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Barrons GRE Vocabulary List 4

champion: protect or fight for as first place
E.g.Martin Luther King, Jr., they believe he could champion the oppressed in their struggle for equality.

championship: status of being a champion; position or title of a winner
E.g.Winning a championship is about more than having the best team.

chant: utter with a melodious voice; celebrate in song; make melody with the voice
E.g.They began to chant the hero's deeds after his speech.

chaotic: in utter disorder; lacking visible order or organization
E.g.He tried to bring order into the chaotic state of affairs.

chapel: place of worship that is smaller than and subordinate to a church; service conducted in a chapel
E.g.Slightly smaller than the shrine, the chapel is also a domed structure cruciform in plan.

chaperon: person, especially an older or married woman, who accompanies a young unmarried woman in public; a guide or companion to assist activity
E.g.His wife does not speak on her own in public, she says only what she is told what to say, and she had to have chaperon in her interview.

charisma: divine gift; great popular charm or appeal of political leader
E.g.Political commentators have deplored the importance of a candidate's charisma in these days of television campaigning.

charlatan: quack; one who pretends to knowledge, skill, or importance
E.g.When they realized that the Wizard didn't know how to get them back to Kansas, Dorothy and her companions were indignant that they'd been duped by a charlatan.

charm: power or quality of pleasing or delighting; attractiveness; item worn for its supposed magical benefit
E.g.Her spirit and charm is going to be a great lesson to all young women and teens

chary: cautious; sparing or restrained about giving
E.g.A prudent, thrifty, New Englander, DeWitt was as chary of investing money in junk bonds.

chase: pursue for the purpose of killing or taking; hunt; follow as if to catch
E.g.He saw the policeman chase the mugger down the alley.

chasm: deep opening in the earth surface
E.g.They could not see the bottom of the chasm.

chassis: rectangular frame attached working parts, as of automobile
E.g.Examining the car after the accident, the owner discovered that the body had been ruined but that the chassis was unharmed.

chaste: morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
E.g.If, however, he remarried or did not remain chaste, the money would pass to her mother.

chasten: rid of excess; refine or purify; correct by punishment or reproof
E.g.But we're not writing to chasten you today, we're writing to thank you.

chastise: punish, as by beating; criticize severely; rebuke
E.g.I must chastise you for this offense.

chauvinist: person with prejudiced belief in superiority of own kind
E.g.A chauvinist cannot recognize any faults in his country, no matter how flagrant they may be.

check: stop motion; curb or restrain
E.g."Young man," she said, "you'd better check your temper.".

checkered: divided into squares; diversified in color; marked by great changes or shifts in fortune
E.g.During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary boarding houses.

cherubic: angelic; innocent-looking; like a baby; infantile
E.g.With her cheerful smile and rosy cheeks, she was a particularly cherubic child.

chicanery: mean or unfair artifice to obscure truth; deception by trickery or sophistry
E.g.Those sneaky lawyers misrepresented what occurred, made up all sorts of implausible alternative scenarios to confuse the jurors, and in general depended on chicanery to win the case.

chide: scold mildly so as to correct or improve; express disapproval
E.g.Grandma began to chide Steven for his lying.

chimerical: fantastically improbable; highly unrealistic; imaginative
E.g.As everyone expected, Ted's chimerical scheme to make a fortune by raising ermines in his back yard proved a dismal failure.

chip: cut small pieces from; diminish or reduce to shape; break or crack
E.g.The snow stopped and they began to chip ice from the windows.

chisel: practice trickery or fraud; cheat
E.g.That crook wanted to chisel me out of a hundred dollars when he sold me that "marble" statue he'd cut out of some cheap hunk of rock.

chivalrous: having qualities of ideal knight; faithful; brave
E.g.Toward his royal captive he behaved in chivalrous fashion.

choir: band or organized company of singers, especially in church service
E.g.TSome people will say that being in choir is lots of involvement because you have both rehearsals and services, which is true.

