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Exam Word - https://www.examword.com/ Total words: 300

TOEFL Vocabulary Level 1 - 1: Print Flashcard

abbreviation
n. shortening something by omitting parts of it
abnormal
a. unusual; not typical; not normal
abort
v. stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abrasive
a. rubbing away; tending to grind down
absence
n. state of being absent; state of being away
absolutely
ad. utterly; not viewed in relation to other things or factors  
abstract
a. theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
accidental
a. unexpected; happening by chance, unintentionally  
accompany
v. travel with; be associated with
accomplished
a. skilled; experienced; having many social graces; polished or refined
accounting
n. a system that provides quantitative information about finances
acid
n. sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful
acidic
a. tasting sour like acid; being or containing an acid
actual
a. true; real; being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current
acupuncture
n. treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
adequate
a. sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
adhere
v. stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adhesive
a. sticky; glutinous; tending to persist
adjunct
n. something added on or attached generally nonessential or inferior
admit
v. permit to enter; receive; provide the right or a means of entrance to
adventure
n. something happens without design; chance; hazard; risk; danger
adventurous
a. valiant; venturesome; inclined or willing to incur hazard or engage in adventures
adversity
n. state of misfortune, hardship, or affliction; misfortune
advocate
v. speak, plead, or argue in favor of; plead for; push for something
aerodynamics
n. study of how objects move through the air or water
affected
a. speaking or behaving in an artificial way; emotionally stirred or moved; infected or attacked
affective
a. sentimental; emotional; emotionally charged
aggravate
v. worsen; make worse or more troublesome
aggregation
n. several things grouped together or considered as a whole
ailment
n. sickness;a slight but often persistent illness 
aircraft
n. a vehicle that can fly, such as an airplane, helicopter, balloon
alert
n. the warning serves; alarm; condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action
alike
a. similar; in the same manner or to the same degree
allegation
n. suggestion without proof that someone has done something wrong
alliteration
n. repetition of a beginning sound in poetry
alone
a. solitary; by oneself, not with any other people  
alteration
n. a passage from one form or state to another; change
alternation
n. successive change from one thing or state to another and back again
aluminum
n. silvery ductile metallic element
amazement
n. wonder; state of extreme surprise or wonder; astonishment
ambivalence
n. state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes, such as love and hate
amenable
a. responsive to advise or suggestion; responsible to a higher authority; willing to comply with; agreeable
analogy
n. the similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
analysis
n. study; investigation; the process of breaking down a substance into its constituent parts
anecdote
n. a short account of the amusing or interesting event; short narrative; a secret story of history or biography
anesthetic
n. a substance that causes loss of sensation; producing temporary loss or impairment of feeling
angular
a. sharp-cornered; consisting of an angle or angles; stiff in manner
annually
ad. yearly; each year; returning every year; year by year
anthem
n. song of praise or patriotism; the song of devotion or loyalty
anthropology
n. social science that studies origins and social relationships of human beings
anticipation
n. something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence
antiquated
a. too old to be fashionable, suitable, or useful; obsolete; aged
antiquity
n. ancient times, especially the times preceding the Middle Ages; extreme oldness
antiseptic
n. a substance that prevents infection; a substance that restricts the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
appointment
n. act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement
apprentice
n. works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approval
n. official approbation; endorsement; an act of approving
approve
v. ratify; consider right or good; think or speak favorably of
aquamarine
a. of bluish-green color; of pale blue to light greenish-blue
aquarium
n. tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals
arboreal
a. tree-dwelling; treelike; living in trees
archaeology
n. study of artifacts and relics of early humankind
architect
n. one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures
arithmetic
n. theory of numerical calculations
armor
n. shield; defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arms
n. weapons considered collectively; official symbols of a family
array
v. set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
