their part, the ambassadors expressed appreciation for the Italian Prime Minister's efforts to clarify that terrorism is absolutely separate from Islam.
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abstract   Pronounce
a. theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal.
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accidental   Pronounce
a. unexpected; happening by chance, unintentionally  
Its curves are arbitrary and what we call accidental, but one after another follows it as if he were guided by a chart on which it was laid down.
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accompany   Pronounce
v. travel with; be associated with
But the night being wet and inclement, Mr. Rochester did not accompany them.
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accomplished   Pronounce
a. skilled; experienced; having many social graces; polished or refined
More poems should tell stories in accomplished ways.
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accounting   Pronounce
n. a system that provides quantitative information about finances
Recent changes in accounting rules have forced companies in Britain to state much more accurately the true financial state of their pension funds.
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acid   Pronounce
n. sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful
There is a barrage of acid comments in today's newspapers.
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acidic   Pronounce
a. tasting sour like acid; being or containing an acid
The chart below categorizes food as either acidic or alkaline based on its effective consumption of urine pH.
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actual   Pronounce
a. true; real; being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current
And the defense secretary retraced what he called the actual history of how the U.S. got involved in Iraq.
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acupuncture   Pronounce
n. treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
Acupuncture therapy intends to promote health and alleviate pain and suffering.
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adequate   Pronounce
a. sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
England missed key players through injury, lacked adequate preparation, and could not match Australia's skill.
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adhere   Pronounce
v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
That is why the claying is necessary; it makes the grain adhere to the earth; otherwise, it would float.
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adhesive   Pronounce
a. sticky; glutinous; tending to persist
Today adhesive binding is the most popular approach for industrial booklet production.
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adjunct   Pronounce
n. something added on or attached generally nonessential or inferior
Although I don't absolutely need a second computer, I plan to buy a laptop to serve as an adjunct to my desktop model.
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admit   Pronounce
v. permit to enter; receive; provide the right or a means of entrance to
But what she absolutely refuses to admit is that none of us wants to be a hack.
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adventure   Pronounce
n. something happens without design; chance; hazard; risk; danger
I can't even decide which step of this adventure is the most aggravating.
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adventurous   Pronounce
a. valiant; venturesome; inclined or willing to incur hazard or engage in adventures
Tom's younger brother  Sid was already through with his part of the work, for he was a quiet boy and had no adventurous, troublesome ways.
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adversity   Pronounce
n. state of misfortune, hardship, or affliction; misfortune
A young boy whose strength in adversity is an inspiration to all who know him.
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advocate   Pronounce
v. speak, plead, or argue in favor of; plead for; push for something
Some doctors advocate a smoking ban in the entire house.
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aerodynamics   Pronounce
n. study of how objects move through the air or water
As mentioned, aerodynamics is an important factor to consider when learning how to build a rocket.
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affected   Pronounce
a. speaking or behaving in an artificial way; emotionally stirred or moved; infected or attacked
The other boys laughed so unmercifully at what they termed my affected accent.
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affective   Pronounce
a. sentimental; emotional; emotionally charged
It's fairly well known that 'light therapy' is sometimes used to help those suffering from depression, especially seasonal affective disorder.
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aggravate   Pronounce
v. worsen; make worse or more troublesome
Ridiculous, offensive comments like this do nothing but aggravate the situation.
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aggregation   Pronounce
n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole
It provides an overview of a diverse set of more than thirty digital library aggregation services, organizes them into functional clusters.
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ailment   Pronounce
n. sickness;a slight but often persistent illness 
And the number closely matches a finding of an earlier international study that estimated some 10.1 percent of people globally suffer from the ailment.
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aircraft   Pronounce
n. a vehicle that can fly, such as an airplane, helicopter, balloon
This aircraft is also equipped with a spear, which the Geneva War Crimes Handbook forbids.
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alert   Pronounce
n. the warning serves; alarm; condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action
And although the main ports are on alert, Nigeria, in particular, has many small river ports in the Cross River and Niger deltas.
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alike   Pronounce
a. similar; in the same manner or to the same degree
Friends are generally alike in background and tastes.
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allegation   Pronounce
n. suggestion without proof that someone has done something wrong
The allegation has angered the Brazilian authorities and has been strongly denied.
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alliteration   Pronounce
n. repetition of a beginning sound in poetry
'The furrow followed free' is an example of alliteration.
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alone   Pronounce
a. solitary; by oneself, not with any other people  
Alice cried with a sudden burst of tears, 'I do wish they would put their heads down! I am so very tired of being all alone here!'
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alteration   Pronounce
n. a passage from one form or state to another; change
Both sides can make a pretty plausible argument that the alteration is what they want it to be.
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alternation   Pronounce
n. successive change from one thing or state to another and back again
Now go back to the diagram at the top of the page and trace through the cycle of generations' alternation.
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aluminum   Pronounce
n. silvery ductile metallic element
Services include mold aluminum casting, heat treating, machining.
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amazement   Pronounce
n. wonder; state of extreme surprise or wonder; astonishment
My daughter and I looked at each other in amazement, and with beaming smiles, threw our arms around each other.
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ambivalence   Pronounce
n. state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes, such as love and hate
Torn between loving her parents one minute and hating them the next, she was confused by her feelings' ambivalence.
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amenable   Pronounce
a. responsive to advise or suggestion; responsible to a higher authority; willing to comply with; agreeable
He was amenable to any suggestions that came from those he looked up to.
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analogy   Pronounce
n. the similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
This analogy is almost always noted without further comment, although it may be taken further.
