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300 TOEFL Writing Vocabulary (2)



cadaverous: Read
/kə'dævərəs/ a. Syn. pale
like corpse; pale; Having appearance or color of dead human body
By his cadaverous appearance, we could see how the disease had ravaged him.

callous: Read
/'kæləs/ a.
emotionally hardened; unfeeling; toughened
He had worked in the hospital for so many years that he was callous to the suffering in the wards.

candid: Read
/'kændɪd/ a. Syn. straightforward; frank
straightforward; frank; free from prejudice; impartial
In private, I gave them my candid opinion.

candor: Read
/kændə(r)/ n. Syn. frankness
frankness; quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech
Jack can carry candor too far: when he told Jill his honest opinion of her, she nearly slapped his face.

cantankerous: Read
/kæn'tæŋkərəs/ a. Syn. irritable
ill humored; irritable; marked by ill-tempered contradiction or opposition; ugly; malicious
Constantly complaining about his treatment and refusing to cooperate with the hospital staff, he was a cantankerous patient.

capricious: Read
/kə'prɪʃəs/ a. Syn. unpredictable; fickle; arbitrary
fickle; impulsive and unpredictable; apt to change opinions suddenly
The storm was capricious: it changed course constantly.

captious: Read
/'kæpʃəs/ a.
intended to confuse in an argument
I resent the way he asked that was captious question.

caricature: Read
/kærɪkə'tjʊə(r)/ n. Syn. distortion; burlesque
representation that is deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic effect
The caricature he drew yesterday emphasized a personal weakness of the people he burlesqued.

castigate: Read
/'kæstɪgeɪt/ v. Syn. punish
criticize severely; punish; revise or make corrections to publication
When the teacher threatened that she would castigate the mischievous boys if they didn't behave, they shaped up in a hurry.

celestial: Read
/sɪ'lɛstɪəl/;/sə'lZstʃl/ a. Syn. heavenly
relating to the sky or the heavens; supremely good; god or angel
She spoke of the celestial joys that awaited virtuous souls in the hereafter.

chauvinist: Read
/'ʃoʊvɪnɪst/ n.
person with prejudiced belief in superiority of own kind
A chauvinist cannot recognize any faults in his country, no matter how flagrant they may be.

chicanery: Read
/ʃɪ'keɪnərɪ/ n. Syn. trickery; deception
mean or unfair artifice to obscure truth; deception by trickery or sophistry
Those sneaky lawyers misrepresented what occurred, made up all sorts of implausible alternative scenarios to confuse the jurors, and in general depended on chicanery to win the case.

chronic: Read
/'krɒnɪk/ a.
lasting for long period; marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases
The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment.

circumspect: Read
/'sɜrkəmspɛkt/ a. Syn. prudent; cautious
carefully aware of all circumstances; cautious
Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.

circumvent: Read
/sɜrkəm'vɛnt/ v. Syn. outwit
surround an enemy; enclose or entrap; beat by cleverness and wit
In order to circumvent the enemy, we will make two preliminary attacks in other sections before starting our major campaign.

civil: Read
/'sɪv(ə)l/ a. Syn. civic
having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite
Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always courteous to suspected tax cheats.

clamorous: Read
/'klæmərəs/ a.
speaking and repeating loud words; full of clamor; calling or demanding loudly or urgently; vociferous; noisy; bawling; loud
He sprung his secret, but the surprise it occasioned was largely counterfeit and not as clamorous and effusive as it might have been under happier circumstances.

clandestine: Read
/klæn'dɛstɪn/ a. Syn. secret
secret; conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.

coalesce: Read
/koʊə'lɛs/ v. Syn. combine; fuse; mix
combine; fuse; grow together; come together so as to form one whole; unite
Through it all, he tries to cling to a trembling grip on reality, as love and pain coalesce into a shocking.

coalition: Read
/koʊə'lɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. partnership; league; union
partnership; league; state of being combined into one body
The Rainbow coalition united people of all races in a common cause.

coercion: Read
/koʊ'ɛrfɛn/ n.
use of force to get someone to obey
The inquisitors used both physical and psychological coercion to force Joan of Arc to deny that her visions were sent by God.

cogent: Read
/'koʊdʒənt/ a. Syn. convincing
reasonable and convincing; based on evidence; forcefully persuasive
It was inevitable that David chose to go to Harvard: he had several cogent reasons for doing so, including a full-tuition scholarship.

collusion: Read
/kə'lu:ʒ(ə)n/ n.
secret agreement for an illegal purpose; conspiracy
They're in collusion with the government and just want a piece of the pie like everyone else.

commodious: Read
/kə'moʊdɪəs/ a.
spacious and comfortable; fit; proper; convenient
After sleeping in small roadside cabins, they found their hotel suite commodious.

compatible: Read
/kəm'pætɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. harmonious
harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
They were compatible neighbors, never quarreling over unimportant matters.

compensation: Read
/kɒmpɛn'seɪʃ(ə)n/ n.
something given or received as payment as for a service or loss or injury
There are an estimated 86000 survivors around the world and almost half of them could be eligible for payments from the compensation fund.

