In GRE verbal reasoning we may see some very uncommon sentences: long, difficult to understand, and even weird in structure. The difficult sentences are special in GRE test. As a matter of fact, you hardly read them in other English tests, neither in daily living.
However, if you are preparing your GRE test, you cannot ignore them. They are extremely important in GRE test, not only in verbal reasoning, sometimes also in quantitative reasoning.
Someone may tell your GRE reading materials are selected from academic magazines. It's half true. The paper probably is from that sort of source, but it has been re-written for the test. The difficult sentences, which usually are designed to examine verbal reasoning, are revised especially; and you hardly see same style sentences in original sources.
Where do we get long sentences to exercise for GRE test? Neither academic papers, nor magazines. The best objects are at GRE test papers, from which we collect 50 real GRE-style long difficult sentences and list below. To familiarize with them is a short cut to prepare GRE verbal reasoning test.
Long and Difficult Sentences
1 That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted.
2 A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give away abruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower.
3 Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics，since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness.
4 As she put it in The Common Reader , “It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote ; and yet , as we read him , we are absorbing morality at every pore .”
5 Such variations in size， shape，chemistry， conduction speed， excitation threshold，and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.
6 It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types ; however , proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences , which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits .
7 Thus，for instance，it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom，but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin，magnetic dipole，and relativistic effects；and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations.
8 The physicist rightly dreads precise argument，since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed，whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.
9 As my own studies have advanced，I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem，at first glance，to constitute such an immense gulf between them.
10 In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer’s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism ; does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted , a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression ?
11 Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the “details” versus “constraints” distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior?
12 Perhaps the fact many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on , led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.
13 Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers.
14 It can be inferred from the passage that a historian who wished to compare crime rates per thousand in a European city in one decade of the fifteenth century with crime rates in another decade of that century would probably be most aided by better information about which of the following?
15 Even the requirement that biomaterials processed from these materials be nontoxic to host tissue can be met by techniques derived from studying the reactions of tissue cultures to biomaterials or from short-term implants.
16 Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law—notwithstanding，of course，a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned—that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena.
17 One such novel idea is that (idea) of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants’ natural constitution：specifically，the idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes，if they can be identified and isolated，that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hence，(there is ) the intensified research on legumes.
18 Its subject（to use Maynard Mack’s categories）is "life-as-spectacle，" for readers， diverted by its various incidents，observe its hero Odysseus primarily from without；the tragic Iliad，however，presents "life-as-experience"：readers are asked to identify with the mind of Achilles，whose motivations render him a not particularly likable hero.
19 The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands，islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle，are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system， whose source，most geologists contend，is the upper mantle.
20 Some geologists，however，on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths， argue that the mantle is not layered，but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" （elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state）percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly，according to the vagaries of the fluids’ pathways.
21 Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuve’s blindness to the real nature of great writing , found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments ,and allowed these to take over it a steadily developing novel.
22 The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels，from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings， made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently.
23 Now we must also examine the culture as we Mexican Americans have experienced it , passing from a sovereign people to compatriots with newly arriving settlers to , finally ，a conquered people – a charter minority on our own land.
24 There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need，or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging.
25 Many critics of Family Bronte’s novel Wuthering Heights see its second part as a counterpoint that comments on，if it does not reverse，the first part，where a "romantic" reading receives more confirmation.
26 This is not because such an interpretation necessarily stiffens into a thesis（although rigidity in any interpretation of this or of any novel is always a danger），but because Wuthering Heights has recalcitrant elements of undeniable power that，ultimately，resist inclusion in an all-encompassing interpretation.
27 Portrayals of the folk of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, whom he remembers from early childhood, of the jazz musicians and tenement roofs of his Harlem days, of Pittsburgh steelworkers, and his reconstruction of classical Greek myths in the guise of the ancient Black kingdom of Benin, attest to this.
28 Apparently most massive stars manage to lose sufficient material that their masses drop below the critical value of 1.4 M before they exhaust their nuclear fuel.
29 This is so even though armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work.
30 An impact (on the Mars) capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon’s smaller size and closer proximity to Earth.
31 Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are transported over long distances are enormous，wind pollinated plants have，in the view above，compensated for the ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects.
32 For example，the spiral arrangement of scale-bract complexes on ovule-bearing pine cones，where the female reproductive organs of conifers are located，is important to the production of airflow patterns that spiral over the cone’s surfaces，thereby passing airborne pollen from one scale to the next.
33 It was not the change in office technology，but rather the separation of secretarial work， previously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managers，from administrative work that in the 1880’s created a new class of "dead-end" jobs，thenceforth considered "women’s work."
34 The increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with the mechanization of housework and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool of single women workers，previously，in many cases，the only women employers would hire.
35 In order to understand the nature of the ecologist’s investigation，we may think of the density-dependent effects on growth parameters as the "signal" ecologists are trying to isolate and interpret，one that tends to make the population increase from relatively low values or decrease from relatively high ones，while the density-independent effects act to produce "noise" in the population dynamics.
36 But the play’s complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois’ famous，well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity，or Fanon’s emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.
37 Despite these vague categories，one should not claim unequivocally that hostility between recognizable classes cannot be legitimately observed.
38 Yet those who stress the achievement of a general consensus among the colonists cannot fully understand that consensus without understanding the conflicts that had to be overcome or repressed in order to reach it.
39 It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding socioeconomic class and support for the rebel and Loyalist causes during the American Revolutionary War？
40 She wished to discard the traditional methods and established vocabularies of such dance forms as ballet and to explore the internal sources of human expressiveness.
41 Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufactures and servicing trades thought their customers wanted，only a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what.
42 Such philosophical concerns as the mind-body problem or，more generally，the nature of human knowledge they believe，are basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested.
43 They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics.
44 For the woman who is a practitioner of feminist literary criticism, the subjectivity versus objectivity, or critic-as-artist-or-scientist, debate has special significance; for her, the question is not only academic, but political as well, and her definition will court special risks whichever side of the issue it favors.
45 These questions are political in the sense that the debate over them will inevitably be less an exploration of abstract matters in a spirit of disinterested inquiry than an academic power struggle in which the careers and professional fortunes of many women scholars-only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers-will be at stake，and with them the chances for a distinctive contribution to humanistic understanding，a contribution that might be an important influence against sexism in our society.
46 However, some broods possess a few snails of the opposing hand, and in predominantly sinistral broods, the incidence of dextrality is surprisingly high.
47 Calculations of the density of alloys based on Bernal-type models of the alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloid，such as alloys of palladium and silicon，or alloys consisting of iron，phosphorus，and carbon，although small discrepancies remained.
48 Is it not tyrannical, in Pascal’s sense, to insist that those who excel in “sensitivity” or “the ability to express compassion” merit equal wealth with those who excel in qualities (such as “the capacity for hard work”) essential in producing wealth?
49 Yet Waizer’s argument，however deficient，does point to one of the most serious weak- nesses of capitalism-namely，that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who，no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards，often lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration.
50 Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants that might characterize it in the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization.
51 As a consequence, it may prove difficult or impossible to establish for a successful revolution a comprehensive and trustworthy picture of those who participated, or to answer even the most basic questions one might pose concerning the social origins of the insurgents.
52 This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other，nonracial forms of discrimination，for while some justices have refused to find，any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored，most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations. sexual Discrimination in particular， are "suspect" and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts.
53 Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.