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analysis   Pronounce
n. study; investigation; the process of breaking down a substance into its constituent parts
You can read more about those studies here, and my analysis is here.
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anecdote   Pronounce
n. a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
Of all the millions who are moved by this historic occasion, my anecdote is and would be far less remarkable while I am amongst these.
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anesthetic   Pronounce
n. a substance that causes loss of sensation; producing temporary loss or impairment of feeling
His monotonous voice acted as an anesthetic; his audience was soon asleep.
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angular   Pronounce
a. sharp-cornered; consisting of an angle or angles; stiff in manner
Mr. Spock's features, though angular, were curiously attractive in a Vulcan way.
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annually   Pronounce
ad. yearly; each year; returning every year; year by year
It says an immediate commitment of three billion dollars annually is needed to provide basic healthcare across sub-Saharan Africa.
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anthem   Pronounce
n. song of praise or patriotism; the song of devotion or loyalty
Let us now all join in singing the national anthem.
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anthropology   Pronounce
n. social science that studies origins and social relationships of human beings
The strength of anthropology is its diversity of approach and perspective, unified by a common theme: the study of human variation and adaptability.
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anticipation   Pronounce
n. something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence
Please hold your breath in anticipation of that event.
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antiquated   Pronounce
a. too old to be fashionable, suitable, or useful; obsolete; aged
We are tolerably conversant with the early English poets; and can discover no resemblance whatever, except in antiquated spelling and a few obsolete words.
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antiquity   Pronounce
n. ancient times, especially the times preceding the Middle Ages; extreme oldness
There have been many republics in the past, both in what we call antiquity and what we call the Middle Ages.
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antiseptic   Pronounce
n. a substance that prevents infection; a substance that restricts the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
Regular washing with antiseptic is often enough to heal a skin infection.
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appointment   Pronounce
n. act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement
His appointment as Foreign Secretary has triggered speculation in London about the Prime Minister's motives for the change.
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apprentice   Pronounce
n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
One of the greatest opportunities for the out-of-school unemployed youth will always be found in apprentice programs.
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approval   Pronounce
n. official approbation; endorsement; an act of approving
First, Ehrlich knows it would be extremely unlikely to win approval from the Democratic-dominated General Assembly.
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approve   Pronounce
v. ratify; consider right or good; think or speak favorably of
He said failure to approve the pact would have led to a forced opening and importing much more rice.
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aquamarine   Pronounce
a. of bluish-green color; of pale blue to light greenish-blue
I see an aquamarine swimming pool, an aluminum garage, a suburban lawn.
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aquarium   Pronounce
n. tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals
This is the world's largest aquarium with 8 million gallons of fresh and marine water and more than 100000 animals representing 500 species from around the globe.
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arboreal   Pronounce
a. tree-dwelling; treelike; living in trees
Learn about the arboreal emblems that represent the provinces and territories of Canada.
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archaeology   Pronounce
n. study of artifacts and relics of early humankind
The professor of archaeology headed an expedition to the Gobi Desert in search of ancient ruins.
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architect   Pronounce
n. one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures
Simon Conder, a British architect, is responsible for this beautiful conversion of a group of farms.
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arithmetic   Pronounce
n. theory of numerical calculations
He found a way to set up equations about integers and other constructs in arithmetic.
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armor   Pronounce
n. shield; defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
Where we do see cracks in armor is in new-home construction, both in single-family sales and condos.
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arms   Pronounce
n. weapons considered collectively; official symbols of a family
The first man to be held - said to be a British arms dealer - was reportedly arrested when he met undercover FBI agents posing as terrorists wanting to buy the weapon.
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array   Pronounce
v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
He requested to array the whole regiment on the parade ground.
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arsenal   Pronounce
n. storage place for military equipment; a stock of weapons
People are forbidden to smoke in the arsenal because a stray spark might set off the munitions stored there.
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artery   Pronounce
n. one of the vessels or tubes which carry either venous or arterial blood from the heart; major transit corridor
The Yangtze River is the main artery of traffic in center China.
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articulate   Pronounce
v. speak clearly and distinctly; utter a speech sound; be jointed; make clear or effective
The author was trying to articulate that his encrypted file system is effective.
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ascent   Pronounce
n. upward slope or grade; movement upward
An unforgettable 2-hour ascent follows a 30-minute hike up to the base of the ferrate up the cliff.
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assignment   Pronounce
n. a task that was given to students; job; distribution; appointment
I believe that this assignment is the most challenging of them all.
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association   Pronounce
n. connection, whether of persons or things; a union of persons in a company or society for some particular purpose
I benefited a lot from my association with him.
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assorted   Pronounce
a. varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
Watching the large and varied bird population or following assorted trails on horseback.
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assortment   Pronounce
n. variety; collection containing a variety of sorts of things
A great assortment of cars was on display.
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assume   Pronounce
v. suppose; presume; take on; bear
He looked at me long and hard: I turned my eyes from him, fixed them on the fire, and tried to assume and maintain a quiet.
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assumption   Pronounce
n. something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of
The young princess made the foolish assumption that the regent would not object to power.
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assure   Pronounce
v. tell someone confidently that something is true; guarantee; convince
I know it, and I don't wish to palliate them, I assure you.
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astonish   Pronounce
v. surprise someone very much; shock
From this wonderful writer who continues to astonish us, now comes a chilling ghost story.
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astute   Pronounce
a. wise or keen; shrewd; with sharp intelligence
The painter was an astute observer, noticing every tiny detail of her model's appearance and knowing exactly how important each one was.