choleric: hot-tempered; easily angered; bad-tempered; expressing anger
E.g.His flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature.

chore: a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee
E.g.This chore duty is an extension of the laundry duty.

choreography: art of representing dances in written symbols; arrangement of dances
E.g.Merce Cunningham has begun to use a computer in designing choreography. A software program allows him to compose arrangements of possible moves and immediately view them onscreen.

chortle: chuckle with delight; joyful laugh or chuckle; laugh quietly or with restraint
E.g.When she heard that her rival had just been jailed for embezzlement, we saw her chortle with joy. She was not a nice lady.

chorus: any utterance produced simultaneously by a group
E.g.'But who is to give the prizes?' quite a chorus of voices asked.

chronic: lasting for long period; marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases
E.g.The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment.

chronicle: report or record in chronological order
E.g.The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the socially prominent celebrities.

chuckle: call, as a hen to her chickens; fondle; cocker; laugh in a suppressed or broken manner
E.g.I could hear him chuckle to himself as he read that funny article.

churlish: difficult to work with; rude; unyielding; unmanageable
E.g.Dismayed by his churlish behaviors at the party, the girls vowed never to invite him again.

cipher: secret code; an Arabic numeral or figure; a number
E.g.Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher.

circuit: electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
E.g.But, on rare occasions, microscopic metal particles can lead to a short circuit within the cell, causing overheating and potentially flames.

circuitous: being or taking a roundabout, lengthy course; going round in a circuit; not direct
E.g.To avoid the traffic congestion on the main highways, she took a circuitous route.

circumlocution: indirect or roundabout expression; evasion in speech or writing
E.g.He was afraid to call a spade a spade and resorted to circumlocution to avoid direct reference to his subject.

circumscribe: limit narrowly; confine; draw a line around; encircle
E.g.Although I do not wish to circumscribe your activities, I must insist that you complete this assignment before you start anything else.

circumspect: carefully aware of all circumstances; cautious
E.g.Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.

circumvent: surround an enemy; enclose or entrap; beat by cleverness and wit
E.g.In order to circumvent the enemy, we will make two preliminary attacks in other sections before starting our major campaign.

cistern: reservoir or water tank; vessel to hold water for household uses
E.g.The farmers were able to withstand the dry season by using rainwater they had stored in an underground cistern.

citadel: fortress; fortified place which people could go for shelter during battle
E.g.The citadel overlooked the city like a protecting angel.

cite: quote; adduce as an instance
E.g.She could cite passages in the Bible from memory.

civil: having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite
E.g.Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always courteous to suspected tax cheats.

clairvoyant: having foresight; fortuneteller
E.g.Cassandra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans.

clamber: climb with difficulty, especially on all fours; climb by crawling
E.g.Harry manages to clamber over the wall and tries to swim ashore.

clamor: noise; loud outcry; expression of discontent or protest
E.g.The clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to take a nap.

clandestine: secret; conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
E.g.After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.

clangor: loud, resounding noise; sharp, metallic, ringing sound; resonant, clanging sound
E.g.The blacksmith was accustomed to the clangor of hammers on steel.

clap: applaud; slap; strike together with a sharp sound, as one hard surface on another
E.g."Fairfax will smile you a calm welcome, to be sure," said I; "and little Adele will clap her hands and jump to see you: but you know very well you are thinking of another than they, and that he is not thinking of you."

clapper: metal striker that hangs inside bell and makes sound by hitting side; someone who applauds
E.g.Wishing to be undisturbed by the bell, Dale wound his scarf around the clapper to muffle the noise of its striking.

clasp: fastening device; firm grip
E.g.When the clasp on Judy's bracelet broke, Fred repaired it, bending the hook back into shape.

claustrophobia: abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
E.g.His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lock him in his room.

