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300 TOEFL Writing Vocabulary (1)

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Word and Definition List
abandon   Speak
/ə'bændən/ n. Syn. relinquish
(没有约束,放任情绪) lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity; unbounded enthusiasm
With her parents out of town, Kelly danced all night with abandon.
abash   Speak
/ə'bæʃ/ v. Syn. embarrass
(使难堪) embarrass; make ashamed or uneasy; disconcert
Her open admiration should not abash him at all.
abdicate   Speak
/'æbdɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. renounce
(放弃) give up, renounce, abandon, lay down, or withdraw from, as a right or claim
When Edward VIII did abdicate the British throne to marry the woman he loved, he surprised the entire world.
abet   Speak
/ə'bɛt/ v. Syn. encourage
(帮助,鼓励) aid, usually in doing something wrong; encourage
She was unwilling to abet him in the swindle he had planned.
abridge   Speak
/ə'brɪdʒ/ v. Syn. condense; shorten
(删节,节选) condense; shorten; reduce length of written text
Because the publishers felt the public wanted a shorter version of War and Peace, they proceeded to abridge the novel.
abrogate   Speak
/'æbroʊgeɪt/ a. Syn. abolish
(废除) abolish, do away with, or annul, especially by authority
He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.
abstemious   Speak
/æb'sti:mɪəs/ a. Syn. temperate
(节制(饮食),调节) sparing or moderation in eating and drinking; temperate
Concerned whether her vegetarian son's abstemious diet provided him with sufficient protein, the worried mother pressed food on him.
academic   Speak
/ækə'dɛmɪk/ a. Syn. scholarly; collegiate; theoretical
(学术的) related to school; not practical or directly useful; relating to scholarly organization; based on formal education
The dean's talk about reforming the college admissions system was only an academic discussion.
accede   Speak
/æk'si:d/ v. Syn. agree; assent; concede
(同意) agree; give consent, often at insistence of another; concede
The idea that one of the two chief executives should eventually accede to the role, as has happened in the past, would raise fresh doubts about the board's independence.
accelerate   Speak
/ək'sɛləreɪt/ v. Syn. speed; hasten
(加速) move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected
Demand for Taiwanese goods likely will accelerate from the second quarter, as strong Asian demand offsets the effects of a U.S. slowdown.
accolade   Speak
/'ækəleɪd/ n. Syn. praise
(出名的大奖) award of merit; expression of approval; praise
In Hollywood, an "Oscar" is the highest accolade.
accord   Speak
/ə'kɔ:d/ n. Syn. agreement; treaty
(一致,协议) settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states
Although the accord is a small step forward, politicians around the world have their work cut out for them.
acrimonious   Speak
/ækrɪ'moʊnɪəs/ a. Syn. rancorous
(挖苦的,尖酸的(语言,行为)) bitter and sharp in language, tone, or manner
The candidate attacked his opponent in highly acrimonious terms.
acumen   Speak
/'ækjʊmɛn, ə'kju:mɛn/ n. Syn. acuteness; insight
(思想敏锐) mental keenness; quickness of perception
However, her team's political acumen is clearly beyond mine, an Ivy League Medical Science Professor and NOT a Political "Science" Professor.
admonish   Speak
/əd'mɒnɪʃ/ v. Syn. warn; reprove
(警告,训斥) warn; counsel someone against something to be avoided
I would again admonish the reader carefully to consider the nature of our doctrine.
admonition   Speak
/ædmɒ'nɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. warning
(警告) gentle or friendly reproof; cautionary advice or warning
The article concludes with an admonition from a psychologist
adversary   Speak
/'ædvəsərɪ/ n. Syn. opponent; contestant
(对手) opponent in contest; someone who offers opposition
The young wrestler struggled to defeat his adversary.
adverse   Speak
/'ædvɜrs/ a. Syn. unfavorable; hostile
(讨厌,敌意) in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose
The recession had a highly adverse effect on father's investment portfolio: he lost so much money that he could no longer afford the house.