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asymmetrical   Pronounce
a. unbalanced; uneven;  having parts on either side or half that do not match  
The attraction of asymmetrical balance to artists is its lack of formula.
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athlete   Pronounce
n. a sportsman; one who contended for a prize in public games
Our goal is to help the athlete get the best performance.
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atomization   Pronounce
n. act of reducing to atoms, or very minute particles
Atomization is the conversion of bulk liquid into a spray or mist, often by passing the liquid through a nozzle.
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atrophy   Pronounce
n. wasting away; decrease in size; reduction in the functionality of an organ caused by disease
It confirms earlier research showing a link between brain atrophy and low levels of B12.
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attempt   Pronounce
n. the action of trying at something
I also want to claim that this attempt is a romantic one.
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audience   Pronounce
n. a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance
You should have a clear idea about who your audience is and how you can exploit your product through the correct platform.
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aurora   Pronounce
n. a natural appearance of coloured light in the sky, that is usually seen nearest the Arctic or Antarctic
When I was young, I was lucky enough to see a display of the northern lights or the aurora.
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autonomous   Pronounce
a. self-governing; not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent
Although the University of California at Berkeley is just one part of the state university system, it is autonomous in many ways.
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avenue   Pronounce
n. way or opening for entrance or exit place; passage by which a place may be reached; broad street
The procession moved along the main avenue some three-quarters of a mile.
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average   Pronounce
a. typical; mean; achieve or reach on average
Other scientists predict that the average human life span will grow to 130 years.
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averse   Pronounce
a. reluctant; disinclined; turned away or backward; unwilling
The reporter was averse to revealing the sources of his information.
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aviator   Pronounce
n. someone who operates an aircraft
We did not hear very much about the 'Red Wing' in the United States because the aviator was a Canadian.
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avoid   Pronounce
v. shield away from; prevent
If you are the press secretary to the President of the United States, the main thing to avoid is becoming the story yourself.
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axis   Pronounce
n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
Then Tehran was bracketed, along with its old enemy Iraq, and North Korea, in President Bush's evil axis.
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bachelor   Pronounce
n. unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges
A soon-to-be-married man's friends throw him the ultimate bachelor party.
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backbone   Pronounce
n. support; mainstay; vertebrate spine or spinal column
The people will have to put the bone back in the backbone for state leaders.
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balloonist   Pronounce
n. someone who flies a balloon
Steve Fossett achieves his goal of becoming the first solo balloonist to circle the globe.
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bankruptcy   Pronounce
n. state of being unable to pay your debts
That holding company has been in bankruptcy proceedings since last June.
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bar   Pronounce
n. a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick
For low-paid male workers the cafeterias are a social focus: the equivalent of a bar or pub in non-Muslim countries, a place to meet friends and workmates.
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barb   Pronounce
n. sharp projection from fishhook; openly cutting remark
If you were a politician, would you prefer being caught on the barb of a fishhook?
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bark   Pronounce
n. a sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog
She set off at once and ran till she was quite tired and out of breath and till the puppy's bark sounded quite faint in the distance.
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barrel   Pronounce
n. vessel; large cylindrical container
With the oil price soaring above thirty dollars a barrel and the pumps going nearly at full capacity, Gulf Arab coffers are overflowing with unforeseen wealth.
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barrenness   Pronounce
n. property of not supporting life, no children, or unable to have children; defect of emotion, sensibility, or fervency
They are messengers of hope, springing forth from the barrenness and bitter cold of winter and heralding a new season of warmth and sunshine.
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barter   Pronounce
v. trade goods or services without the exchange of money
Trashbank is an online site where you can barter, buy, sell, trade, or swap your items or services.
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bean   Pronounce
n. various edible seeds; small oval or roundish seed, berry, nut, or lump
Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera used for food or feed.
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bear   Pronounce
v. support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support
They studied the ways in which the relativity theory can bear on the history of science.
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beat   Pronounce
v. whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly
Speak roughly to your little boy; And beat him when he sneezes; He only does it to annoy; Because he knows it teases.
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behalf   Pronounce
n. represent;  advantage, benefit, the interest of someone
And I'm going to work to assure that that voice that is heard on their behalf is a roar and not a whisper.
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below   Pronounce
ad. under, or lower in place; beneath not so high; inferior to in rank; unworthy of
All she could see when she looked down was an immense length of neck, which seemed to rise like a stalk out of a sea of green leaves that lay far below her.
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besiege   Pronounce
v. surround with armed forces; harass with requests
When the bandits besiege the village, the villagers hole up in the town hall and prepare to withstand a long siege.
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bilateral   Pronounce
a. two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
In general, China does not consider them as refugees but economic migrants and has repatriated those caught on its territory under a bilateral treaty with North Korea.
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billion   Pronounce
n. the number that is represented as a one followed by 9 zeros
Money from migrant workers now exceeds the combined total of all direct foreign investment and foreign aid to Latin America 62.3 billion dollars.
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biologist   Pronounce
n. a scientist who studies living organisms
A marine biologist insisted that dolphins, which are considered one of the most intelligent mammals, like to help the helpless.
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bitterness   Pronounce
n. sharp and bitter manner
I had left this woman in bitterness and hate, and I came back to her now with no other emotion than a sort of compassion for her great sufferings.
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blink   Pronounce
v. shut eyes briefly; wink
The TV announcer never seems to blink.
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blizzard   Pronounce
n. a severe snowstorm with strong winds  
A blizzard is a severe winter storm condition characterized by low temperatures, strong winds, and heavy blowing snow.
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blossom   Pronounce
n. reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts
The locust-trees were in bloom, and the fragrance of the blossom filled the air.
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boast   Pronounce
v. show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
Many of the sports facilities are already in place, and the city can boast one of the most compact proposals running alongside the Moscow river.
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bolster   Pronounce
v. support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion
The debaters amassed file boxes full of evidence to bolster their arguments.
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boredom   Pronounce
n. tedium; dullness; state of being a bore, or the tendency to become tiresome and uninteresting
The cure for boredom is curiosity, but there is no known cure for curiosity.
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boring   Pronounce
a. uninteresting and tiresome; dull
However, the opposite can also be true; something that is too easily understood, simple or transparent, can also be boring.
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boulder   Pronounce
n. a rounded rock lying on the surface of ground or embedded in soil
A boulder is a rock with a grain size of usually no less than 256 mm (10 inches) diameter in geology.
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bound   Pronounce
n. tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump
Supreme Court ended a term bound to affect our lives in significant ways in the months ahead.
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bowl   Pronounce
v. throw or roll a ball; move quickly and smoothly, especially by rolling
We were now outside Thornfield gates, to bowl lightly along the smooth road to Millcote, where the dust was well laid by the thunderstorm.
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braid   Pronounce
v. weave; interweave three or more strands
Have you ever wanted to braid your own hair or someone else's hair?
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breathe   Pronounce
v. respire; inhale and exhale air
Even the air you breathe is micro-filtered for outside contaminants.
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breathtaking   Pronounce
a. very surprising or shocking
Beneath the curious mixture is the kind of breathtaking skyscraper shell, balanced in space, that modern technology makes possible.
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briny   Pronounce
a. salty; any huge body of saltwater
Bobbing along, bobbing along, at the bottom of the beautiful briny sea.
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broaden   Pronounce
v. widen; grow broad or broader
Its size, style, and expression broaden the car's appeal, making it more appropriate for a wider range of circumstances.
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bud   Pronounce
n. one that is not yet fully developed; sprout
The first thing to be thought of is to pluck the disease in its bud, which is best done by injections.
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buggy   Pronounce
n. small, lightweight carriage; drawn by a single horse
A fine way to travel through Quebec City in Canada is by horse buggy.
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bulb   Pronounce
n. the rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
The light bulb hasn't changed a whole lot in its 120 years -- the original design was just that good.
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bundle   Pronounce
v. tie, wrap, or gather together; hurry; hasten; dress oneself warmly
Remember to bundle children up in winter clothes.
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burrow   Pronounce
n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
They will return to breed in the fall, and the male will reclaim his burrow, waiting to reconnect with his mate.
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cab   Pronounce
n. taxi; a one-horse vehicle for public hire
I was supposed to meet Mrs. Girard at the building in five minutes; she called a cab to drive me to the station.
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cabal   Pronounce
n. a small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
The number of Republicans who support this man and his cabal is astonishing, but nothing will change that percentage's minds.
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cabin   Pronounce
n. a small room on a ship or boat where people sleep
British Airways says passengers reported a slight smell of petrol in the cabin of BA flight 003 bound for New York.
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cadence   Pronounce
n. rhythmic rise and fall of words or sounds; beat
Marching down the road, the troops sang out, following the cadence set by the sergeant.
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calculator   Pronounce
n. a small machine that is used for mathematical calculations
Blaise Pascal invented the first digital calculator to help his father with his work collecting taxes.
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cancel   Pronounce
v. revoke; call off; omit or delete
The meeting in Addis Ababa has heard Chinese promises to cancel debts and increase Chinese investments in Africa.
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candid   Pronounce
a. straightforward; frank; free from prejudice; impartial
In private, I gave them my candid opinion.
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carat   Pronounce
n. unit of weight for precious stones; a measure of fineness of gold
He gave her a three carat diamond mounted in a gold band.
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career   Pronounce
n. profession or occupation; individual's work and life roles over their lifespan
The Italian Prime Minister and media tycoon Sylvia Berlusconi bought AC Milan in 1986, and the team's fortunes have mirrored his colorful career in politics.
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cargo   Pronounce
n. freight carried by ship, an aircraft, or another vehicle
The nation's security forces were active this weekend after U.S. authorities intercepted two packages laden with explosives in Yemen's cargo shipments.
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caricature   Pronounce
n. a representation that is deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect
The caricature he drew yesterday emphasized a personal weakness of the people he burlesqued.
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cater   Pronounce
v. supply what is needed or desired; provide food professionally for a special occasion
The chef was happy to cater to the tastes of his highly sophisticated clientele.
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cause   Pronounce
n. something produces a result; the basis for an action or response; a reason
The main cause is not having enough fluids in your body to keep your core temperature down.
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cease   Pronounce
v. stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue
We must not only cease the acts of sin, but we must get the vicious habits and inclinations weakened and destroyed.
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ceremonial   Pronounce
n. ritual; ceremony or rite
Officials said this first flight was largely ceremonial and that most of the passengers were French diplomats and business leaders.
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chafe   Pronounce
v. wear away or irritate by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; annoy; vex
The high collar used to chafe against my neck.
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chalk   Pronounce
n. soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish-white color, used as a drawing implement
The teacher wrote on the blackboard with a piece of chalk.
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championship   Pronounce
n. status of being a champion; position or title of a winner
Winning a championship is about more than having the best team.