cleave: split with or as if with a sharp instrument; pierce or penetrate; remain faithful to
E.g.Julia Child can cleave a whole roast duck in two.

cleft: crack or crevice; a split or indentation between two parts, as of the chin
E.g.Trying for a fresh handhold, the mountain climber grasped the edge of a cleft in the sheer rock face.

clemency: mildness, as of the weather; merciful, kind, or lenient act
E.g.The lawyer was pleased when the case was sent to Judge Smith's chambers because Smith was noted for her clemency toward first offenders.

clientele: clients of professional person; body of customers or patrons
E.g.Her clientele is a little bit different than the average movie store, because most of her customers only have a limited interest in film due to busy schedules.

climactic: relating to the highest point; ascending or leading to climax
E.g.When he reached the climactic portions of the book, he could not stop reading.

clime: region; climate; particular region as defined by its weather or climate
E.g.His doctor advised him to move to a milder clime.

clip: small section of filmed or filed material
E.g.Phil's job at Fox Sports involved selecting the most important clip of the day's sporting highlights for later broadcast.

clique: small exclusive group of friends or associates
E.g.Fitzgerald wished that he belonged to the clique of popular athletes and big men on campus.

cloister: place, especially a monastery or convent, devoted to religious seclusion; secluded, quiet place
E.g.The nuns lived a secluded life in the cloister.

clot: thick, viscous, or coagulated mass or lump, as of blood; compact group
E.g.You can see a clot of automobiles blocking the tunnel's entrance.

clout: blow, especially with fist; great influence, especially political or social
E.g.But then again, the new administration's foreign policy clout is yet to be truly tested.

cloying: distasteful because excessive; excessively sweet or sentimental
E.g.Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom chose to have homemade carrot cake at the reception.

coagulate: cause transformation of liquid into or as if into soft, semisolid, or solid mass
E.g.Even after you remove the pudding from the burner, it will continue to coagulate as it stands; therefore, do not overcook the pudding, lest it become too thick.

coalesce: combine; fuse; grow together; come together so as to form one whole; unite
E.g.Through it all, he tries to cling to a trembling grip on reality, as love and pain coalesce into a shocking.

coalition: partnership; league; state of being combined into one body
E.g.The Rainbow coalition united people of all races in a common cause.

coax: persuade or try to persuade by pleading or flattery; move to or adjust toward a desired end
E.g.Whenever the famished great girls had an opportunity, they would coax or menace the little ones out of their portion.

coddle: treat gently; cook in water just below boiling point
E.g.Don't coddle the children so much; they need a taste of discipline.

codicil: supplement or appendix, especially to a will
E.g.Miss Havisham kept her lawyers busy drawing up another codicil to add to her already complicated will.

codify: arrange laws, rules as a code; classify; arrange or systematize
E.g.We need to take the varying rules and regulations of the different health agencies and codify them into a national health code.

coercion: use of force to get someone to obey
E.g.The inquisitors used both physical and psychological coercion to force Joan of Arc to deny that her visions were sent by God.

cogent: reasonable and convincing; based on evidence; forcefully persuasive
E.g.It was inevitable that David chose to go to Harvard: he had several cogent reasons for doing so, including a full-tuition scholarship.

cogitate: think earnestly or studiously; meditate; ponder; think deeply
E.g.Cogitate on this problem; the solution will come.

cognate: related by blood; having common ancestor; related or analogous in nature, character, or function
E.g.The English word "mother" is cognate to the Latin word "mater," whose influence is visible in the words "maternal" and "maternity.".

cognitive: knowing or perceiving; part of mental functions that deals with logic
E.g.Though Jack was emotionally immature, his cognitive development was admirable; he was very advanced intellectually.

cognizance: knowledge or recognition; awareness; range of what one can know or understand
E.g.During the election campaign, the two candidates were kept in full cognizance of the international situation.

cohere: stick or hold together in a mass that resists separation
E.g.Solids have a greater tendency to cohere than liquids.

