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PTE Word List for Academic (A B): Print Flashcard

abbreviation
 
n.
shortening something by omitting parts of it
abnormal
 
a. Syn. anomalous; unusual
unusual; not typical; not normal
abolish
 
v. Syn. cancel; annul
cancel; put an end to; destroy completely
aboriginal
 
a. Syn. primitive; native
being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native
abort
 
v. Syn. failure; terminate
stop; terminate before completion; terminate a pregnancy
abound
 
v.
be full of; be plentiful
abrasion
 
n. Syn. scratch; friction
scratch; friction
abridge
 
v. Syn. condense; shorten
condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
abrupt
 
a. Syn. sudden; unforeseen
broken off; very steep; having sudden transitions from one subject to another
absorb
 
v. Syn. monopolize; receive
assimilate or incorporate; suck or drink up; occupy full attention
abstract
 
a. Syn. theoretical; abstruse
theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
abundance
 
n. Syn. profusion; richness
great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing
accelerate
 
v. Syn. speed; hasten
move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
accessory
 
n. Syn. adjunct; appendage
additional object; useful but not essential thing; subordinate or supplementary item
acclaim
 
v. Syn. applaud
applaud; announce with great approval
accommodate
 
v. Syn. adapt; oblige
do a favor or service for; provide for; supply with; make suitable; adapt; allow for
accommodation
 
n.
living quarters provided for public convenience; something that meets a need; convenience
accompany
 
v.
travel with; be associated with
accord
 
n. Syn. agreement; treaty
settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
accountable
 
a.
liable to being called to account; answerable; responsible; something that can be explained
accumulate
 
v. Syn. collect
pile up; collect; mount up; increase
accuser
 
n.
one who accuses; one who brings a charge of crime or fault
achieve
 
v. Syn. accomplish; fulfill
gain with effort; accomplish; fulfill
acquaint
 
v. Syn. Inform
inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar
acquire
 
v. Syn. obtain; gain
gain through experience or effort; gain possession of; locate with tracking system
acquisition
 
n. Syn. acquirement; attainment
act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something
activate
 
v. Syn. encourage; stimulate
make active or more active; stimulate; make radioactive
acute
 
a. Syn. keen; sharp
quickly perceptive; keen; having a sharp point or tip; extremely sharp or severe
adapt
 
v. Syn. alter; modify
make fit for; change to suit a new purpose
addict
 
v.
cause someone to become dependent; indulge in; be devoted to
adept
 
a. Syn. competent; proficient
expert at; very skilled; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
adequate
 
a. Syn. sufficient; enough
sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
adhere
 
v. Syn. stick; bond
stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with
adjacent
 
a. Syn. adjoining; neighboring
adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
adjoin
 
v. Syn. attach
be next to; be contiguous to; border on
administer
 
v. Syn. govern; supervise
govern; supervise; give or apply medications
administrate
 
v.
administer; supply; supervise or be in charge of
admission
 
n. Syn. admittance; entrance; access
act or practice of admitting; power or permission to enter
adolescence
 
n. Syn. youth; juvenescence
state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity
advent
 
n. Syn. arrival
coming or arrival, especially of something extremely important
adverse
 
a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
advertise
 
v. Syn. notify
give notice to; inform or apprise; make known; give public notice of
advocate
 
v. Syn. urge; support
speak, plead, or argue in favour of; plead for; push for something
aerial
 
a.
of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air
aesthetic
 
a. Syn. artistic; elegant
elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
affiliate
 
v. Syn. associate; incorporate
associate; incorporate
affirm
 
v. Syn. assert; confirm
assert; confirm
affix
 
v. Syn. fasten; attach
fasten; append; add on; secure to something
afflict
 
v. Syn. plague; suffer; torment
cause pain, suffering or distress
aggregate
 
v. Syn. gather; accumulate
gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
agitation
 
n. Syn. anxiety; disturbance
anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance
agony
 
n.
extreme pain of mind or body; anguish; last struggle of life; death struggle
agreeable
 
a. Syn. pleasing; acceptable
ready to consent or submit; acceptable
airing
 
a.
exposure to air for freshening or drying; exposure to public attention; radio or television broadcast
albeit
 
