sprawling a. spreading out over a large area in an untidy or irregular waysnake v. move or extend with the twisting motion
If the Earth’s oceans were drained completely, they would reveal a massive chain of undersea volcanoes snaking around the planet, a sprawling ocean ridge system.
stigma n. a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or personuplift v. raise the level of; improve
It took achieving the highest grades for him to break through stigmas and have his talents recognized; still, he persevered, with a determination to uplift others.
compelling a. demanding attention; forcefulalleviate v. make (suffering, deficiency, or a problem) less severe
During one debate, after both sides made compelling arguments about how to alleviate poverty, he realized there was no clear winner.
underrepresent v. provide with insufficient or inadequate representationtenure n. the holding of an office
Women and people of color remain underrepresented at every step of the tenure track in every academic field in the United States.
biennale n. a large art exhibition or music festival, especially one held every two yearstackle v. make determined efforts to deal with
This summer, the Venice Biennale’s 17th International Architecture Exhibition, the world’s premier event of its kind, is directly tackling those types of issues.
light n. public knowledge; a particular aspect or appearance presented to viewrampant a. flourishing or spreading unchecked
By many lights, these are challenging times: the Covid-19 pandemic, the climate crisis, and rampant political polarization have all contributed to a sense of outright turmoil.
homage n. special honor or respect shown publiclyparody n. an imitation of the style of an artist or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect
Green’s debut novel is an homage to, and parody of, the historically male-dominated genre of the road novel.
entail v. involve something as a necessary or inevitable part or consequenceoverrun n. a finishing time or a cost that continues past an intended limit
Deploying these nuclear batteries does not entail managing a large construction site, which has been the primary source of schedule delays and cost overruns for nuclear projects.
give way to v. be replaced by something, especially because it is better, cheaper, easierautonomous a. having the freedom to govern itself or control its own affairs
Like large and centralized computers gave way to the PCs of today, a new generation of relatively tiny reactors, designed for autonomous plug-and-play operation is on the horizon.
embody v. tangible or visible form toresidual a. remaining after the greater part or quantity has gone
All objects embody some sort of motion as a result of the many interactions that atoms have; when an object is cooled down close to zero temperature, it still has a residual quantum motion.
magnitude n. the great size or extent of somethingcounteract v. reduce or remove the effect of something unwanted by producing an opposite effect
If scientists can precisely measure the magnitude and direction of an atom’s movements, they can apply a counteracting force to bring down its temperature.
savor v. enjoy food or an experience slowly, in order to enjoy it as much as possiblemiss out on v. lose the chance or opportunity to do or experience something