cohesion: tendency to keep together
E.g.A firm believer in the maxim "Divide and conquer," the evil emperor sought to disrupt the cohesion of the federation of free nations.

coiffure: hairstyle; head-dress; manner of arranging or dressing hair
E.g.You can make a statement with your choice of coiffure: in the sixties many African Americans affirmed their racial heritage by wearing their hair in Afros.

coin: make pieces of money from metal; invent or fabricate
E.g.Slanderers coin nasty rumors.

coincidence: two or more things occurring at the same time by chance
E.g.Was it just a coincidence that John and she had chanced to meet at the market, or was he deliberately trying to seek her out?

colander: bowl-shaped strainer, used to wash or drain foods
E.g.Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.

collaborate: work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
E.g.The easy way to collaborate is to pay attention to the small things in life.

collage: work of art put together from fragments
E.g.Scraps of cloth, paper doilies, and old photographs all went into her collage.

collate: examine in order to verify authenticity; arrange in order
E.g.They will collate the newly found manuscripts to determine their age.

collateral: security pledged for repayment of loan
E.g.The sum you wish to borrow is so large that it must be secured by collateral.

colloquial: of informal spoken language or conversation; conversational or chatty
E.g.He might have to explain colloquial English to her, but he did not have to explain the intangibles of their lives and work.

collusion: secret agreement for an illegal purpose; conspiracy
E.g.They're in collusion with the government and just want a piece of the pie like everyone else.

colossal: of extraordinary size; huge; gigantic
E.g.Radio City Music Hall has a colossal stage.

coma: state of profound insensibility from which it is difficult or impossible to rouse a person
E.g.A person in a coma is alive, but unconscious.

comatose: in coma; extremely sleepy; unconscious
E.g.We would expect a reasonable adult, if a kid is in comatose, to call an ambulance.

combustible: capable of igniting and burning; easily aroused or excited
E.g.After the recent outbreak of fires in private homes, the fire commissioner ordered that all combustible materials be kept in safe containers.

comely: pleasing or attractive to the eye; handsome; graceful
E.g.I would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one.

comeuppance: rebuke; punishment or retribution that one deserves; outcome which is justly deserved
E.g.After his earlier rudeness, we were delighted to see him get his comeuppance.

commandeer: force into military service; take for public use; seize for military use; take arbitrarily or by force
E.g.The policeman had to commandeer the first car that approached and ordered the driver to go to the nearest hospital.

commemorate: serve as a memorial to; honor the memory of with a ceremony
E.g.The story of Fairchild that Mr. Moore was helping to commemorate is well-known in Silicon Valley.

commensurate: of the same size, extent, or duration as another
E.g.Your reward will be commensurate with your effort.

commiserate: feel or express pity or sympathy for
E.g.Her friends commiserate with the widow.

commodious: spacious and comfortable; fit; proper; convenient
E.g.After sleeping in small roadside cabins, they found their hotel suite commodious.

commonplace: ordinary; having no remarkable features
E.g.We think the key to making this stuff more commonplace is keeping it affordable for everyone.

communal: held in common; of a group of people
E.g.When they were divorced, they had trouble dividing their communal property.

compact: closely and firmly united or packed together; briefly giving gist of something
E.g.His short, compact body was better suited to wrestling than to basketball.

compartment: one of parts or spaces into which an area is subdivided; separate room, section, or chamber
E.g.It also had hints for making snow forts, including "make sure to include an icy compartment to store your vodka."

compassion: sensation of sorrow excited by the distress or misfortunes of another; pity; commiseration
E.g.Many men were moved, and many women's compassion testified itself in tears.

compatible: harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
E.g.They were compatible neighbors, never quarreling over unimportant matters.

compensatory: serving to compensate or as compensation; making amends; repaying
E.g.Can a compensatory education program make up for the inadequate schooling he received in earlier years?

compile: put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
E.g.We planned to compile a list of the words most frequently used on these examinations.