ad.
even though; although; notwithstanding
alienate
 
v. Syn. estrange; transfer; separate
cause to become unfriendly or hostile; transfer property or ownership; isolate or dissociate emotionally
allege
 
v. Syn. affirm
state without proof; assert to be true
allegiance
 
n. Syn. loyalty; fidelity
loyalty to a nation, sovereign, or cause; fidelity to any person or thing; devotion
alleviate
 
v. Syn. relieve; moderate; reduce
provide physical relief, as from pain; make easier; remove in part
allocate
 
v. Syn. assign
assign; distribute according to plan
allot
 
v. Syn. distribute
parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot
allowance
 
n. Syn. authorization; permission
approval; act of allowing, granting, or admitting
alloy
 
v. Syn. combine; mix
combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate
alongside
 
ad.
along or by the side; side by side with
alphabetical
 
a.
arranged in customary order of the letters of a language
alter
 
v. Syn. modify; change; convert
modify; cause to change; make different; convert
alternate
 
a. Syn. substitute
happening or following in turns; succeeding each other continuously; substitute
altitude
 
n. Syn. elevation; height
elevation especially above sea level; height
amateur
 
a. Syn. nonprofessional; inexpert
nonprofessional; lacking the skill of a professional, as in an art
amaze
 
v. Syn. stun; astonish; shock
astonish; affect with wonder
ambiguity
 
n.
state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty
ambiguous
 
a.
unclear or doubtful in meaning
ambitious
 
a. Syn. aspiring; enterprising
aspiring; having a strong desire for success or achievement
amend
 
v. Syn. correct; improve
change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
amends
 
n.
compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation
amid
 
ad. Syn. among
in the middle of; among; surrounded by
amidst
 
ad. Syn. amid; among
amid; in the middle of; among
ammunition
 
n. Syn. weapon
military stores or provisions; articles used in weapons, as powder, balls, shot, shells
amphibian
 
a.
able to live both on land and in water
ample
 
a. Syn. abundant
more than enough in size or scope or capacity; fairly large
amplify
 
v. Syn. intensify; increase
broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase
amuse
 
v. Syn. absorb; distract; bewilder
occupy in an agreeable, pleasing, or entertaining fashion; cause laughter or be funny; delude or deceive
analogy
 
n. Syn. similarity; parallelism
similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
analyse
 
v.
resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for purpose of examination of each separately
analytical
 
a.
of analysis; resolving into elements or parts
ancestor
 
n. Syn. forefather; forebear
forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor
anchor
 
v. Syn. fasten
secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; narrate or coordinate
anecdote
 
n. Syn. episode; story
short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story of history or biography
annihilate
 
v. Syn. destroy
destroy completely; reduce to nonexistence
annoy
 
v. Syn. disturb; irritate
disturb, especially by minor irritations; irritate
annuity
 
n.
annual payment of allowance or income; periodical payment, amounting to a fixed sum in each year
antagonism
 
n. Syn. hostility; enmity
active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor
antarctic
 
a.
opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to the region near it
anthem
 
n. Syn. song; hymn
song of praise or patriotism; song of devotion or loyalty
anthology
 
n. Syn. collection
book of literary selections by various authors
anthropology
 
n.
social science that studies origins and social relationships of human beings
antibiotic
 
a. Syn. antibacterial
of or relating to chemical substance that kills microorganisms and cures infections
anticipate
 
v. Syn. expect; predict
act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; predict
anticipation
 
n. Syn. expectation
something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence
antonym
 
n.
word of opposite meaning; counter term
apologetic
 
a.
offering or expressing an apology or excuse; serving as or containing a formal justification or defense
apparatus
 
n. Syn. equipment
a group of parts that work together to perform given function; appliance or device for particular purpose
apparent
 
a. Syn. visible
capable of being seen, or easily seen; open to view; visible to eye
append
 
v. Syn. attach
attach; add as supplement or appendix
appendix
 
n. Syn. appendage; adjunct; concomitant
something appended or added
applaud
 
v. Syn. clap; acclaim
acclaim; express approval, especially by clapping the hands
appliance
 