compunction: Read
/kəm'pʌŋkʃ(ə)n/ n.
feeling of deep regret; strong uneasiness caused by a sense of guilt
The judge was especially severe in his sentencing because he felt that the criminal had shown no compunction for his heinous crime.

concede: Read
/kən'si:d/ v. Syn. admit; yield
admit; yield; give up physical control of another
Despite all the evidence Monica had assembled, Mark refused to concede that she was right.

condole: Read
/kən'doʊl/ v. Syn. grieve
grieve; express sympathy; speak sympathetically to one in pain, grief, or misfortune
My hamster died this morning, my friends condole with me and help bury him in the yard.

condolence: Read
/kən'doʊləns/ n.
expression of sympathy with another in sorrow or grief.
The FBI has seized a two-page, handwritten letter of condolence sent by Jacqueline Kennedy to the widow of Robert F. Kennedy shortly after he was assassinated in 1968.

confederate: Read
/kən'fɛdərət/ n. Syn. ally; collaborator
ally; form a group or unite
President Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia, on May 10, and the remaining confederate armies surrendered by June 1865.

congenial: Read
/kən'dʒi:nɪəl/ a. Syn. compatible
compatible
Thus ideas already in consciousness always repel the entry uncompatible idea and make entry of the congenial idea.

conjecture: Read
/kən'dʒɛktʃə(r)/ v.
believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
I can now conjecture readily that this streak of light was, in all likelihood, a gleam from a lantern carried by someone across the lawn.

consensus: Read
/kən'sɛnsəs/ n. Syn. Agreement; accord
general agreement or accord; opinion reached by a group as a whole
The main consensus from the group was to center on students and their parents.

consternation: Read
/kɒnstə'neɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. dismay; shock; fear
intense state of fear or dismay; astonishment combined with terror
One would never think that a hunter would display such consternation when a bear closed to camp.

construction: Read
/kən'strʌkʃ(ə)n/ n.
act of constructing or building something
The work, funded by the European Union, is aimed at finding out exactly how the Lagoon functions before the construction of a Thames-style barrier of steel gates.

consummate: Read
/'kɒnsəmeɪt/ a.
carried to the utmost extent or degree; of the highest quality; complete; perfect
She dealt with the problem with consummate skill.

contemptuous: Read
/kən'tɛmptjʊəs/ a. Syn. scornful
scornful; expressing contempt; showing a lack of respect
The diners were intimidated by contemptuous manner of the waiter.

convivial: Read
/kən'vɪvɪəl/ a. Syn. festive
festive; occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company
The convivial celebrators of the victory sang their college songs.

copious: Read
/'koʊpɪəs/ a. Syn. plentiful
plentiful; containing plenty; affording ample supply
She had copious reasons for rejecting the proposal.

corpulent: Read
/'kɔ:pjʊlənt/ a. Syn. fat
very fat; large in body; overweight
The corpulent man resolved to reduce.

cosmopolitan: Read
/kɒzmə'pɒlɪt(ə)n/ a. Syn. sophisticated
sophisticated; of worldwide scope
Her years in the capitol had transformed her into a cosmopolitan young woman highly aware of international affairs.

coterie: Read
/'koʊtərɪ/ n.
group that meets socially; an exclusive circle of people with common purpose
After his book had been published, he was invited to join the literary coterie that lunched daily at the hotel.

countenance: Read
/'kaʊntɪnəns/ v. Syn. approve; tolerate
give sanction or support to; tolerate or approve
He refused to countenance such rude behavior on their part.

credence: Read
/'kri:dəns/ n. Syn. credit; faith
credit; faith
A letter of credence is a letter sent by one head of state to another formally accrediting a named individual, usually but not always a diplomat.

credible: Read
/'krɛdɪb(ə)l/ a.
capable of being credited or believed; worthy of belief; entitled to confidence; trustworthy
The UN spokesman says the Stabilization Mission will continue to help the electoral commission achieve a credible vote.

credulous: Read
/'krɛdjʊləs/;/'krɛdʒələs/ a.
apt to believe on slight evidence; easily imposed upon; unsuspecting; believed too readily
They are credulous people who believe in the advertisement.

cringe: Read
/krɪndʒ/ v.
shrink or recoil, as in fear, disgust or embarrassment; bend or crouch with base humility
One thing that makes me cringe is seeing politicians from the mainstream parties acting as apologists for voters.

crucial: Read
/'kru:ʃ(ə)l/ a.
of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
The meeting of today is the crucial moment in his career.

cryptic: Read
/'krɪptɪk/ a.
having hidden meaning; mystifying; using code or cipher
Here are a couple of verses written in cryptic rhyme from some of my currently published books.

curb: Read
/kɜrb/ v.
bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain
Paradoxically, Ray's strong-arming may be helping to curb violence in Bangalore.

cursory: Read
/'kɜrsərɪ/ a. Syn. casual
casual; brief or broad; not cautious, nor detailed
Because a cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson, we believe the insurance agency should undertake a more extensive investigation of the fire's cause.

curt: Read
/kɜrt/ a.
having been shortened; effectively cut short; rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
The grouchy shop assistant was curt with one of her customers, which resulted in a reprimand from her manager.