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characteristic   Pronounce
n. a feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait
Treating people differently based on a certain characteristic is called discrimination.
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chat   Pronounce
n. talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation
Inviting others into the chat is as simple as sending them a human-readable URL, and nobody has to sign up or answer an invitation email.
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check   Pronounce
v. stop motion; curb or restrain
Young man, you'd better check your temper.
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checkup   Pronounce
n. thorough physical examination
Answer the following questions, and we'll provide you with a personalized checkup checklist that you can take to your doctor.
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chili   Pronounce
n. very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency
You can reduce the amount of heat in a chili pepper by removing the ribs and seeds.
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choppy   Pronounce
a. having many small waves; rough with small waves
Smaller is sometimes best on calm days, but bigger is better in choppy water.
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chronology   Pronounce
n. time sequence; an arrangement of events in time
You can access a chronology of important dates in the development of mathematics.
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cipher   Pronounce
n. secret code; an Arabic numeral or figure; a number
Lacking his codebook, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher.
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circle   Pronounce
n. round; something shaped like such a ring; a group of people sharing an interest, activity, or achievement
This circle is a foundation for each of our lives.
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circular   Pronounce
a. round; shaped like or nearly like a circle
What should you do before start cutting with a circular saw?
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circulation   Pronounce
n. spread or transmission of something to a wider group or area
We have studied the statistical mechanics of money circulation in a closed economic system.
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circumstance   Pronounce
n. situation; condition; detail accompanying or surrounding an event
Her heart is broken, but then a change in circumstance forces them to be together every day.
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citizenship   Pronounce
n. status of a citizen with rights and duties
Migrants applying for Australian citizenship will have to know about indigenous people's traditions and the colors of the nation's flag in tests.
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clam   Pronounce
n. soft edible body of such as mollusk
Up here in clam and lobster country, some of our best BBQ joints do fried catfish, and it's always a treat.
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clause   Pronounce
n. sentence; phrase; distinct article, stipulation, or provision in a document
Congress insisted on an exclusion clause for seventeen-year-olds.
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clay   Pronounce
n. very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired
There will be much interest centered on Raphael Nadal of Spain, who won the French Open on the red clay of Roland Garros in Paris in spectacular style.
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climate   Pronounce
n. weather condition; atmosphere; environment
In his remarks, Obama spoke out against what he called a climate of politics as usual.
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cling   Pronounce
v. hold fast or adhere to something; stick together and resist separation; remain emotionally
Boys cling to the rope to keep from falling.
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clip   Pronounce
n. a small section of filmed or filed material
Phil's job at Fox Sports involved selecting the most important clip of the day's sporting highlights for later broadcast.
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coach   Pronounce
n. tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers
When the players and coach arrive back later today, they'll be greeted as national heroes in the stadium where the first modern Olympics were held.
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coalescence   Pronounce
n. union of diverse things into one body or form or group; growing together of parts
We present a detailed molecular-dynamics study of the coalescence of gold.
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coarse   Pronounce
a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
Trade in coarse grains, dairy products, and beef is also the subject of special attention, looking towards freer and better managed trading arrangements.
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coffeepot   Pronounce
n. tall pot in which coffee is brewed
British potteries began making pieces like this lusterware coffeepot in the early nineteenth century to imitate fine silver.
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cohesion   Pronounce
n. a tendency to keep together
A firm believer in the maxim 'Divide and conquer,' the evil emperor sought to disrupt the cohesion of the federation of free nations.
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coin   Pronounce
n. small piece of metal, usually flat and circular, authorized by a government for use as money
While it has been lightly dipped and lightly cleaned, the overall look of the coin is appealing.
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coincidence   Pronounce
n. two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
Was it just a coincidence that she and John had chanced to meet at the market, or was he deliberately trying to seek her out?
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collaborate   Pronounce
v. work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
The easy way to collaborate is to pay attention to the small things in life.
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collaboration   Pronounce
n. act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
This is something that I can see as a potential long-term relationship rather than a short-term collaboration.
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collusion   Pronounce
n. a secret agreement for any illegal purpose; conspiracy
They're in collusion with the government and just want a piece of the pie like everyone else.
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colonize   Pronounce
v. migrate to and settle in; plant
Portuguese attempts to colonize Asia were generally unsuccessful, though it did retain major colonies in Africa until the mid-twentieth century.
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combine   Pronounce
v. blend; fuse; merge
Re-branded as one-army recruitment, the latest drive will, for the first time, combine recruiting to both the regular and territorial army.
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commerce   Pronounce
n. trade; business; intellectual exchange or social interaction
The underlying objective is to make international commerce easier and cheaper and to boost incomes around the world.
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committee   Pronounce
n. special group delegated to consider some matter
He was director of the central bank's monetary policy committee, which sets Brazil's interest rates.
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community   Pronounce
n. society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
Where governments manage public life, human freedom in a community is compromised.
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commuter   Pronounce
n. someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
Vancouver is increasingly becoming a commuter city.
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compact   Pronounce
n. small and economical car; small cosmetics case
I decide to buy a compact because a small car helps to save gas.
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comparable   Pronounce
a. similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
People whose jobs are comparable in difficulty should receive similar pay.
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comparative   Pronounce
a. relative; based on, or involving comparison
Elsewhere in the report which covers a wide range of comparative data, girls continue to reduce the gender gap in educational performance.
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compensation   Pronounce
n. something given or received as payment as for a service or loss or injury
There are an estimated 86000 survivors worldwide, and almost half of them could be eligible for payments from the compensation fund.
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compensatory   Pronounce
a. serving to compensate or as compensation; making amends; repaying
Can a compensatory education program make up for the inadequate schooling he received in earlier years?
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competition   Pronounce
n. struggle; rivalry; an act of competing as for a profit prize
There she's against tough competition such as Meryl Streep, but this award will give her extra momentum towards what's undoubtedly the bigger prize in movies.
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complement   Pronounce
n. something that completes or makes up a whole or brings to perfection
I think we show complement each other on the court because we're both extremely positive.
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complementary   Pronounce
a. serving to fill out or to complete; supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks
John and Lisa's skills are complementary; he's good at following a daily routine, while she's great at handling emergencies.
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complicated   Pronounce
a. difficult to analyze or understand
Legally this is a hugely complicated case, and it will take months for the judge to reach the verdict.
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comply   Pronounce
v. yield assent; accord; agree, or acquiesce; adapt one's self; fulfill; accomplish
Everyone should comply with the law.
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compose   Pronounce
v. write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
As you begin to compose, improvise on that melody and see where it naturally wants to take you.
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comprehend   Pronounce
v. take in the meaning, nature, or importance of; grasp
In case you are too stupid to comprehend, the policies of this administration are ruining our country.
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comprehensible   Pronounce
a. understandable; readily comprehended or understood; intelligible
A good programmer makes her code look so simple and comprehensible that any other programmer can understand it and appreciate it.
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comprehensive   Pronounce
a. thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope
Mr. Skubel has since completed what he describes as a comprehensive two-week training program and is now setting up his franchise in his hometown.
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concept   Pronounce
n. something formed in mind; thought or notion
The local chain concept is simple: identify your customer, cater to their tastes and once successful, expand within a neighborhood.
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concurrent   Pronounce
a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
The Winter War fought between Finland, and the Soviet Union was a concurrent war to World War II, and thus is covered in its own main article.
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condiment   Pronounce
n. seasoning; something used to give relish to food; something used to enhance the flavor of food, like salt or pepper
Indians rarely, if ever, use this condiment, which is so essential to the civilized white.
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condition   Pronounce
n. mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances
The Organization Man survives as a modern classic because it captures a permanent part of our social condition.
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conductivity   Pronounce
n. transmission of heat or electricity or sound
How does the electrical conductivity of water at the study site vary across seasons?
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confinement   Pronounce
n. state of being confined; restraint within limits; any restraint of liberty by force
After the verdict, his lawyers claimed he had mental stress caused by confinement and called for the court to suspend the appeals trial until it improved.
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confining   Pronounce
a. restricting scope or freedom of action; crowded
Obviously, you will travel in a confining ship with humans.
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confirm   Pronounce
v. support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
In the aftermath of Saturday's mass poisoning, the authorities imposed a virtual news blackout, refusing even to confirm how many people had died.
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conformity   Pronounce
n. similarity in form or character; agreement
Their actions were in conformity with their declared intentions.
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congratulation   Pronounce
n. act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration
After Discovery's liftoff, NASA officials were in a jubilant mood, talking of the power and majesty of the launch and the congratulation and back-slapping at ground control.
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congruity   Pronounce
n. relation or agreement between things; fitness; harmony; correspondence; consistency.
There must be, in spite of all indifference and hostility of nature to human interests, some congruity of nature with man or life could not exist.
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connoisseur   Pronounce
n. specialist; a person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts
A literature professor by training and a self-taught art connoisseur, Charles Ryskamp served three decades as a director, first of the Pierpont Morgan Library.
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consecutive   Pronounce
a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
The consecutive file saving method also created some problems.
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consequence   Pronounce
n. result; relation of a result to its cause; logical conclusion or inference
Another consequence is the generation of distrust between the grassroots and the leadership.
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consequent   Pronounce
a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
His retirement and consequent spare time enabled him to travel more.
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conservative   Pronounce
a. favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change
It's still far from clear whether he can persuade his more conservative colleagues in the regime to support the process.
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conserve   Pronounce
v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
One way to conserve is to make cars more efficient.
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considerably   Pronounce
ad. substantially; significantly; to a degree worth considering
While their mood improved, consumers' outlook had dimmed considerably from the mid-70s levels earlier in the year, when the economic recovery was faster.
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considerate   Pronounce
a. thoughtful; marked by consideration or reflection; deliberate
I thanked her for her considerate choice, and as I really felt fatigued with my long journey, expressed my readiness to retire.
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consistent   Pronounce
a. agreeing with itself; coherent; regular
He's recently signed a new 120 million dollar contract with his British-based record company after more than five years of consistent album hits and number one singles.
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constrain   Pronounce
v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
His idea is to constrain commercial banks' lending.
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constraint   Pronounce
n. something that restricts or confines within prescribed bounds
Given the budget constraint, it was impossible to accomplish my goals.
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consult   Pronounce
v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
I will consult with our friends, but it's going to be what's in the interests of our country first and foremost.
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container   Pronounce
n. any object that can be used to hold things
For the last thirty-two days, Hassan has been living in a three-by-four-meter glass container in a shopping center, sharing it with six thousand poisonous arachnids.
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contaminate   Pronounce
v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
Compact fluorescent light bulbs contaminate the environment with 30000 pounds of mercury each year.
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content   Pronounce
n. volume; something contained; material, including text and images
The brain is hungry not for the method but for content, especially the latter, which contains powerful, precise, and explicit generalizations.