n.
durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use
applicant
 
n. Syn. candidate
candidate
appraisal
 
n. Syn. assessment; evaluation
assessment; evaluation; the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
appreciable
 
a. Syn. considerable; perceptible
considerable; perceptible
apprentice
 
n.
works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner
approximate
 
v. Syn. approach
approach; come near
apt
 
a. Syn. appropriate; suitable
likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
aptitude
 
n. Syn. intelligence; talent
inherent ability; quickness in learning and understanding
aquarium
 
n.
tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals
aquatic
 
a. Syn. watery
consisting of, relating to, or being in water
arbitrary
 
a. Syn. capricious; impulse
randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
arc
 
n.
continuous portion of a circle; something curved in shape
arch
 
n.
any part of a curved line
archaic
 
a. Syn. antiquated
no longer current or applicable; antiquated
architect
 
n.
one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures
archives
 
n.
public records; place where public records are kept
ardent
 
a. Syn. intense; passionate; zealous
displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate
arduous
 
a. Syn. hard; strenuous
demanding great effort or labor; difficult
arena
 
n.
playing field where sports events take place; large structure for open-air sports or entertainments
arise
 
v. Syn. spring
come up from a lower to a higher position; come above the horizon; spring up; come into action
armour
 
n.
defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons
arouse
 
v. Syn. excite; stimulate; awake
excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep
array
 
v. Syn. marshal
set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement
articulate
 
a. Syn. effective; distinct
expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
artificial
 
a. Syn. unreal
made by humans; produced rather than natural.
artillery
 
n.
large weapons, such as cannon and missile launchers operated by crews; branch of army in use of large weapons
ascend
 
v. Syn. climb; mount
climb; mount
ascent
 
n.
upward slope or grade; movement upward
ascertain
 
v. Syn. discover; insure
find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of
ascribe
 
v. Syn. refer; attribute; assign
inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality
aspect
 
n. Syn. respect; facet
distinct feature or element in a problem; a way in which something can be viewed by the mind
aspiration
 
n. Syn. ambition; longing
ambition; longing
aspire
 
v. Syn. dream; seek
seek to attain; long for; strive toward an end
assassination
 
n.
act of assassinating; killing by treacherous violence; murder of public figure by surprise attack
assemble
 
v. Syn. gather
put together; bring or call together into a group or whole
assert
 
v. Syn. declare
declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly
assess
 
v. Syn. estimate; judge
estimate value; judge worth of something
asset
 
n. Syn. properties; advantage
properties; advantage; useful or valuable quality
assign
 
v. Syn. appoint; allot
appoint; allot; make over; point out authoritatively or exactly
assorted
 
a. Syn. varied; miscellaneous
varied; miscellaneous
assumption
 
n. Syn. hypothesis; supposition
something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of
assurance
 
n. Syn. certainty; confidence; insurance; guaranty
promise or pledge; certainty; self-confidence; freedom from doubt
astound
 
v. Syn. surprise; shock
affect with wonder; surprise; shock
astronomy
 
n.
branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and universe as a whole
asylum
 
n. Syn. protection
place of refuge or shelter; protection
athlete
 
n.
sports man; one who contended for prize in public games
atlas
 
n.
a bound volume of maps, charts, or tables
attach
 
v. Syn. fasten; annex
fasten; annex; be in contact with
attain
 
v. Syn. gain
achieve or accomplish; gain
attendance
 
n.
act of being present
attendant
 
n. Syn. aide; servant
aide; servant; accompanying; person who participates in a meeting
attribute
 
n. Syn. trait
essential quality; reputation; honor
audible
 
a. Syn. perceptible; discernible
perceptible; heard or perceptible by the ear
audit
 
n.
examination of accounts; adjustment or correction of accounts
auditorium
 
n.
area of theater or concert hall where audience sits
augment
 
v. Syn. increase
make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
authentic
 
a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
author
 
n.
beginner, former, or first mover of anything; creator; originator; one who composes or writes book or composer
authoritative
 