arsenal
n. storage place for military equipment; a stock of weapons
artery
n. one of the vessels or tubes which carry either venous or arterial blood from the heart; major transit corridor
articulate
v. speak clearly and distinctly; utter a speech sound; be jointed; make clear or effective
ascent
n. upward slope or grade; movement upward
assignment
n. a task that was given to students; job; distribution; appointment
association
n. connection, whether of persons or things; a union of persons in a company or society for some particular purpose
assorted
a. varied;  consisting of various types mixed together  
assortment
n. variety; collection containing a variety of sorts of things
assume
v. suppose; presume; take on; bear
assumption
n. something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of
assure
v. tell someone confidently that something is true; guarantee; convince
astonish
v. surprise someone very much; shock
astute
a. wise or keen; shrewd; with sharp intelligence
asymmetrical
a. unbalanced; uneven;  having parts on either side or half that do not match  
athlete
n. a sportsman; one who contended for a prize in public games
atomization
n. act of reducing to atoms, or very minute particles
atrophy
n. wasting away; decrease in size; reduction in the functionality of an organ caused by disease
attempt
n. the action of trying at something
audience
n. a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance
aurora
n. a natural appearance of coloured light in the sky, that is usually seen nearest the Arctic or Antarctic
autonomous
a. self-governing; not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent
avenue
n. way or opening for entrance or exit place; passage by which a place may be reached; broad street
average
a. typical; mean; achieve or reach on average
averse
a. reluctant; disinclined; turned away or backward; unwilling
aviator
n. someone who operates an aircraft
avoid
v. shield away from; prevent
axis
n. the center around which something rotates; pivot
bachelor
n. unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges
backbone
n. support; mainstay; vertebrate spine or spinal column
balloonist
n. someone who flies a balloon
bankruptcy
n. state of being unable to pay your debts
bar
n. a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick
barb
n. sharp projection from fishhook; openly cutting remark
bark
n. a sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog
barrel
n. vessel; large cylindrical container
barrenness
n. property of not supporting life, no children, or unable to have children; defect of emotion, sensibility, or fervency
barter
v. trade goods or services without the exchange of money
bean
n. various edible seeds; small oval or roundish seed, berry, nut, or lump
bear
v. support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support
beat
v. whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly
behalf
n. represent;  advantage, benefit, the interest of someone
below
ad. under, or lower in place; beneath not so high; inferior to in rank; unworthy of
besiege
v. surround with armed forces; harass with requests
bilateral
a. two-sided; mutual;  involving two groups or countries  
billion
n. the number that is represented as a one followed by 9 zeros
biologist
n. a scientist who studies living organisms
bitterness
n. sharp and bitter manner
blink
v. shut eyes briefly; wink
blizzard
n. a severe snowstorm with strong winds  
blossom
n. reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts
boast
v. show off oneself;  speak of with excessive pride
bolster
v. support or prop up with or as if with a long narrow pillow or cushion
boredom
n. tedium; dullness; state of being a bore, or the tendency to become tiresome and uninteresting
boring
a. uninteresting and tiresome; dull
boulder
n. a rounded rock lying on the surface of ground or embedded in soil
bound
n. tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump
bowl
v. throw or roll a ball; move quickly and smoothly, especially by rolling
braid
v. weave; interweave three or more strands
breathe
v. respire; inhale and exhale air
breathtaking
a. very surprising or shocking
briny
a. salty; any huge body of saltwater
broaden
v. widen; grow broad or broader
bud
n. one that is not yet fully developed; sprout
buggy
n. small, lightweight carriage; drawn by a single horse
bulb
n. the rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
bundle
v. tie, wrap, or gather together; hurry; hasten; dress oneself warmly
burrow
n. tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; moving through by or as by digging
cab
n. taxi; a one-horse vehicle for public hire
cabal
n. a small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
cabin
n. a small room on a ship or boat where people sleep
cadence
n. rhythmic rise and fall of words or sounds; beat
calculator
n. a small machine that is used for mathematical calculations
cancel
v. revoke; call off; omit or delete
candid
a. straightforward; frank; free from prejudice; impartial
carat
n. unit of weight for precious stones; a measure of fineness of gold
career