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contented   Pronounce
a. satisfied or showing satisfaction with things as they are
When he heard this, he revealed a very contented smile.
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contiguous   Pronounce
a. sharing an edge or boundary; touching; neighboring
The two houses had contiguous yards, so the families shared the landscaping expenses.
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continuum   Pronounce
n. sequence; succession; continuous extent, succession, or whole
So the practical continuum is now laptop - iPad - phone rather than desktop - laptop - iPad - phone.
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contrast   Pronounce
v. set in opposition to show or emphasize differences; show differences when compared
The siblings who contrast sharply in interests and abilities make a common decision.
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convenience   Pronounce
n. state of being suitable
The popularity of convenience foods means that many people no longer eat enough fresh produce.
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convention   Pronounce
n. social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
Moreover, following this convention is our friend's normal behavior when in such a mood.
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convert   Pronounce
n. change something into another form; transform
However, he suggests that this only be done if the convert is also willingly accepted into his position by the community.
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cooperate   Pronounce
v. work or act together toward a common end or purpose
The best way to get Pakistan to cooperate is to find why it is so keen to retain influence in Afghanistan and try to meet its concerns.
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corn   Pronounce
n. plants, such as wheat, maize, oats, and barley, that can be used to produce flour
The English apply the name corn to wheat, and the Scotch, to oats.
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cosmopolitan   Pronounce
a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
Her years in the capitol had transformed her into a cosmopolitan young woman highly aware of international affairs.
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counseling   Pronounce
n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
The counseling services' mission is to help students, faculty, and staff gain all they can from their experience at the university.
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couple   Pronounce
n. a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another
He caught a married couple from Chicago.
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craft   Pronounce
n. something made by people; vessel
A space craft is a vessel to travel out of air.
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crash   Pronounce
n. smash; collision; falling down or in pieces with a loud noise of breaking parts
She heard a little shriek and a fall and a crash of broken glass.
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crayon   Pronounce
n. stick of colored wax or chalk, used for drawing
Whenever he finished a crayon drawing, he would lovingly present it to his mother.
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creek   Pronounce
n. a small stream, often a shallow tributary to a river; brook
There was a creek leading out of it on the other side that went miles away; I don't know where, but it didn't go to the river.
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crippling   Pronounce
a. causing someone to be physically disabled, especially unable to walk; causing severe damage or problems
Their solution to crippling financial problems has been to merge in an attempt to get bigger and hopefully stronger.
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critical   Pronounce
a. urgently needed; absolutely necessary; essential; acute; crucial; decisive
He says the international community has reached what he calls a critical time in the overall effort to bring stability to Afghanistan.
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critique   Pronounce
n. critical review or commentary, especially one dealing with works of art or literature
It would help if you wanted a smart critique from the loyal opposition, and Phil Zelikow and Peter Feaver are certainly qualified.
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crossbones   Pronounce
n. two crossed bones used as a symbol of danger or death
This is an aluminum skull and crossbones sign with a small hole in each corner to help hang in the location of your choice.
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crossbreeding   Pronounce
n. reproduction by parents of different races
It has been well documented that crossbreeding improves the performance of beef cattle.
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crossing   Pronounce
n. traveling across; place at which roads, lines, or tracks intersect; intersection
If my memory serves me correctly, the Santa Teresa crossing is about 15 miles west of the junction.
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crumple   Pronounce
v. fall apart; fold or collapse; crush together or press into wrinkles
It's weird watching your leg to crumple in directions; it's not natural to go in.
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crush   Pronounce
v. press between opposing bodies so as to break or injure; extract or obtain by pressing or squeezing
There's particular concern over reports of human rights abuses committed by the Indonesian security forces in Aceh as they try to crush the separatist movement there.
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cube   Pronounce
n. three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular sides; cubicle, used for work or study
Luckily, my cube is in the corner, so no one noticed!
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curiosity   Pronounce
n. desire to know or learn
My main curiosity is how they're going to explain how Captain Barbossa has returned from the dead.
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current   Pronounce
n. stream; flow; up-to-date; present
The current was so swift, and then I got into the dead water and landed on the side towards the Illinois shore.
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cushion   Pronounce
n. soft pillow or pad usually used for sitting, reclining, or kneeling
I knelt down by him; I turned his face from the cushion to me; I kissed his cheek; I smoothed his hair with my hand.
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custom   Pronounce
n. tradition; practice followed by people of a particular group or region
John had a book in his hand - it was his unsocial custom to read at meals - he closed it and looked up.
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customarily   Pronounce
ad. usually; under normal circumstances, normally
Yet until well into this century, men customarily gathered in pubs, cafes, parks, and village greens.
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cyclone   Pronounce
n. violent rotating windstorm
The cyclone tore across the north Queensland coast and has left much of the area in ruins.
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dart   Pronounce
v. move suddenly and rapidly
Your eyes take them in, then dart away to something else.
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dawn   Pronounce
n. time each morning at which daylight first begins; beginning; start
When I again unclosed my eyes, a loud bell was ringing; day had not yet begun to dawn, and a rush light or two burned in the room.
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dawning   Pronounce
n. first light of day; first advent or appearance
So, the order indicates the next day's dawning follows the end of one day.
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dearth   Pronounce
n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
The dearth of skilled labor compelled employers to open trade schools.
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debris   Pronounce
n. remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up
A full year after the earthquake in Mexico City, they were still carting away the debris.
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decadent   Pronounce
a. self-indulgent; moral decay
I'm not getting any younger, and seriously, I feel the excesses of my decadent life slowly catching up with me.