a.
having weight of authority; peremptory and dictatorial
authorize
 
v. Syn. empower; sanction
empower; give permission for; sanction
automate
 
v.
replace or enhance human labor with machines
automatic
 
a. Syn. automated; mechanized; involuntary
mechanized; operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control
automation
 
n.
act or process of converting the controlling of a machine or device to a more automatic system, such as computer or electronic controls
automobile
 
n.
self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on street or roadway
autonomy
 
n. Syn. independence; liberty
independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination
auxiliary
 
a. Syn. aiding; supplementary
helper, additional or subsidiary
avail
 
v. Syn. profit; promote
turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote
avalanche
 
n.
great mass of falling snow and ice
avert
 
v. Syn. prevent
prevent; turn or cause to turn off or away
aviation
 
n. Syn. flying; flight; aeronautics
art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics
axis
 
n. Syn. shaft; pivot
the center around which something rotates; pivot
backward
 
a.
directed to the back or rear; unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; undeveloped
bacterium
 
n.
single celled organism with no nucleus
badminton
 
n.
game played on a court with light long-handled rackets
baffle
 
v. Syn. frustrate; perplex
frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of
ballot
 
n.
printed or written ticket used in voting; act of voting; whole number of votes cast at an election
bamboo
 
n.
plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries
ban
 
n. Syn. Prohibition
official prohibition; decree that prohibits something
bandage
 
n.
strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds
banish
 
v. Syn. dispel
drive out; drive away; compel to depart; dispel
bankrupt
 
a.
penniless, without any money; financially ruined
banquet
 
n. Syn. feast
feast; entertainment of eating and drinking
bark
 
n. Syn. yelp; howl
sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog
barometer
 
n.
instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
barren
 
a. Syn. desolate
desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking
barricade
 
n. Syn. obstacle
hastily put together defensive barrier; obstacle
barrier
 
n. Syn. obstacle; hindrance; hurdle
obstacle; structure built to bar passage; boundary or limit
barter
 
v. Syn. trade; exchange
trade goods or services without the exchange of money
batch
 
n.
quantity of bread baked at one time; a collection of things or persons to be handled together
bathe
 
v. Syn. lave; immerse
wash by immersion, as in a bath; subject to bath; lave; immerse or cover one's self
batter
 
v.
beat with successive blows; beat repeatedly and with violence
bead
 
n. Syn. pearl; drops; droplet
small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing
beautician
 
n.
one skilled in giving cosmetic treatments; one who does hair styling, manicures, and other beauty treatments
beforehand
 
ad. Syn. previously; aforetime
in state of anticipation; in advance; by way of preparation
beneficial
 
a. Syn. helpful; useful
helpful; tending to promote physical well-being
berth
 
n.
space for ship to dock or anchor; allotted place; place to sleep or stay; appointment or job
beset
 
v. Syn. harass; attack
attack from all sides; trouble persistently; hem in
beverage
 
n. Syn. refreshment
liquids for drinking, usually excluding water; refreshment
bewilder
 
v. Syn. confuse
lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes
bias
 
n. Syn. prejudice; preference
preference or inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment; influence in unfair way
bibliography
 
n.
list of works of a specific author or publisher; list of writings relating to a given subject
bilateral
 
a. Syn. mutual; lateral
two-sided; mutual
bilingual
 
n.
using or able to use two languages, especially with equal or nearly equal fluency
bind
 
v. Syn. contract; cohere; stick
tie, or confine with a cord, band, or chain; make fast; contract; cohere or stick together
biography
 
n.
an account of the series of events making up a person's life; accounts of people's life
bitumen
 
n.
mineral pitch; black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame
blaze
 
n. Syn. flame
brilliant burst of fire; destructive fire; flame
bleach
 
v. Syn. whiten; blanch
make white or colorless; blanch
bleak
 
a. Syn. cold; cheerless
cold or cheerless; unlikely to be favorable
blend
 
n. Syn. combination; mixture
combination; mixture; forming uniform mixture
blink
 
v. Syn. wink
shut eyes briefly; wink
bloc
 
n.
a group of nations, parties, or persons united for common action
bloom
 
n. Syn. flower; blossom
flower; blossom; best time of youth; period of greatest prosperity or productivity
blossom
 