adversity   Speak
/əd'vɜrsɪtɪ/ n. Syn. poverty; misfortune
(贫困,不幸) state of misfortune, hardship, or affliction; misfortune
A young boy who's strength in adversity is an inspiration to all who know him.
aesthetic   Speak
/i:s'θɛtɪk/ a. Syn. artistic; elegant
(审美的) elegant or tasteful; of or concerning appreciation of beauty or good taste
Kenneth Cole, the American designer known for his modern, urban aesthetic, is hawking $35 T-shirts.
affable   Speak
/'æfəb(ə)l/ a.
(平易近人的) easily approachable; warmly friendly
Accustomed to cold, aloof supervisors, Nicholas was amazed at how affable his new employer was.
affluent   Speak
/'æflʊənt/ a.
(富有的,丰富的) having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value
They want the same opportunity to pursue their dreams as everyone else who lives in affluent school districts.
aggressive   Speak
/'əgrɛsɪv/ a.
(强有力的,坚持己见的) making assaults; unjustly attacking; combative; hostile; tending to spread quickly
During his tenure in Beijing, Huntsman was known as an aggressive advocate for human rights and pushed to expand U.S. economic ties with China.
alacrity   Speak
/ə'lækrɪtɪ/ n.
(欢快的情绪) cheerful promptness or willingness; eagerness; speed or quickness
Phil and Dave were raring to get off to the mountains; they packed up their ski gear and climbed into the van with alacrity.
alienate   Speak
/'eɪlɪəneɪt/ v. Syn. estrange; transfer; separate
(孤立,树敌) cause to become unfriendly or hostile; transfer property or ownership; isolate or dissociate emotionally
We could not see what should again alienate us from one another, or how one brother could again oppress another.
allay   Speak
/ə'leɪ/ v. Syn. calm; pacify; relieve
(平静下来,(使)冷静下来) calm; pacify; reduce the intensity of; relieve
The crew tried to allay the fears of the passengers by announcing that the fire had been controlled.
allude   Speak
/ə'lu:d/ v. Syn. imply; refer
(暗指) refer casually or indirectly, or by suggestion
Try not to mention divorce in Jack's presence because he will think you allude to his marital problems with Jill.
allure   Speak
/ə'ljʊə(r)/ v. Syn. entice; attract
(诱惑,引诱) attract with something desirable; be highly, often subtly attractive
Promises of quick profits allure the unwary investor.
allusion   Speak
/ə'lu:ʒ(ə)n/ n. Syn. metaphor
(暗指,暗示) indirect reference; symbolical reference or comparison; metaphor
Without naming names, the candidate criticized the national leaders by allusion.
ambiguous   Speak
/æm'bɪgjʊəs/ a.
(模棱两可的) unclear or doubtful in meaning
His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take.
amenable   Speak
/ə'mi:nəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. responsible; accountable
(有服从义务的,随时服从的) responsive to advice or suggestion; responsible to higher authority; willing to comply with; agreeable
He was amenable to any suggestions that came from those he looked up to.
amiable   Speak
/'eɪmɪəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. agreeable; lovable
(可爱的,友好的,惬意的) good-natured and likable; lovable; warmly friendly
In Little Women, Beth is the amiable daughter whose loving disposition endears her to all who know her.
analogous   Speak
/ə'næləgəs/ a. Syn. comparable
(类似的) comparable; similar or alike
She called our attention to the things that had been done in an analogous situation and recommended that we do the same.
analogy   Speak
/ə'nælədʒɪ/ n. Syn. similarity; parallelism
(类比,相似) similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
This analogy is almost always noted without further comment, although in fact it may be taken further.
anarchy   Speak
/'ænəkɪ/ n. Syn. lawlessness; disorder
(无政府主义) absence of governing body; state of disorder; political disorder and confusion
One might say that eastern Congo is already in anarchy, but Congo has faded from the headlines in recent months.
