8th Grade Word List - Social

Words for students of 8th Grade, the page is for social words (List 1), which are essential vocabulary for 8th Grade academic classes.
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 8th Grade: 8th Grade Word List - Social (List 1)
abolitionism
Speak
the doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery
advantage
Speak
benefit resulting from some event or action
checks and balances
Speak
counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups
chronological
Speak
arranged in order of time of occurrence
Civil War
Speak
a war between factions in the same country
consent of the governed
Speak
a phrase from the United States Declaration of Independence
continental congresses
Speak
convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution
cotton gin
Speak
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
depression
Speak
recession; economic slump; concavity in a surface produced by pressing ; sadness; low spirits
disadvantage
Speak
drawback; defect; hinder; unfavorable condition or circumstance
due process
Speak
the administration of justice according to established rules and principles; based on the principle that a person cannot be deprived of life or liberty or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards
economic plan
Speak
an economic position favoring interventions in the market in the public interest on behalf of government
federal government
Speak
a union of states under a central government distinct from the individual governments of the separate states
federalism
Speak
the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units
finance
Speak
management of money and credit and banking and investments; subsidizing; fund
founding fathers
Speak
people who founds or establishes something; member of the convention that drafted the U.S. Constitution in 1787
frontier
Speak
part of a country which fronts or faces another country or an unsettled region; border, confine, or extreme part of a country
Gettysburg Address
Speak
a three-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg (November 19, 1863)
Indian removal
Speak
a 19th-century policy of ethnic cleansing by the government of the United States to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river
inflation
Speak
general increase in the prices of goods and services in a country
Jacksonian Democracy
Speak
the political movement toward greater democracy for the common man symbolized by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters
Monroe Doctrine
Speak
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers
Northern states
Speak
The U.S. states that remained in the existing Union during the American Civil War
nullification
Speak
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
plantation system
Speak
an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations
political parties
Speak
organization to gain political power
popular sovereignty
Speak
the principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, or elected representatives, who are the source of all political power
Presidential election
Speak
the election of any head of state whose official title is President
propaganda
Speak
organization or plan for spreading a particular doctrine or a system of principles
protective tariff
Speak
a tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition
Reconstruction
Speak
the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; 1865-1877
reform movements
Speak
social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes
Second Great Awakening
Speak
Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States.
separation of powers
Speak
an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies
social classes
Speak
people having the same social, economic, or educational status
Southern states
Speak
the states of the southeastern US, especially the states that fought against the North in the US Civil War
Supreme Court
Speak
the highest court in most states of the United States; the highest federal court in the United States; has final appellate jurisdiction and has jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation
territorial acquisition
Speak
the addition of land to countries
three branches of government
Speak
the separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias political principle, is a model for the governance of a state
trial by jury
Speak
a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact, which are then applied by a judge.
union
Speak
an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer; a political unit formed from previously independent people or organizations
utopian community
Speak
society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities