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PTE Word List for Academic (A B): Print One-sided Flashcard

abbreviation:
 
n.
shortening something by omitting parts of it
abnormal:
 
a. Syn. anomalous; unusual
unusual; not typical; not normal
abolish:
 
v. Syn. cancel; annul
cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
aboriginal:
 
a. Syn. primitive; native
being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
abort:
 
v. Syn. failure; terminate
stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abound:
 
v.
be full of; be plentiful
abrasion:
 
n. Syn. scratch; friction
scratch; friction
abridge:
 
v. Syn. condense; shorten
condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
abrupt:
 
a. Syn. sudden; unforeseen
broken off; very steep; having sudden transitions from one subject to another
absorb:
 
v. Syn. monopolize; receive
assimilate or incorporate; suck or drink up; occupy full attention
abstract:
 
a. Syn. theoretical; abstruse
theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
abundance:
 
n. Syn. profusion; richness
great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
accelerate:
 
v. Syn. speed; hasten
move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
accessory:
 
n. Syn. adjunct; appendage
additional object; useful but not essential thing; subordinate or supplementary item
acclaim:
 
v. Syn. applaud
applaud; announce with great approval
accommodate:
 
v. Syn. adapt; oblige
do a favor or service for; provide for; supply with; make suitable; adapt; allow for
accommodation:
 
n.
living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a need; convenience
accompany:
 
v.
travel with; be associated with
accord:
 
n. Syn. agreement; treaty
settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
accountable:
 
a.
liable to being called to account; answerable; responsible; something that can be explained
accumulate:
 
v. Syn. collect
pile up; collect; mount up; increase
accuser:
 
n.
one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
achieve:
 
v. Syn. accomplish; fulfill
gain with effort; accomplish; fulfill
acquaint:
 
v. Syn. Inform
inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
acquire:
 
v. Syn. obtain; gain
gain through experience or effort; gain possession of; locate with tracking system
acquisition:
 
n. Syn. acquirement; attainment
act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
activate:
 
v. Syn. encourage; stimulate
make active or more active; stimulate; make radioactive
acute:
 
a. Syn. keen; sharp
quickly perceptive; keen; having a sharp point or tip; extremely sharp or severe
adapt:
 
v. Syn. alter; modify
make fit for; change to suit a new purpose
addict:
 
v.
cause someone to become dependent; indulge in; be devoted to
adept:
 
a. Syn. competent; proficient
expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
adequate:
 
a. Syn. sufficient; enough
sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
adhere:
 
v. Syn. stick; bond
stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adjacent:
 
a. Syn. adjoining; neighboring
adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
adjoin:
 
v. Syn. attach
be next to; be contiguous to; border on
administer:
 
v. Syn. govern; supervise
govern; supervise; give or apply medications
administrate:
 
v.
administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
admission:
 
n. Syn. admittance; entrance; access
act or practice of admitting; power or permission to enter
adolescence:
 
n. Syn. youth; juvenescence
state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity
advent:
 
n. Syn. arrival
coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
adverse:
 
a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
advertise:
 
v. Syn. notify
give notice to; inform or apprise; make known; give public notice of
advocate:
 
v. Syn. urge; support
speak, plead, or argue in favour of; plead for; push for something
aerial:
 
a.
of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
aesthetic:
 
a. Syn. artistic; elegant
elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate:
 
v. Syn. associate; incorporate
associate; incorporate
affirm:
 
v. Syn. assert; confirm
assert; confirm
affix:
 
v. Syn. fasten; attach
fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict:
 
v. Syn. plague; suffer; torment
cause pain, suffering or distress
aggregate:
 
v. Syn. gather; accumulate
gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation:
 
n. Syn. anxiety; disturbance
anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agony:
 
n.
extreme pain of mind or body; anguish; last struggle of life; death struggle
agreeable:
 
a. Syn. pleasing; acceptable
ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing:
 
a.
exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or television broadcast
albeit:
 
ad.
even though; although; notwithstanding
alienate:
 
v. Syn. estrange; transfer; separate
cause to become unfriendly or hostile; transfer property or ownership; isolate or dissociate emotionally
allege:
 
v. Syn. affirm
state without proof; assert to be true
allegiance:
 
n. Syn. loyalty; fidelity
loyalty to a nation, sovereign, or cause; fidelity to any person or thing; devotion
alleviate:
 
v. Syn. relieve; moderate; reduce
provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate:
 
v. Syn. assign
assign; distribute according to plan
allot:
 
v. Syn. distribute
parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot
allowance:
 
n. Syn. authorization; permission
approval; act of allowing, granting, or admitting
alloy:
 
v. Syn. combine; mix
combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alongside:
 
ad.
along or by the side; side by side with
alphabetical:
 
a.
arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
alter:
 
v. Syn. modify; change; convert
modify; cause to change; make different; convert
alternate:
 
a. Syn. substitute
happening or following in turns; succeeding each other continuously; substitute
altitude:
 
n. Syn. elevation; height
elevation especially above sea level; height
amateur:
 
a. Syn. nonprofessional; inexpert
nonprofessional; lacking the skill of a professional, as in an art
amaze:
 
v. Syn. stun; astonish; shock
astonish; affect with wonder
ambiguity:
 
n.
state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous:
 
a.
unclear or doubtful in meaning
ambitious:
 
a. Syn. aspiring; enterprising
aspiring; having a strong desire for success or achievement
amend:
 
v. Syn. correct; improve
change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amends:
 
n.
compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation
amid:
 
ad. Syn. among
in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst:
 
ad. Syn. amid; among
amid; in the middle of; among
ammunition:
 
n. Syn. weapon
military stores or provisions; articles used in weapons, as powder, balls, shot, shells
amphibian:
 
a.
able to live both on land and in water
ample:
 
a. Syn. abundant
more than enough in size or scope or capacity; fairly large
amplify:
 
v. Syn. intensify; increase
broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase
amuse:
 
v. Syn. absorb; distract; bewilder
occupy in an agreeable, pleasing, or entertaining fashion; cause laughter or be funny; delude or deceive
analogy:
 
n. Syn. similarity; parallelism
similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
analyse:
 
v.
resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for purpose of examination of each separately
analytical:
 
a.
of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor:
 
n. Syn. forefather; forebear
forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anchor:
 
v. Syn. fasten
secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; narrate or coordinate
anecdote:
 
n. Syn. episode; story
short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story of history or biography
annihilate:
 
v. Syn. destroy
destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annoy:
 
v. Syn. disturb; irritate
disturb, especially by minor irritations; irritate
annuity:
 
n.
annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed sum in each year
antagonism:
 
n. Syn. hostility; enmity
active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
antarctic:
 
a.
opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to the region near it
anthem:
 
n. Syn. song; hymn
song of praise or patriotism; song of devotion or loyalty
anthology:
 
n. Syn. collection
book of literary selections by various authors
anthropology:
 
n.
social science that studies origins and social relationships of human beings
antibiotic:
 
a. Syn. antibacterial
of or relating to chemical substance that kills microorganisms and cures infections
anticipate:
 
v. Syn. expect; predict
act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; predict
anticipation:
 
n. Syn. expectation
something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence
antonym:
 
n.
word of opposite meaning; counter term
apologetic:
 
a.
offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal justification or defense
apparatus:
 
n. Syn. equipment
a group of parts that work together to perform given function; appliance or device for particular purpose
apparent:
 
a. Syn. visible
capable of being seen, or easily seen; open to view; visible to eye
append:
 
v. Syn. attach
attach; add as supplement or appendix
appendix:
 
n. Syn. appendage; adjunct; concomitant
something appended or added
applaud:
 
v. Syn. clap; acclaim
acclaim; express approval, especially by clapping the hands
appliance:
 
n.
durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
applicant:
 
n. Syn. candidate
candidate
appraisal:
 
n. Syn. assessment; evaluation
assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
appreciable:
 
a. Syn. considerable; perceptible
considerable; perceptible
apprentice:
 
n.
works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approximate:
 
v. Syn. approach
approach; come near
apt:
 
a. Syn. appropriate; suitable
likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
aptitude:
 
n. Syn. intelligence; talent
inherent ability; quickness in learning and understanding
aquarium:
 
n.
tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals
aquatic:
 
a. Syn. watery
consisting of, relating to, or being in water
arbitrary:
 
a. Syn. capricious; impulse
randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
arc:
 
n.
continuous portion of a circle; something curved in shape
arch:
 
n.
any part of a curved line
archaic:
 
a. Syn. antiquated
no longer current or applicable; antiquated
architect:
 
n.
one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures
archives:
 
n.
public records; place where public records are kept
ardent:
 
a. Syn. intense; passionate; zealous
displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
arduous:
 
a. Syn. hard; strenuous
demanding great effort or labor; difficult
arena:
 
n.
playing field where sports events take place; large structure for open-air sports or entertainments
arise:
 
v. Syn. spring
come up from a lower to a higher position; come above the horizon; spring up; come into action
armour:
 
n.
defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arouse:
 
v. Syn. excite; stimulate; awake
excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
array:
 
v. Syn. marshal
set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
articulate:
 
a. Syn. effective; distinct
expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
artificial:
 
a. Syn. unreal
made by humans; produced rather than natural.
artillery:
 
n.
large weapons, such as cannon and missile launchers operated by crews; branch of army in use of large weapons
ascend:
 
v. Syn. climb; mount
climb; mount
ascent:
 
n.
upward slope or grade; movement upward
ascertain:
 
v. Syn. discover; insure
find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe:
 
v. Syn. refer; attribute; assign
inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
aspect:
 
n. Syn. respect; facet
distinct feature or element in a problem; a way in which something can be viewed by the mind
aspiration:
 
n. Syn. ambition; longing
ambition; longing
aspire:
 
v. Syn. dream; seek
seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
assassination:
 
n.
act of assassinating; killing by treacherous violence; murder of public figure by surprise attack
assemble:
 
v. Syn. gather
put together; bring or call together into a group or whole
assert:
 
v. Syn. declare
declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
assess:
 
v. Syn. estimate; judge
estimate value; judge worth of something
asset:
 
n. Syn. properties; advantage
properties; advantage; useful or valuable quality
assign:
 
v. Syn. appoint; allot
appoint; allot; make over; point out authoritatively or exactly
assorted:
 
a. Syn. varied; miscellaneous
varied; miscellaneous
assumption:
 
n. Syn. hypothesis; supposition
something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of
assurance:
 
n. Syn. certainty; confidence; insurance; guaranty
promise or pledge; certainty; self-confidence; freedom from doubt
astound:
 
v. Syn. surprise; shock
affect with wonder; surprise; shock
astronomy:
 
n.
branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and universe as a whole
asylum:
 
n. Syn. protection
place of refuge or shelter; protection
athlete:
 
n.
sports man; one who contended for prize in public games
atlas:
 
n.
a bound volume of maps, charts, or tables
attach:
 
v. Syn. fasten; annex
fasten; annex; be in contact with
attain:
 
v. Syn. gain
achieve or accomplish; gain
attendance:
 
n.
act of being present
attendant:
 
n. Syn. aide; servant
aide; servant; accompanying; person who participates in a meeting
attribute:
 
n. Syn. trait
essential quality; reputation; honor
audible:
 
a. Syn. perceptible; discernible
perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
audit:
 
n.
examination of accounts; adjustment or correction of accounts
auditorium:
 
n.
area of theater or concert hall where audience sits
augment:
 
v. Syn. increase
make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authentic:
 
a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
author:
 
n.
beginner, former, or first mover of anything; creator; originator; one who composes or writes book or composer
authoritative:
 
a.
having weight of authority; peremptory and dictatorial
authorize:
 
v. Syn. empower; sanction
empower; give permission for; sanction
automate:
 
v.
replace or enhance human labor with machines
automatic:
 
a. Syn. automated; mechanized; involuntary
mechanized; operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control
automation:
 
n.
act or process of converting the controlling of a machine or device to a more automatic system, such as computer or electronic controls
automobile:
 
n.
self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on street or roadway
autonomy:
 
n. Syn. independence; liberty
independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination
auxiliary:
 
a. Syn. aiding; supplementary
helper, additional or subsidiary
avail:
 
v. Syn. profit; promote
turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avalanche:
 
n.
great mass of falling snow and ice
avert:
 
v. Syn. prevent
prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
aviation:
 
n. Syn. flying; flight; aeronautics
art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics
axis:
 
n. Syn. shaft; pivot
the center around which something rotates; pivot
backward:
 
a.
directed to the back or rear; unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; undeveloped
bacterium:
 
n.
single celled organism with no nucleus
badminton:
 
n.
game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
baffle:
 
v. Syn. frustrate; perplex
frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
ballot:
 
n.
printed or written ticket used in voting; act of voting; whole number of votes cast at an election
bamboo:
 
n.
plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries
ban:
 
n. Syn. Prohibition
official prohibition; decree that prohibits something
bandage:
 
n.
strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds
banish:
 
v. Syn. dispel
drive out; drive away; compel to depart; dispel
bankrupt:
 
a.
penniless, without any money; financially ruined
banquet:
 
n. Syn. feast
feast; entertainment of eating and drinking
bark:
 
n. Syn. yelp; howl
sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog
barometer:
 
n.
instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
barren:
 
a. Syn. desolate
desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking
barricade:
 
n. Syn. obstacle
hastily put together defensive barrier; obstacle
barrier:
 
n. Syn. obstacle; hindrance; hurdle
obstacle; structure built to bar passage; boundary or limit
barter:
 
v. Syn. trade; exchange
trade goods or services without the exchange of money
batch:
 
n.
quantity of bread baked at one time; a collection of things or persons to be handled together
bathe:
 
v. Syn. lave; immerse
wash by immersion, as in a bath; subject to bath; lave; immerse or cover one's self
batter:
 
v.
beat with successive blows; beat repeatedly and with violence
bead:
 
n. Syn. pearl; drops; droplet
small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing
beautician:
 
n.
one skilled in giving cosmetic treatments; one who does hair styling, manicures, and other beauty treatments
beforehand:
 
ad. Syn. previously; aforetime
in state of anticipation; in advance; by way of preparation
beneficial:
 
a. Syn. helpful; useful
helpful; tending to promote physical well-being
berth:
 
n.
space for ship to dock or anchor; allotted place; place to sleep or stay; appointment or job
beset:
 
v. Syn. harass; attack
attack from all sides; trouble persistently; hem in
beverage:
 
n. Syn. refreshment
liquids for drinking, usually excluding water; refreshment
bewilder:
 
v. Syn. confuse
lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes
bias:
 
n. Syn. prejudice; preference
preference or inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment; influence in unfair way
bibliography:
 
n.
list of works of a specific author or publisher; list of writings relating to a given subject
bilateral:
 
a. Syn. mutual; lateral
two-sided; mutual
bilingual:
 
n.
using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency
bind:
 
v. Syn. contract; cohere; stick
tie, or confine with a cord, band, or chain; make fast; contract; cohere or stick together
biography:
 
n.
an account of the series of events making up a person's life; accounts of people's life
bitumen:
 
n.
mineral pitch; black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame
blaze:
 
n. Syn. flame
brilliant burst of fire; destructive fire; flame
bleach:
 
v. Syn. whiten; blanch
make white or colorless; blanch
bleak:
 
a. Syn. cold; cheerless
cold or cheerless; unlikely to be favorable
blend:
 
n. Syn. combination; mixture
combination; mixture; forming uniform mixture
blink:
 
v. Syn. wink
shut eyes briefly; wink
bloc:
 
n.
a group of nations, parties, or persons united for common action
bloom:
 
n. Syn. flower; blossom
flower; blossom; best time of youth; period of greatest prosperity or productivity
blossom:
 
n.
reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts
blot:
 
n.
spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; weak point or failing
blunder:
 
n. Syn. error
serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
blunt:
 
a. Syn. insensitive
having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive
blur:
 
n. Syn. stain; dim
something that is hazy and indistinct to the sight or mind; dim, confused appearance; moral stain or blot
blush:
 
v.
become rosy or reddish; turn red, as if in embarrassment or shame
boast:
 
v. Syn. brag; vaunt
show off oneself; speak of with excessive pride
boil:
 
v.
be agitated; pass from a liquid to vapor when heated; be excited with passion; heat in water
bookcase:
 
n.
case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors
bookkeeper:
 
n.
one who keeps accounts; one who has charge of keeping books and accounts in an office
bookstall:
 
n.
stall where books are sold, as on a street; table with enclosed sides, for displaying books for sale
boost:
 
v. Syn. raise; advance
raise; advance; push or shove upward
boundary:
 
n. Syn. border; frontier
dividing line; border; frontier
bounty:
 
n. Syn. kindness; virtue
goodness, kindness; virtue; liberality in giving
bouquet:
 
n. Syn. bunch
small cluster or arrangement of flowers; an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present
bowel:
 
n.
a part or division of intestine; interior of something; any internal organ of the body, as the stomach, liver, brain
boycott:
 
v.
refrain from buying or using
brace:
 
n.
something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;
brake:
 
n.
a piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction
brashness:
 
n.
characteristic of being brash; trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
breach:
 
n. Syn. violation; infringement
breaking of contract or duty
breakthrough:
 
n.
act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction
breed:
 
v. Syn. raise; hatch; mate
raise; produce offspring; give birth to or hatch; mate
brew:
 
v. Syn. boil; cook
boil or seethe; cook; be in a state of preparation; be mixing, forming, or gathering
brink:
 
n. Syn. verge; border
edge, margin, or border of a steep place verge
brisk:
 
a. Syn. energetic; swift
marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner
brochure:
 
n. Syn. pamphlet
pamphlet; small book usually having paper cover
bronze:
 
n.
an alloy of copper and tin and sometimes other elements
brood:
 
v.
think long and anxiously; be in a state of gloomy, serious thought
browse:
 
v. Syn. graze
graze; skim or glance at casually
bruise:
 
v.
injure, as by a blow or collision; contuse; fight with the fists
buckle:
 
v. Syn. fold; fasten; distort
fold or collapse; bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat
buffet:
 
n.
table with food set out for people to serve themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that's been set out
bulb:
 
n.
rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
bulge:
 
v.
cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
bulk:
 
n. Syn. majority; mass
majority; main part; volume; mass
bulletin:
 
n.
brief statement of facts; any public notice or announcement; a periodical publication
bumper:
 
n.
something as bars at edges to absorb shock and prevent serious damage
bundle:
 
n. Syn. packet; parcel
packet; a package of things tied together; a large sum of money
bungalow:
 
n.
small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
buoyant:
 
a.
able to float; cheerful and optimistic
bureaucracy:
 
n.
over-regulated administrative system
burgeon:
 
v. Syn. thrive; mushroom
grow forth; send out buds; grow or develop rapidly
burial:
 
n. Syn. grave
grave or tomb; ritual placing of a corpse in a grave; concealing something under the ground
burrow:
 
n. Syn. tunnel; den
tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; dig; move through by or as by digging
bustle:
 
v. Syn. teem
move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
butcher:
 
n. Syn. slaughterer
one whose job is to kill animals for food; one who kills in large numbers, or with unusual cruelty; vendor, especially on train or in theater
butterfly:
 
n.
insect typically having a slender body with broad colorful wings
bypass:
 
n.
channel used to conduct gas or liquid around another pipe or a fixture; conductor having low resistance in parallel