n. profession or occupation; individual's work and life roles over their lifespan
cargo
n. freight carried by ship, an aircraft, or another vehicle
caricature
n. a representation that is deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect
cater
v. supply what is needed or desired; provide food professionally for a special occasion
cause
n. something produces a result; the basis for an action or response; a reason
cease
v. stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue
ceremonial
n. ritual; ceremony or rite
chafe
v. wear away or irritate by rubbing; make sore by rubbing; annoy; vex
chalk
n. soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish-white color, used as a drawing implement
championship
n. status of being a champion; position or title of a winner
characteristic
n. a feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait
chat
n. talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation
check
v. stop motion; curb or restrain
checkup
n. thorough physical examination
chili
n. very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency
choppy
a. having many small waves; rough with small waves
chronology
n. time sequence; an arrangement of events in time
cipher
n. secret code; an Arabic numeral or figure; a number
circle
n. round; something shaped like such a ring; a group of people sharing an interest, activity, or achievement
circular
a. round; shaped like or nearly like a circle
circulation
n. spread or transmission of something to a wider group or area
circumstance
n. situation; condition; detail accompanying or surrounding an event
citizenship
n. status of a citizen with rights and duties
clam
n. soft edible body of such as mollusk
clause
n. sentence; phrase; distinct article, stipulation, or provision in a document
clay
n. very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired
climate
n. weather condition; atmosphere; environment
cling
v. hold fast or adhere to something; stick together and resist separation; remain emotionally
clip
n. a small section of filmed or filed material
coach
n. tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers
coalescence
n. union of diverse things into one body or form or group; growing together of parts
coarse
a. rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality
coffeepot
n. tall pot in which coffee is brewed
cohesion
n. a tendency to keep together
coin
n. small piece of metal, usually flat and circular, authorized by a government for use as money
coincidence
n. two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
collaborate
v. work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
collaboration
n. act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country
collusion
n. a secret agreement for any illegal purpose; conspiracy
colonize
v. migrate to and settle in; plant
combine
v. blend; fuse; merge
commerce
n. trade; business; intellectual exchange or social interaction
committee
n. special group delegated to consider some matter
community
n. society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
commuter
n. someone who regularly travels from home in a suburb to work in a city
compact
n. small and economical car; small cosmetics case
comparable
a. similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy of being ranked with
comparative
a. relative; based on, or involving comparison
compensation
n. something given or received as payment as for a service or loss or injury
compensatory
a. serving to compensate or as compensation; making amends; repaying
competition
n. struggle; rivalry; an act of competing as for a profit prize
complement
n. something that completes or makes up a whole or brings to perfection
complementary
a. serving to fill out or to complete; supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks
complicated
a. difficult to analyze or understand
comply
v. yield assent; accord; agree, or acquiesce; adapt one's self; fulfill; accomplish
compose
v. write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements
comprehend
v. take in the meaning, nature, or importance of; grasp
comprehensible
a. understandable; readily comprehended or understood; intelligible
comprehensive
a. thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope
concept
n. something formed in mind; thought or notion
concurrent
a. simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
condiment
n. seasoning; something used to give relish to food; something used to enhance the flavor of food, like salt or pepper
condition
n. mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances
conductivity
n. transmission of heat or electricity or sound
confinement
n. state of being confined; restraint within limits; any restraint of liberty by force
confining
a. restricting scope or freedom of action; crowded
confirm
v. support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
conformity
n. similarity in form or character; agreement
congratulation
n. act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration
congruity
n. relation or agreement between things; fitness; harmony; correspondence; consistency.