complacency: feeling of contented self-satisfaction, especially when unaware of upcoming trouble
E.g.Your vague assurances are as meaningless as your obvious complacency.

complaisant: trying to please; showing cheerful willingness to do favors for others
E.g.The courtier obeyed the king's orders in a complaisant manner.

complement: complete; consummate; make perfect
E.g.The waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese.

complementary: serving to fill out or to complete; supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks
E.g.John and Lisa's skills are complementary; he's good at following a daily routine, while she's great at handling emergencies.

compliance: readiness to yield; happy friendly agreement
E.g.Bullheaded Bill was not noted for easy compliance with the demands of others.

compliant: yielding to request or desire; ready to accommodate; disposed or willing to comply
E.g.Because Joel usually gave in and went along with whatever his friends desired, his mother worried that he might be too compliant.

complicity: participation; involvement as partner or accomplice, especially in crime or other wrongdoing
E.g.You cannot keep your complicity in this affair secret very long; you would be wise to admit your involvement immediately.

component: element; ingredient; abstract part of something
E.g.I wish this component like all others of my stereo system is working at the same time.

composure: mental calmness; calm or tranquil state of mind
E.g.Even the latest work crisis failed to shake her composure.

compound: combine; mix; constitute; pay interest; increase
E.g.The makers compound the ingredients by design.

comprehensive: thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope
E.g.Mr. Skubel has since completed what he describes as a comprehensive two-week training program and is now setting up his franchise in his hometown.

compress: close; squeeze or press together; contract
E.g.She has to compress the package under her arm.

comprise: include; consist of; be composed of
E.g.If the District of Columbia were to be granted statehood, the United States of America would comprise fifty-one states, not just fifty.

compulsion: act of compelling, or the state of being compelled; act of driving or urging by force or by physical or moral constraint
E.g.I will pay nothing under compulsion.

compulsive: having power to compel; exercising or applying compulsion.
E.g.There were hundreds of warrior-robots of various sizes walking about, waving arms and rods, having no tasks to do, but in compulsive, meaningless motion.

compulsory: mandatory; obligatory; required by rule
E.g.In 2004 Britain introduced a compulsory citizenship ceremony which required new citizens to take a broader oath promising to respect Britain's rights, freedoms and laws.

compunction: feeling of deep regret; strong uneasiness caused by a sense of guilt
E.g.The judge was especially severe in his sentencing because he felt that the criminal had shown no compunction for his heinous crime.

compute: reckon; make mathematical calculation
E.g.He failed to compute the interest, so his bank balance was not accurate.

concave: hollow; curved like inner surface of sphere
E.g.The back-packers found partial shelter from the storm by huddling against the concave wall of the cliff.

concede: admit; yield; give up physical control of another
E.g.Despite all the evidence Monica had assembled, Mark refused to concede that she was right.

concentric: having a common center, circles of different size, one within another
E.g.The target was made of concentric circles.

conception: beginning; forming of an idea; act of conceiving
E.g.At the first conception of the work, he was consulted.

concerted: planned or accomplished together; combined
E.g.All the Girl Scouts made a concerted effort to raise funds for their annual outing.

concession: act of yielding; point yielded; acknowledgment or admission
E.g.Before they could reach an agreement, both sides had to make own concession.

conciliatory: making or willing to yield, or to make concessions
E.g.She was still angry despite his conciliatory words.

concise: brief and compact; expressing much in few words
E.g.When you define a new word, be concise: the shorter the definition, the easier it is to remember.

conclusive: definitive; decisive; final
E.g.If conclusive proof exists, however, Bush hasn't revealed it.

concoct: digest; convert into nourishment by the organs of nutrition.
E.g.It really does make you look rather stupid and like you're trying to concoct something where nothing exists.

concomitant: in conjunction with; accompanying; associated with
E.g.These two-sided attributes are known as concomitant characteristics.