animus   Speak
/'ænɪməs/ n. Syn. enmity; disposition
(敌意) feeling of enmity or ill will; attitude that informs one's actions; disposition
The animus of the speaker became obvious to all when he began to indulge in sarcastic and insulting remarks.
annals   Speak
/'æn(ə)lz/ n. Syn. records; history
(记录,历史) chronological record of the events of successive years
In the annals of this period, we find no mention of democratic movements.
anonymous   Speak
/ə'nɒnɪməs/ a. Syn. unknown; nameless
(匿名的) having no name; having unknown or unacknowledged name
The buyer, who wished to remain anonymous, is a foreigner with homes in Europe.
anthology   Speak
/æn'θɒlədʒɪ/ n. Syn. collection
(选集) book of literary selections by various authors
This anthology of science fiction was compiled by the late Isaac Asimov.
antithesis   Speak
/æn'tɪθəsɪs/ n. Syn. contrast
(对立面) contrast; direct contrast; opposition
This tyranny was the antithesis of all that he had hoped for, and he fought it with all his strength.
apathetic   Speak
/æpə'θɛtɪk/ a.
(冷漠的,无动于衷的) feeling or showing a lack of interest or concern; indifferent
But he shares Mary's apathetic and listless look: he seems to have more length of limb than vivacity of blood or vigor of brain.
apathy   Speak
/'æpəθɪ/ n. Syn. indifference
(漠不关心) lack of caring; indifference
A firm believer in democratic government, she could not understand the apathy of people who never bothered to vote.
apprehend   Speak
/æprɪ'hɛnd/ v. Syn. arrest; perceive
(逮捕,惧怕,领会) take into custody; arrest a criminal; grasp mentally; perceive
The police will apprehend the culprit and convict him.
apprehensive   Speak
/æprɪ'hɛnsɪv/ a.
(恐惧的,担心的) capable of apprehending; knowing; conscious; relating to the faculty of apprehension; sensible; feeling; perceptive
Here I walked about for a long time, feeling very strange, and mortally apprehensive of some one coming in and kidnapping me.
apprise   Speak
/ə'praɪz/ v. Syn. inform
(告诉) inform; give notice to; make aware
If you apprise him the dangerous weather conditions, he has to postpone his trip.
approbation   Speak
/æprə'beɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. approval
(同意,批准) expression of warm approval; praise
She looked for some sign of approbation from her parents, hoping her good grades would please them.
apt   Speak
/æpt/ a. Syn. appropriate; suitable
(恰当的,贴切的) likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand
The defeated England coach, Bobby Robson, described it as a miracle, which following 'the Hand-of-God' goal seems supremely apt.
aptitude   Speak
/'æptɪtju:d/;/'æptɪtud/ n. Syn. intelligence; talent
(能力,才能) inherent ability; quickness in learning and understanding
The counselor gave him an aptitude test before advising him about the career he should follow.
arbiter   Speak
/'ɑrbɪtə(r)/ n. Syn. judge
(仲裁者) person with power to decide a dispute; judge
As an arbiter in labor disputes, she has won the confidence of the workers and the employers.
archetype   Speak
/'ɑrkɪtaɪp/ n. Syn. prototype
(原形) prototype; original model or type after which other similar things are patterned
The Brooklyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect Manhattan with Long Island and New Jersey.
arid   Speak
/'ærɪd/ a. Syn. dry; barren
(荒芜的) dry; lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or plants
The cactus has adapted to survive in an arid environment.
aristocracy   Speak
/ærɪs'tɒkrəsɪ/ n.