cynical: Read
/'sɪnɪk(ə)l/ a.
skeptical of motives of others; selfishly calculating; negative or pessimistic
What I find sad, and cynical, is that this guy is essentially saying things will not be better by 2012.

dearth: Read
/dɜrθ/ n. Syn. scarcity
scarcity; shortage of food; famine from failure or loss of crops
The dearth of skilled labor compelled the employers to open trade schools.

deference: Read
/'dɛfərəns/ n. Syn. respect
willingness to carry out the wishes of others; great respect
In deference to the minister's request, please do not take photographs during the wedding service.

deity: Read
/'di:ɪtɪ/ n. Syn. god; divinity
god; divinity; supernatural things
The earmarks of such a religion are: faith in a supreme deity, hope of eternal survival, and love, especially of one's fellows.

delectable: Read
/dɪ'lɛktəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. delightful; delicious
delightful; delicious; extremely pleasing to the sense of taste
We thanked our host for a most delectable meal.

delete: Read
/dɪ'li:t/ v. Syn. erase
erase; strike out; remove or make invisible
Less is more: if you delete this paragraph, your whole essay will have greater appeal.

delineate: Read
/dɪ'lɪnɪeɪt/ v. Syn. portray; depict; sketch
portray; depict; draw or trace outline of; sketch out
Using only a few descriptive phrases, you delineate the character of Mr. Collins so well that we can predict his every move.

delinquent: Read
/dɪ'lɪŋkwənt/ a.
failing in duty; offending by neglect of duty.
The couple say their mortgage servicer, CitiMortgage, reported to the credit bureaus that they made partial payments that were delinquent.

deluge: Read
/'dɛlju:dʒ/ n. Syn. flood; rush
great flood; heavy downpour; any overflowing of water
When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications.

demagogue: Read
/'dɛməgɒg/ n.
person who appeals to people's prejudice; false leader of people
He was accused of being a demagogue because he made promises that aroused futile hopes in his listeners.

demeanor: Read
/dɪ'mi:nə(r)/ n. Syn. behavior
conduct; management; way in which a person behaves
It'll be interesting to see what her demeanor is and what kind of witness she is.

demure: Read
/dɪ'mjʊə(r)/ a. Syn. grave; serious
modest and reserved in manner or behavior
She was demure and reserved, a nice modest girl whom any young man would be proud to take home to his mother.

denounce: Read
/dɪ'naʊns/ v. Syn. condemn; criticize; announce
condemn openly; criticize; make known in formal manner
The reform candidate kept to denounce the corrupt city officers for having betrayed the public's trust.

deplete: Read
/dɪ'pli:t/ v. Syn. reduce; exhaust
decrease fullness of; use up or empty out
We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order replacements.

deprecate: Read
/'dɛprɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. belittle
express disapproval of; protest against; belittle
A firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy, Miss Post must deprecate the modern tendency to address new acquaintances by their first names.

depreciate: Read
/dɪ'pri:ʃɪeɪt/ v.
lessen price or value of; think or speak of as being of little worth; belittle
If you neglect this property, it will depreciate.

devastation: Read
/dɛvəs'teɪʃən/ n.
an event that results in total destruction; the state of being decayed or destroyed
Only a few years ago the River Oder on the Polish-German border caused huge amounts of devastation.

devious: Read
/'di:vɪəs/ a.
departing from correct or accepted way; misleading; not straightforward
The story of Byzantine art, though not precisely devious, is not straightforward either.

devoid: Read
/dɪ'vɔɪd/ a. Syn. barren; empty
completely lacking; barren or empty
You may think her mind is a total void, but she's actually not devoid of intelligence. She just sounds like an airhead.

devout: Read
/dɪ'vaʊt/ a. Syn. pious
expressing devotion or piety; earnest in religious field
Where he is described as a devout man who feared God with all his household, gave charity to the people, and prayed continually to God.

dilemma: Read
/daɪ'lɛmə/ n. Syn. predicament
predicament; state of uncertainty or between equally unfavorable options
It could create a painful dilemma for the group's members: either accept a lower price or give up additional production quotas they have just given themselves.

disconcert: Read
/dɪskən'sɜrt/ v. Syn. confuse; upset; embarrass
confuse; frustrate by throwing into disorder; embarrass
The evidence produced by her adversary does disconcert the lawyer.

disconsolate: Read
/dɪs'kɒnsələt/ a. Syn. sad
sad; cheerless; gloomy; hopeless or not expecting
The death of his wife left him disconsolate.

discourse: Read
/'dɪskɔ:s/ n. Syn. conversation
formal, lengthy discussion of a subject; verbal exchange; conversation
The young Plato was drawn to the Agora to hear the philosophical discourse of Socrates and his followers.

discrete: Read
/dɪ'skri:t/ a. Syn. separate; distinct
separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
The universe is composed of discrete bodies.

discursive: Read
/dɪ'skɜrsɪv/ a.
tending to depart from main point or cover a wide range of subjects
As the lecturer wandered from topic to topic, we wondered what if any point there was to his discursive remarks.