concord: agreement of opinions; harmonious state of things
E.g.The sisters are now in concord about the car they had to share.

concurrent: simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
E.g.The Winter War fought between Finland and the Soviet Union, was a concurrent war to World War II, and thus is covered in its own main article.

condescend: stoop or descend; let one's self down; submit; waive the privilege of rank or dignity
E.g.You continue to condescend without addressing the main points.

condole: grieve; express sympathy; speak sympathetically to one in pain, grief, or misfortune
E.g.My hamster died this morning, my friends condole with me and help bury him in the yard.

confide: disclose; reveal; tell in confidence
E.g.I rely implicitly on His power, and confide wholly in His goodness.

confidential: treated with confidence; trusted in; trustworthy; secret
E.g.He has been on confidential missions to Berlin; all of us don't know his secret trip.

confine: restrict in movement; circumscribe
E.g.You may take the maniac with you to England; confine her with due attendance and precautions at Thornfield.

confiscate: seize as forfeited to the public treasury; appropriate to the public use
E.g.If you are caught smuggling goods into the country, government will probably confiscate your goods.

conflagration: large destructive fire; burning; large-scale military conflict
E.g.After the conflagration had finally died down, the city center was nothing but a mass of blackened embers.

confluence: act of two things flowing together; junction or meeting place where two things meet
E.g.At the political meeting, while planning a demonstration, there was a moving confluence of ideas between members.

conformity: similarity in form or character; agreement
E.g.Their actions were in conformity with their declared intentions.

confound: cause to become confused or perplexed; fail to distinguish; mix up
E.g.I developed an elaborate color scheme to help us pluck just the right card at that special moment to confound the opposing pair of debaters.

congenital: present at birth; inborn; innate
E.g.A congenital heart defect is a problem with the structure of the heart.

conglomerate: corporation made up of different companies in diversified fields; composing of heterogeneous elements gathered into a mass
E.g.Gannett, the nation's most predatory newspaper conglomerate, is still trying to take over the rack distribution business.

congruent: possessing congruity; suitable; agreeing; corresponding
E.g.I would have definitely given the film more marks were it something more congruent with my tastes.

conifer: any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones
E.g.More than two-thirds of Canada’s forest land consists of conifer forests – cone-bearing and usually evergreen trees that are used for softwood.

conjecture: believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
E.g.I can now conjecture readily that this streak of light was, in all likelihood, a gleam from a lantern carried by someone across the lawn.

conjugal: belonging to marriage; suitable or appropriate to the marriage state or to married persons; matrimonial
E.g.I shall show the higher part intellect plays in conjugal love, the control, restraint, forbearance, sacrifice.

conjure: call on or summon by sacred name or in solemn manner; implore earnestly; practice magical arts
E.g.The magician will conjure a rabbit out of his hat.

connoisseur: specialist; person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts
E.g.A literature professor by training and a self-taught art connoisseur, Charles Ryskamp served three decades as director first of the Pierpont Morgan Library.

conscientious: diligent; responsible; reliable
E.g.He deferred his departure a whole week, and during that time he made me feel what severe punishment a good yet stern, a conscientious yet implacable man can inflict on one who has offended him.

consensus: general agreement or accord; opinion reached by a group as a whole
E.g.The main consensus from the group was to center on students and their parents.

consign: give, transfer, or deliver in a formal manner, as if by signing over into the possession of another
E.g.Perhaps it would be better to consign it to a place where others may not so readily gain access to it.

consistency: harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts
E.g.Accuracy and consistency is far more important to me than just speed.

console: cheer from distress or depression; alleviate grief and raise spirits of; relieve; comfort
E.g.With him I was at perfect ease, because I knew I suited him; all I said or did seemed either to console or revive him.

consonant: compatible; harmonious
E.g.New consonant music and postmodern music for contemporary composers and performers.