connoisseur
n. specialist; a person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts
consecutive
a. following one after another without interruption; sequential
consequence
n. result; relation of a result to its cause; logical conclusion or inference
consequent
a. resulting; following as a logical conclusion
conservative
a. favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change
conserve
v. retain; protect from loss or harm; preserve; use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
considerably
ad. substantially; significantly; to a degree worth considering
considerate
a. thoughtful; marked by consideration or reflection; deliberate
consistent
a. agreeing with itself; coherent; regular
constrain
v. restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
constraint
n. something that restricts or confines within prescribed bounds
consult
v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
container
n. any object that can be used to hold things
contaminate
v. make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
content
n. volume; something contained; material, including text and images
contented
a. satisfied or showing satisfaction with things as they are
contiguous
a. sharing an edge or boundary; touching; neighboring
continuum
n. sequence; succession; continuous extent, succession, or whole
contrast
v. set in opposition to show or emphasize differences; show differences when compared
convenience
n. state of being suitable
convention
n. social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
convert
n. change something into another form; transform
cooperate
v. work or act together toward a common end or purpose
corn
n. plants, such as wheat, maize, oats, and barley, that can be used to produce flour
cosmopolitan
a. sophisticated; of worldwide scope
counseling
n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
couple
n. a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another
craft
n. something made by people; vessel
crash
n. smash; collision; falling down or in pieces with a loud noise of breaking parts
crayon
n. stick of colored wax or chalk, used for drawing
creek
n. a small stream, often a shallow tributary to a river; brook
crippling
a. causing someone to be physically disabled, especially unable to walk; causing severe damage or problems
critical
a. urgently needed; absolutely necessary; essential; acute; crucial; decisive
critique
n. critical review or commentary, especially one dealing with works of art or literature
crossbones
n. two crossed bones used as a symbol of danger or death
crossbreeding
n. reproduction by parents of different races
crossing
n. traveling across; place at which roads, lines, or tracks intersect; intersection
crumple
v. fall apart; fold or collapse; crush together or press into wrinkles
crush
v. press between opposing bodies so as to break or injure; extract or obtain by pressing or squeezing
cube
n. three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular sides; cubicle, used for work or study
curiosity
n. desire to know or learn
current
n. stream; flow; up-to-date; present
cushion
n. soft pillow or pad usually used for sitting, reclining, or kneeling
custom
n. tradition; practice followed by people of a particular group or region
customarily
ad. usually; under normal circumstances, normally
cyclone
n. violent rotating windstorm
dart
v. move suddenly and rapidly
dawn
n. time each morning at which daylight first begins; beginning; start
dawning
n. first light of day; first advent or appearance
dearth
n. scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
debris
n. remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up
decadent
a. self-indulgent; moral decay
decent
a. suitable; modest.; honorable; meeting accepted standards
declare
v. state clearly; make known formally or officially
decline
n. change toward something smaller or lower; gradual falling off from a better state
defend
v. make or keep safe from danger, attack, or harm
deference
n. willingness to carry out the wishes of others; great respect
deferential
a. showing deference; being respectful and considerate
deficiency
n. scarcity; lack or shortage, especially of something essential to health
definitely
ad. clearly; without question and beyond doubt
dehydrate
v. remove water from; dry out; lose water or bodily fluids
dehydrated
a. suffering from excessive loss of water
deign
v. condescend to give or grant; esteem worthy; consider worth notice
delegate
n. a person authorized to act as a representative for another; deputy
demobilize
v. retire from military service
demonstrate
v. show clearly and deliberately; manifest; confirm; prove
denote
v. indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
dense
a. thick; crowded closely together; compact
density
n. thickness; the quantity of something per unit measure, especially per unit length, area, or volume
depart
v. take off; leave; set out
dependable
a. reliable; worthy of being depended on; trustworthy
dependence
n. reliance; lack of independence or self-sufficiency
dependent
a. relying on or requiring the aid of another for support
depict
v. represent in a picture or sculpture; portray in words; describe
deposit
n. money given as a guarantee or security
depressed
a. sad; gloomy; low in spirits; dejected
derivative
a. unoriginal; derived from another source
desalination
n. removal of salt; a process of removing salt from seawater to make drinking water
deserted
a. remote from civilization; left desolate or empty; abandoned
desirable
a. worthwhile; worth doing or achieving; advisable
desolate
a. unpopulated; providing no shelter or sustenance; devoid of inhabitants
desperately
ad. with great urgency; seriously; severely
despoiler
n. someone who takes spoils or plunder; one who despoils or strips by force; a plunderer
destination
n. ultimate goal; the place to which one is going or directed
deterrent
n. something that discourages; tending to deter
devastate
v. ruin; lay waste; destroy; make desolate
device
n. technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more relatively simple tasks
diagonal
n. a straight line connecting any two vertices of a polygon that are not adjacent