n.
reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts
blot
 
n.
spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; weak point or failing
blunder
 
n. Syn. error
serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion
blunt
 
a. Syn. insensitive
having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive
blur
 
n. Syn. stain; dim
something that is hazy and indistinct to the sight or mind; dim, confused appearance; moral stain or blot
blush
 
v.
become rosy or reddish; turn red, as if in embarrassment or shame
boast
 
v. Syn. brag; vaunt
show off oneself; speak of with excessive pride
boil
 
v.
be agitated; pass from a liquid to vapor when heated; be excited with passion; heat in water
bookcase
 
n.
case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors
bookkeeper
 
n.
one who keeps accounts; one who has charge of keeping books and accounts in an office
bookstall
 
n.
stall where books are sold, as on a street; table with enclosed sides, for displaying books for sale
boost
 
v. Syn. raise; advance
raise; advance; push or shove upward
boundary
 
n. Syn. border; frontier
dividing line; border; frontier
bounty
 
n. Syn. kindness; virtue
goodness, kindness; virtue; liberality in giving
bouquet
 
n. Syn. bunch
small cluster or arrangement of flowers; an arrangement of flowers that is usually given as a present
bowel
 
n.
a part or division of intestine; interior of something; any internal organ of the body, as the stomach, liver, brain
boycott
 
v.
refrain from buying or using
brace
 
n.
something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;
brake
 
n.
a piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction
brashness
 
n.
characteristic of being brash; trait of being rash and hasty; tasteless showiness
breach
 
n. Syn. violation; infringement
breaking of contract or duty
breakthrough
 
n.
act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction
breed
 
v. Syn. raise; hatch; mate
raise; produce offspring; give birth to or hatch; mate
brew
 
v. Syn. boil; cook
boil or seethe; cook; be in a state of preparation; be mixing, forming, or gathering
brink
 
n. Syn. verge; border
edge, margin, or border of a steep place verge
brisk
 
a. Syn. energetic; swift
marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner
brochure
 
n. Syn. pamphlet
pamphlet; small book usually having paper cover
bronze
 
n.
an alloy of copper and tin and sometimes other elements
brood
 
v.
think long and anxiously; be in a state of gloomy, serious thought
browse
 
v. Syn. graze
graze; skim or glance at casually
bruise
 
v.
injure, as by a blow or collision; contuse; fight with the fists
buckle
 
v. Syn. fold; fasten; distort
fold or collapse; bend out of shape, as under pressure or from heat
buffet
 
n.
table with food set out for people to serve themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that's been set out
bulb
 
n.
rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball
bulge
 
v.
cause to curve outward; swell up; stick out; protrude
bulk
 
n. Syn. majority; mass
majority; main part; volume; mass
bulletin
 
n.
brief statement of facts; any public notice or announcement; a periodical publication
bumper
 
n.
something as bars at edges to absorb shock and prevent serious damage
bundle
 
n. Syn. packet; parcel
packet; a package of things tied together; a large sum of money
bungalow
 
n.
small house or cottage usually having a single story and attic
buoyant
 
a.
able to float; cheerful and optimistic
bureaucracy
 
n.
over-regulated administrative system
burgeon
 
v. Syn. thrive; mushroom
grow forth; send out buds; grow or develop rapidly
burial
 
n. Syn. grave
grave or tomb; ritual placing of a corpse in a grave; concealing something under the ground
burrow
 
n. Syn. tunnel; den
tunnel; hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter; dig; move through by or as by digging
bustle
 
v. Syn. teem
move or cause to move energetically and busily; teem
butcher
 
n. Syn. slaughterer
one whose job is to kill animals for food; one who kills in large numbers, or with unusual cruelty; vendor, especially on train or in theater
butterfly
 
n.
insect typically having a slender body with broad colorful wings
bypass
 
n.
channel used to conduct gas or liquid around another pipe or a fixture; conductor having low resistance in parallel