consort: associate; join
E.g.Mikhail Gorbachev was the rising star of the Politburo, she, a politically aware consort with a doctorate of her own in Marxist philosophy.

conspiracy: plot; intrigue; agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act
E.g.Information minister Jerry Gana released a statement in which he says there has been an international media conspiracy against Nigeria.

conspire: make a secret agreement, to do some act, as to commit treason or a crime, or to do some unlawful deed; plot together
E.g.A group of men were charged to conspire against the duly elected government.

consternation: intense state of fear or dismay; astonishment combined with terror
E.g.One would never think that a hunter would display such consternation when a bear closed to camp.

constituent: component or part; citizen, voter
E.g.A machine will not function properly if any constituent of it is defective.

constitution: law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; the act of forming something
E.g.President Putin said Britain knew Russia's constitution prohibits such an extradition.

constraint: something that restricts or confines within prescribed bounds
E.g.Given the budget constraint, it was impossible to accomplish my goals.

consummate: carried to the utmost extent or degree; of the highest quality; complete; perfect
E.g.She dealt with the problem with consummate skill.

contaminate: make impure or unclean by contact or mixture; pollute; defile
E.g.Compact fluorescent light bulbs contaminate the environment with 30000 pounds of mercury each year.

contempt: state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of
E.g.The poor fools, who hold science in contempt, have no ability to realize that science proves them wrong at every turn.

contend: strive in opposition; contest; dispute; struggle for
E.g.John has to contend with great difficulties in coming IELTS test.

contention: competing as for profit or prize
E.g.The teams were in fierce contention for first place.

contentious: quarrelsome; disagreeable; marked by heated arguments or controversy
E.g.The contentious gentleman in the bar ridiculed anything anyone said.

contest: contend for; call in question; oppose; dispute
E.g.The lawyer decided to contest the claim, and tried to prove that it was false.

context: circumstance
E.g.Last week the Italian Prime Minister apologized to parliament in Rome for his alleged remarks about the superiority of western culture over that of Islam, claiming his words had been taken out of context.

contiguous: sharing an edge or boundary; touching; neighboring
E.g.The two houses had contiguous yards so the families shared the landscaping expenses.

continence: self control; self restraint; partial or complete abstention from sexual activity
E.g.Lucy exhibited impressive continence in steering clear of fattening foods, and she lost 50 pounds.

contingent: possible, or liable, but not certain, to occur; incidental; casual.
E.g.All salaries are reckoned on contingent as well as on actual services.

contrive: form by an exercise of ingenuity; devise; invent; design
E.g.Can you contrive to escape here early?

contrived: artificially formal; obviously planned or calculated; not natural
E.g.That kind of contrived writing is usually done when someone is weaseling or lying.

controvert: oppose with arguments; attempt to prove to be false or incorrect; contradict
E.g.The witness's testimony was so clear and her reputation for honesty so well-established that the defense attorney decided it was wiser to make no attempt to controvert what she said.

contusion: injury that doesn't break the skin
E.g.After her fall, Sue was treated for a large contusion of left arm.

conundrum: riddle; difficult problem; dilemma
E.g.For this reason, the best way out of this conundrum is a political compromise.

convene: cause to come together formally
E.g.Six days' public notice must be given when announcing the meeting schedules, meaning the earliest the board can next convene is July 24.

convention: social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states
E.g.Moreover, following this convention is our friend's normal behavior when in such a mood.

conventional: based upon tradition rules; formed by agreement or compact
E.g.Meanwhile, In Russia, hardliners contend that their nation should rely more on nuclear weapons to offset NATO's superiority in conventional military forces and to cope with the U.S. missile defense program, now creeping toward Russia's borders.

converge: approach; tend to meet; come together
E.g.African-American men from all over the United States will converge on Washington to take part in the historic Million Men march.

conversant: familiar, as by study or experience; able to converse knowledgeably
E.g.The lawyer is conversant with all the evidence.