(贵族) hereditary nobility; privileged class
Americans have mixed feelings about hereditary aristocracy.
articulate   Speak
/ɑr'tɪkjʊlət/ a. Syn. effective; distinct
(有效的,清晰的) expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
Her articulate presentation of the advertising campaign impressed her employers.
ascetic   Speak
/ə'sɛtɪk/ a. Syn. austere; severe
(苦行,禁欲) leading a life of self-discipline and self-denial; austere
The wealthy, self-indulgent young man felt oddly drawn to the strict, ascetic life led by members of some monastic orders.
assiduous   Speak
/ə'sɪdjʊəs/;/ə'sɪdʒʊəs/ a. Syn. diligent; persistent
(勤奋) constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing or persistent
He was assiduous, working at this task for weeks before he felt satisfied with his results.
asylum   Speak
/ə'saɪləm/ n. Syn. protection
(庇护所) place of refuge or shelter; protection
The refugees sought asylum from religious persecution in a new land.
atheist   Speak
/'eɪθiɪst/ n. Syn. nonbeliever
(无神论者) nonbeliever; one who denies the existence of god
The view that children are born atheist is relatively recent.
attribute   Speak
/ə'trɪbju:t/ n. Syn. trait
(属性,声望) essential quality; reputation; honor
His outstanding attribute was his kindness.
augment   Speak
/ɔ:g'mɛnt/ v. Syn. increase
(增长) make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
Armies augment their forces by calling up reinforcements.
auspicious   Speak
/ɔ:'spɪʃəs/ a. Syn. propitious
(幸运的,吉祥的) attended by favorable circumstances; marked by success; prosperous
With favorable weather conditions, it was an auspicious moment to set sail.
authentic   Speak
/ɜr'θɛntɪk/ a. Syn. genuine; real; valid; trustworthy
(真的,可靠的,确实的) not counterfeit or copied; valid; trustworthy
It is authentic, genuine, and a true and correct copy of the original.
autocratic   Speak
/ɔtə'krætɪk/ a. Syn. dictatorial
(独裁) having absolute, unchecked power; dictatorial
Someone accustomed to exercising authority may become autocratic if his or her power is unchecked.
avarice   Speak
/'ævərɪs/ n.
(贪婪,贪财) greediness for wealth; insatiable desire of gain
King Midas is a perfect example of avarice, for he was so greedy that he wished everything he touched would turn to gold.
awry   Speak
/ə'raɪ/ ad. Syn. distorted; crooked ; askew; amiss
(扭曲的,歪曲的) in a position that is turned toward one side; away from correct course
He held his head awry, giving the impression that he had caught cold in his neck during the night.
banal   Speak
/bə'nɑrl/;/'beɪnl/ a. Syn. dull; commonplace; trite
(平凡,陈腐,老生常谈) obvious and dull; commonplace; lacking originality
The writer made his comic sketch seem banal, only a few people liked it.
bane   Speak
/beɪn/ n. Syn. curse
(祸根) something causes misery or death; curse; fatal injury or ruin
Lucy's little brother was the bane of her existence: his attempts to make her life miserable worked so well that she could have poisoned him.
banter   Speak
/'bæntə(r)/ n.
(嘲弄,戏谑) good-humored, playful conversation
You bring good diversity to the BombCast because your opinions are varied and present a good contrast to what can sometimes be predictable banter from the guys.
baton   Speak
/'bæt(ə)n/;/bə'tɒn/ n.
(指挥棒,警棍) staff or truncheon for various purposes, as one of a conductor in musical performances, one transferred by runners in a relay race
What's the textbook way to handoff the baton in the relays?
belie   Speak
/bɪ'laɪ/ v. Syn. contradict
(掩饰,造成假象,矛盾) contradict; give a false impression
His coarse, hard-bitten exterior does belie his inner sensitivity.
bellicose   Speak
/'bɛlɪkoʊs/ a. Syn. warlike; belligerent
(好斗的,好战的) warlike or hostile in manner or temperament; showing or having impulse to be combative
His bellicose disposition alienated his friends.
belligerent   Speak
/bɪ'lɪdʒərənt/ a. Syn. quarrelsome; aggressive
(好斗的,好斗嘴的) inclined or eager to fight; aggressive
Whenever he had too much to drink, he became belligerent and tried to pick fights with strangers.
benevolent   Speak
/bɪ'nɛvələnt/ a. Syn. generous; charitable
(慈善的) generous in providing aid to others; charitable
Mr. Fezziwig was a benevolent employer, who wished to make Christmas merrier for young Scrooge and his other employees.
besmirch   Speak
/bɪ'smɜrtʃ/ v.
(弄脏) soil, smear so as to make dirty or stained
The scandalous remarks in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every member of the society.
biased   Speak
/'baɪəs(ɪ)d/ a. Syn. slanted; prejudiced
(偏见的,偏差) favoring one person or side over another; prejudiced
Because the judge played golf regularly with the district attorney's father, we feared he might be biased in the prosecution's favor.
bizarre   Speak
/bɪ'zɑr(r)/ a. Syn. fantastic
(怪异的) fantastic; violently contrasting; strangely unconventional in style or appearance
The plot of the novel was too bizarre to be believed.
bland   Speak
/blænd/ a. Syn. soothing; mild; agreeable
(温和的) lacking stimulating or mild; agreeable
She kept her gaze level and her expression bland, but her teeth were gritted.
blandishment   Speak
/'blændɪʃmənt/ n. Syn. flattery
(阿谀奉承) flattery; speech or action expressive of affection or kindness, and tending to win the heart
Despite the salesperson's blandishment, the customer did not buy the outfit.
blemish   Speak
/'blɛmɪʃ/ v.
(损害,玷污 瑕疵,缺点) mark with deformity; injure or impair, as anything which is excellent; make defective, either the body or mind
A newspaper article alleging he had taken bribes may blemish his reputation.
blight   Speak
/blaɪt/ v.
(阻止生长,使枯萎,毁坏) blast; prevent the growth and fertility of; destroy the happiness of; ruin; frustrate
I wish to foster, not to blight -- to earn gratitude, not to wring tears of blood -- no, nor of brine: my harvest must be in smiles, in endearments, in sweet -- That will do.
blithe   Speak
/blaɪð/ a. Syn. gay; joyous; heedless
(欢乐,高兴) gay; joyous; carefree and lighthearted
Shelley called the skylark a "blithe spirit" because of its happy song.
bombastic   Speak
/bɒm'bæstɪk/ a. Syn. pompous
(夸张的) pompous; using inflated language; high-sounding but with little meaning
The biggest military power on Earth was acting belligerent and its president was indulging in bombastic nationalistic grandstanding.
boorish   Speak
/'bʊərɪʃ/ a. Syn. rude; clumsy; illiterate
(粗鲁,笨拙) rude and clumsy in behavior; ungentlemanly; awkward in manners
Natasha was embarrassed by her fellow spy's boorish behavior.
bucolic   Speak
/bju:'kɒlɪk/ a. Syn. rustic; pastoral
(田园的) rustic; pastoral; agricultural; relating to country affairs, or to shepherd's life and occupation
Filled with browsing cows and bleating sheep, the meadow was a charmingly bucolic sight.
buffoon   Speak
/bʌ'fu:n/ n.
(丑角,缺乏教养之人) one who makes a practice of amusing others by low tricks, antic gestures; droll; mimic; clown
This buffoon is the most self-centered idiot I have ever seen or heard.
bulwark   Speak
/'bʊlwək/ n.
(壁垒) earthwork or other strong defense; person who defends
The navy is our principal bulwark against invasion.
bumptious   Speak
/'bʌmpʃəs/ a.
(盲目自大) offensively self-assertive; liable to give or take offense; forward; pushing
His classmates called him a show-off because of his bumptious airs.
cabal   Speak
/kə'bæl/ n.
(内阁) small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
The number of Republicans who support this man and his cabal is astonishing, but nothing will change the minds of that percentage.
cacophonous   Speak
/kə'kɒfənəs/ a. Syn. discordant; inharmonious
(不和谐) discordant; inharmonious; sounding harshly; ill-sounding
Do the students in the orchestra enjoy the cacophonous sounds they make when they're tuning up? I don't know how they can stand the racket.