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decent   Pronounce
a. suitable; modest.; honorable; meeting accepted standards
I wandered the theatre – an old one from the thirties - kept in decent repair by those that love movies.
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declare   Pronounce
v. state clearly; make known formally or officially
A distinct and near voice said, 'The marriage cannot go on: I declare the existence of an impediment.'
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decline   Pronounce
n. change toward something smaller or lower; gradual falling off from a better state
Dustan has a record of switching sides when convenient, and many supporters would do likewise if the fortunes of the puritan militia are on the decline.
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defend   Pronounce
v. make or keep safe from danger, attack, or harm
The union said that they would take action to defend their member's jobs.
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deference   Pronounce
n. willingness to carry out the wishes of others; great respect
In deference to the minister's request, please do not take photographs during the wedding service.
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deferential   Pronounce
a. showing deference; being respectful and considerate
He nodded in a manner that could only be described as deferential and walked on to meet them.
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deficiency   Pronounce
n. scarcity; lack or shortage, especially of something essential to health
It has been demonstrated that a blood protein deficiency is the cause of this inherited illness.
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definitely   Pronounce
ad. clearly; without question and beyond doubt
And in a country where people depend on natural sources of water, people will definitely become poorer.
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dehydrate   Pronounce
v. remove water from; dry out; lose water or bodily fluids
Running under a hot sun would quickly dehydrate the body; joggers soon learn to carry water bottles and frequently drink from them.
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dehydrated   Pronounce
a. suffering from excessive loss of water
Fever resulted from becoming dehydrated.
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deign   Pronounce
v. condescend to give or grant; esteem worthy; consider worth notice
Microsoft is accusing Google with regard to Google's new App Sync software, which allows Gmail users to tap into any records they might deign to keep in Outlook.
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delegate   Pronounce
n. a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
Some religious groups are boycotting the event, but one delegate told the BBC that it was vital to work with the Americans to get Iraq up and running again.
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demobilize   Pronounce
v. retire from military service
A group of boys who were among about 250 child soldiers will demobilize in the village.
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demonstrate   Pronounce
v. show clearly and deliberately; manifest; confirm; prove
After a series of drug scandals, this was Major League Baseball's chance to demonstrate its determination to crack down on the cheats.
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denote   Pronounce
v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
The word 'sex' is simply that—a word to denote whether a person is male or female.
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dense   Pronounce
a. thick; crowded closely together; compact
It's a mountainous country, just a few kilometers from Serbia's border; dense woodland surrounds the site.
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density   Pronounce
n. thickness; the quantity of something per unit measure, especially per unit length, area, or volume
They know the population, housing density, types of construction, and the extent of insurance cover.
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depart   Pronounce
v. take off; leave; set out
I have some to see and ask after in England before I depart forever.
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dependable   Pronounce
a. reliable; worthy of being depended on; trustworthy
Your dependable dog team will glide along the forested trails and frozen lakes in this winter wonderland north of Whitehorse.
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dependence   Pronounce
n. reliance; lack of independence or self-sufficiency
The power of either Russia or China to act independently from the United States is constrained by their economic dependence on the world's remaining superpower.
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dependent   Pronounce
a. relying on or requiring the aid of another for support
Some U.S. officials believe Pakistan wants the U.S. to remain dependent on the ISI for that intelligence.
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depict   Pronounce
v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
Here, we can see how the author to depict Beatle John Lennon as a drug-crazed neurotic.
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deposit   Pronounce
n. money given as a guarantee or security
In the meantime, she could keep the $400,000 in a secure investment such as a term deposit or money market fund.
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depressed   Pronounce
a. sad; gloomy; low in spirits; dejected
The tests' results indicated that the drug might increase the suicidal tendencies in some depressed children who took it.
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derivative   Pronounce
a. unoriginal; derived from another source
Although her early poetry was clearly derivative in nature, the critics thought she eventually would find her own voice.
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desalination   Pronounce
n. removal of salt; a process of removing salt from seawater to make drinking water
Canadian Clear Water has designed the most economical and efficient seawater desalination plants.
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deserted   Pronounce
a. remote from civilization; left desolate or empty; abandoned
The majority of horror movies are set in deserted areas with limited proximity to towns and major cities.
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desirable   Pronounce
a. worthwhile; worth doing or achieving; advisable
Some other factors coincide to make a June election desirable for the government.
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desolate   Pronounce
a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
The sounds of Nature are detailed with great delicacy in this appeal, and we see that the Alps are referred to as desolate regions.
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desperately   Pronounce
ad. with great urgency; seriously; severely
What a night it was for Germany: a desperately close race between the two candidates for Chancellor, declarations of victory by both.
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despoiler   Pronounce
n. someone who takes spoils or plunder; one who despoils or strips by force; a plunderer
Some will use Earth Day to depict America as an energy wastrel and despoiler of the earth.
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destination   Pronounce
n. ultimate goal; the place to which one is going or directed
It's an aging coaster and reportedly in poor condition, but even so, it should have got back to Benin - its declared destination - by now.
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deterrent   Pronounce
n. something that discourages; tending to deter
In his view, North Korea is the main deterrent from a peaceful resolution.
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devastate   Pronounce
v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
She says the disease can devastate Sudan, as HIV spreads quickly among the nation's youth.
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device   Pronounce
n. technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more relatively simple tasks
An anti-gravity device could change air travel.
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diagonal   Pronounce
n. a straight line connecting any two vertices of a polygon that are not adjacent
You can draw one diagonal across the page.
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